– The Igorot Revolt was a religious revolt in 1601 against Spanish attempts to Christianize the Igorot people of northern Luzon, in the Philippines. -Flavio Maniago in Alliance with Magalat of Cagayan was the leader of this revolt. Governor-General Francisco de Tello de Guzmánsent Captain Aranda with Spanish and Filipino colonial troops. -The Spaniards were determined to convert the Igorots to Christianity. They launched a crusade to proselytize the highland natives of Luzon and to place them under Spanish Authorities. -A strong expedition was sent to the Igorot land to stop the natives from resisting colonial subjugation. However, the Spaniards were only able to gain nominal political and military control over them.
Miguel Lanab and Alababan of Capinatan(Apayao)
-Revolted in June 1625
– They mutilated and beheaded the Dominicans Fr. Alonzo Garcia and Brother Onofre Palao. -Fr. Garcia was cut to pieces and his flesh thrown to the pigs. -they compelled the Isnegs to go with them to the mountains, set fire to the churches, desecrate the images and loot properties. – In 1626, a Spanish punitive force was dispatched to check the Isneg uprising. A great number of palms were destroyed by the cruel Spaniards to starve the Isnegs and forced them to surrender.
A newly Christianized babaylan in Oton, Iloilo.
Proclaimed himself “God Almighty” and who “went about in the garb of a woman.”
In 1663, they killed Fr. Francisco de Mesa, burned the house and church, and fled to the mountains.
The Spaniards captured the leaders and were killed.
Francisco Rivera (Tuguegarao)
A visionary who appropriated for himself the title of “Papa Rey” (Pope and King)
He, together with his believers, “deprived all the citizens and dependents of the Church” the freedom of worship by instructing his adherents to give back the rosaries,scapularies, and other religious objects to the Dominicans.
He was described as “the only rebel chief with anti-religious ideas”
His believers got tired of his “irreligious and despotic” rule, and desired to kill him.
This uprising was stopped by Juan Pablo Orduña who came from Vigan.
Hermano Apolinario de la Cruz
His revolt could be divided into two phases:
Phase I from the founding of the Cofradia de San Jose to the death of De la Cruz. (1832-1841) In Dec. 1832, Ermano Pule with the Filipino secular priest(Br. Ciriaco de los Santos) and 19 others, founded the cofradia centering around the cults of San Francisco and the famous brown image of Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage of Antipolo. 5 years later, this was renamed as Cofradia del Sr. San Jose i voto del Santisimo Rosario. The confradia met mothly on the 19th day, paying a monthly fee of one real (12 ½ centavos) and rice. The confradia’s existence was unknown to the Spanish authorities until 1840. In 1841, members were arrested and Ermano Pule was captures and shot to death. His body was quartered; his severed head was hung in front of their house, and his two hands and two feet, were hung inside a cage and placed in the guardhouses.
Phase II the revival of Cofradia to the capture of Januario Labios. (1870-71) The Cofradia reappeared on Corpus Christi day in 1870, by Br. Florentino Tuason. Members were not allowed to hear mass in a Catholic Church. Members were also instructed not to be wedded by Catholic priests, but by their own priest called “Profeta y Pontifice” The 3 families of Labios, Enriquez and Cordero, initiated the rebirth of the confraternity. The Confradia died with the capture of Labios and his adherents.
The Moro Resistance
Starting with the reestablishment of Fort Pilar in Zamboanga(1718), the Spaniards failed to conquer the Moros(1750s) Iranuns and Maranaos begun their harsh ravaging pillages in Visayas Thousands of Christians were captured resulting in the decimation of population in Visayas.
In revenge for Spanish acts of reducing Moro captives to slavery and destroying their homes.
1876, Jolo surrendered to Spain, and the “Moro Wars” was carried out mainly through the juramentado or sabil allah ritual suicide attacks.