ppp Concept for Health and Safety of Women in Urban Construction Essay Sample

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Vulnerability of Construction Workers of Bangladesh to Occupational Hazards •Each year 11,700 workers die in Bangladesh in work-related accidents, another 28,600 die from industrial diseases and 8.9 million suffer work-related injuries. (Source: Bangladesh Decent Work Country Program:ILO 2005)

Industrial and Service Sectors of Bangladesh : Bangladesh Worker Safety Programme survey 2007)

• About 50 per cent of the total workplace deaths in the country take place in the construction sector ( Source: Workplace Deaths in the

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In 2008: – a total of 284 separate incidents resulted in 320 deaths – almost one fifth of the reported deaths (70) took place in Dhaka district – though there were sizeable numbers reported in Chittagong (44), Jessore (20) and Narayangang (15) Gazipur (13), and Commilla (11) – only 20 of the 320 workers who died were woman – 6%. – the construction sector had the highest number of deaths (120) – which was 38% of the total. sector. -the most common causes of deaths was ‘electrocution’ (122) and ‘falls from heights’ (51).

2007 Sector Nos % Nos

2008 % of total

Construction Manufacturing Service Agriculture Total

103 68 51 N/a 222

46% 31% 23% N/a

120 94 91 15 320

38% 30% 29% 5%

District Dhaka Chittagong Jessore Narayanganj Gazipur

2007 38% 15% 1% 8% 5%

2008 20% 13% 6% 3% 4%

(Source: Report published on 17 May 2009 by the Centre for Corporate Accountability’s jointly undertaken by Bangladesh Worker Safety Programme (BWSP) Bangladesh Occupational Safety Health and Environmental Programme (OSHE) and Bangladesh Institute of Labor Studies (BILS). )

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Factors Contributing to Occupational Death, Injuries and Illness Accidents and Injuries – lack of understanding of and adherence to safe working procedures as in ergonomic considerations ( safe limits /guidelines for lifting and other body movements, proper use of tools, use of properly maintained tools) – Nonuse of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and Personal Protective Clothing ( PPC) Illness – Lack of access to occupational Health Services – Lack of access to safe drinking water – Lack of access to Sanitary Facilities 10.01.2013 Seite 4

Underlying Constraints to Poor Occupational Health and Safety of Construction Workers • Lack of access to OHS training and education • Lack of organization health and safety policy, structure, and management system • Lack of or poor government policies and enforcement of OHS measures •Lack of awareness among the employers (builders/contractors) of the importance of workplace health and safety • Lack of access to guidance on how to develop and implement OHS standards and improvement plans • Poor safety culture 10.01.2013 Seite 5

Women in the Construction Trade
• In Bangladesh, of the total 49.5 million workforce , 12.5 million ( 25.25%) are women • Construction sector employs ~ 1.5 million (~3.5% of the total ) workforce, of which 6.8% is women. ( Source : Labor Force Survey 2005-06 : ILO) • As Increasing (5-7% per year) number of women enter the construction trade, concerns about their health and safety are growing • There are safety and health issues specific to female construction workers

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OHS Issues Specific to Women Workforce in Construction Sector Hostile Workplace Culture ( marked by the following ) that result in low job satisfaction and psychological and physiological health symptoms and workplace injuries: Issues: •Anti-woman attitudes are widely prevalent in construction sites from their malecounterpart •Sexual harassment in various forms ranging from being stared at, obscene gestures, unwanted sexual remarks to being touched in sexual way and sexual assault. Lack of or Improper Sanitary Facilities ( as explained below) result in Common ailments/diseases and particularly urinary tract infection: Issues: • Temporary Facilities are usually unisex , often without privacy and generally not well maintained •Sometimes there are no sanitary facilities available for women to use •Women avoid drinking water on the job risking heat stress and other health problems

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OHS Issues Specific to Women Workforce in Construction Sector Contnd….. Lack of Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment and Clothing can cause serious safety and health risks for women Issues:

• Most tools, equipment and clothing ( like work shoes, helmets and gloves) are not designed for women’s physique. • Poor fit compromises the protection offered by the garment or equipment. For example, overly large gloves impair the transfer of sensory data from the hand, resulting in excessive force being applied.

•Tools and materials are often designed to be used by average-sized men • Women’s size and body build require reconsideration of techniques for lifting and material handling 10.01.2013 Seite 8

Lack of Ergonomic Considerations appropriate to women’s size and body result in work-related musculoskeletal disorders Issues:

OHS Issues Specific to Women Workforce in Construction Sector Contnd….. Issues •Inadequate Information on the extent to which female construction workers are exposed to reproductive health hazards • US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recognizes that – “ Physical and biological agents in the workplace that may affect fertility and pregnancy outcomes are practically unstudied. The inadequacy of current knowledge coupled with the ever-growing variety of workplace exposures pose a potentially serious public health problem. “

Lack of appropriate response to hazards : potential reproductive

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Rationale for iPPP targeting Construction Workers
• Construction sector contributes to the tune of 9.2 % of GDP 70 % of the workers are informal labor that are denied equitable access to primary healthcare and occupational health care services •Bangladesh Building Code 2006 has few provisions that deal with OHS standards for the construction sector , but there is no statutory requirement on part of the employers for women workforce in construction sites. •The large informal workforce constitute an ideal target for improved provision of PHC services and mainstreaming of measures to prevent HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases •In line with recent joint call to action of the UN Secretary General to invest on improving health care services targeting women and children. 10.01.2013 Seite 10

Scope of the proposed iPPP
Areas of Intervention : Developing and pretesting a comprehensive health care provision targeting urban construction workers that combines basic occupational healthcare and primary health care into one integrated package. Introduction of gender responsive occupational health and safety measures for urban construction workers of Bangladesh . Public Partner (s): Ministry of Labor and Employment , Respective City Corporation Private Partner(s): REHAB, Imarat Nirman Sramik Union Bangladesh, MNCs in in the value-chain of construction sector, e.g. cement, Steel. Civil Society Partner: Bangladesh Workers Safety Programme ( BWSP) of CCA Scope of the Pilot: Workers in one private sector construction site and one public construction site to be selected in consultation with Partners.

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