Population is the total number of persons inhabiting a country, city, or any district or area. There are different types of population. Population distribution is defined as the arrangement or spread of people living in a given area and population density is the number of people living per unit of an area. In Jamaica in some parishes population density is high and low for example in the parish of St. Catherine there is a high population density and in Trelawny there is low population density. Some factors that influence population distribution are climate, mineral resources, births and death. Birth result in every time many babies are born in different places, Countries and many more. Birth rates are increasing because of many people that are ready to have children. Population distribution is more popular in the urban area than in the rural area; hence if there is population density population distribution will be presented in every parish in Jamaica but there will be an increase in the urban area and a decrease in the rural area.
Population Density in Jamaica
The value for Population density (people per sq. km of land area) in Jamaica was 249.49 as of 2010, over the past 49 years the indicator reached a maximum value and a minimum value of 152.53 in 1961. Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers. Population is based on the counts of all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship–except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, which is generally considered part of the population of their country of origin. Land area is a country’s total area, excluding area under inland water bodies, national claims to continental shelf, and exclusive economic zones. In most cases the definition of inland water bodies includes major rivers and springs. The population density in Jamaica is high in the urban area than the rural area. In the urban area there is a high increase of population of towns and cities and the rural area consist of villages and scattered settlements; which will have a low population and the urban area will be more populated. In Jamaica parishes with a high population density are Kingston/St.Andrew, St. James, and St. Catherine and parishes with low population density are Portland, Trelawny and St. Thomas.
Population Distribution in Jamaica
The population distributions in Jamaica in some areas are high and low because of where it is located. In some parishes like the rural area you will find few people living there due to the lack of jobs and there may be fewer opportunities for education, medical services or entertainment. On the population distribution map shown page parish A which is Portland you will find less people living there because of the hills and mountains found there and the scattered settlements which are located in the parish.
Parish B which is Trelawny is a cockpit area the population distribution for that area will be very low because most people will not live there the parish is under populated and it is more likely a mining area and there are few small settlements located in the parish hence the population for the people living in the area is between 2,000 and 20,000 living in the whole parish.
The population distribution for parish C which is St. Catherine is over populated and it is an urban area which has an increase of in the population of towns and cities. This area has many small settlements presented; there are many places and things available in the urban area like jobs in services or manufacturing, better health and education, varied social life and entertainment. There is an estimated of about 20,000 to 100,000 people living in the urban area.
Factors Influencing Population Distribution
The factors that caused the pattern of population distribution are numerous however there are a few general but important ones.
1. The Climate of the Area- if the area is grassland or forested then it has a low population density because these areas are prone to rainfall. In dry or desert areas there is also a low population density as the climate is too dry.
2. Mineral Resources- persons tend to live near areas that they are able to access employment easily. For example in mining or bauxite areas e.g. Kirk vine Manchester Jamaica or also in the business sector.
3. Births-every time many babies are born in different places, Countries and many more. Birth rates are increasing because of many people that are ready to have children.
4. Deaths-death rates are slowed because of proper sanitation, proper nutrition, and proper health. This means more people are away of death and more people will stay in the population.
Factors Influencing Population Density
Economy, location, natural resources and countries population influence population density in Jamaica. Population density is affected by climate (how hot or cold the place is), connectivity (how near the place is to major transport links e.g. airports) and the dangers of living there, is the government stable and is the country rich. The main attractions of a place are the push and pull factors for the person moving there. Some of the pull factors of population density are better health and educational facilities available and higher wages and some push factors are low wages, lack of educational opportunities and the fear of crime and insecurity. Population density helps to lower and increase the population of many people living in an area.