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Presidents of the Philippines Essay Sample

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Presidents of the Philippines Essay Sample

First Republic
1. Emilio Aguinaldo (1899 – 1901)

CommonWealth Era
2. Manuel L. Quezon (1935 – 19441

Second Republic
3. Jose P. Laurel (1943 – 1945)
4. Sergio Osmena (1944 – 1946)

Third Republic
5. Manuel Roxas (1946 – 1948)
6. Elpidio Quirino (1948 – 1953)
7. Ramon Magsaysay (1953 – 1957)
8. Carlos P. Garcia (1957 – 1961)
9. Diosdado Macapagal (1961 – 1965)
10. Ferdinand Marcos (1965 – 1986)
11. Corazon C. Aquino (1986 – 1992)
12. Fidel V. Ramos (1992 – 1998)
13. Joseph E. Estrada (1998 – 2001)
14. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001 – 2010)
15. Benigno C. Aquino III (2010 – Present)

First Republic
1. Emilio Aguinaldo (1899 – 1901)
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (22 March 1869 – 6 February 1964) was born on 23 March 1869 in Cavite Viejo (present-day Kawit), Cavite. Aguinaldo became the Philippines’ first President. He was also the youngest (at age 28) to have become the country’s president, the longest-lived former president (having survived to age 94) and the president to have outlived the most number of successors. On 24 May 1898 in Cavite, Aguinaldo issued a proclamation in which he assumed command of all Philippine forces and established a dictatorial government with himself as dictator. On 18 June, after declaring independence from Spain on 12 June , Aguinaldo issued a decree formally establishing his dictatorial government. On 23 June, Aguinaldo issued a decree replacing his dictatorial government with a revolutionary government, with himself as President. Aguinaldo died of coronary thrombosis at age 94 on 6 February 1964 at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City. A year before his death, he had donated his lot and his mansion to the government. This property now serves as a shrine to “perpetuate the spirit of the Revolution of 1896.” In 1985, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas made a new 5-peso bill depicting a portrait of Aguinaldo on the front. The back features the declaration of the Philippine independence on 12 June 1898. Printing was discontinued in 1995, when it was replaced with a 5₱ coin whose obverse features a portrait of Aguinaldo.

CommonWealth Era
2. Manuel L. Quezon (1935 – 19441
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina (August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) was born in Baler in the district of El Príncipe[1] (which later became Baler, Tayabas, now Baler, Aurora). He served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines (as opposed to other historical states). Quezón is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1897–1901). Quezón was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a national election, and the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution). He is known as the “Father of the National Language”. During his presidency, Quezón tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside.

Other major decisions include reorganization of the islands’ military defense, approval of recommendation for government reorganization, promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, tackling the foreign strangle-hold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform, and the tackling of graft and corruption within the government. Quezón established an exiled government in the US with the outbreak of the war and the threat of Japanese invasion. Quezón suffered from tuberculosis and spent his last years in a “cure cottage” in Saranac Lake, New York, where he died on August 1, 1944. He was initially buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His body was later carried by the USS Princeton and re-interred in Manila at the Manila North Cemetery on July 17, 1946 before being moved to Quezon City within the monument at the Quezon Memorial Circle on August 19, 1979.

Second Republic
3. Jose P. Laurel (1943 – 1945)
José Paciano Laurel ý García (March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) José Paciano Laurel was born on March 9, 1891 in the town of Tanauan, Batangas. He was the president of the Republic of the Philippines, a Japanese-sponsored administration during World War II, from 1943 to 1945. Since the administration of President Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), Laurel has been recognized as a legitimate president of the Philippines. The presidency of Laurel understandably remains one of the most controversial in Philippine history. After the war, he would be denounced in some quarters as a war collaborator or even a traitor, although his indictment for treason was superseded by President Roxas’ Amnesty Proclamation. His subsequent electoral success demonstrates public support for him. Before his death, Laurel came to be considered as doing his best in interceding, protecting and looking after the best interests of the Filipinos against the harsh wartime Japanese military rule and policies. However, the fact remains that he violated his Oath of Office and headed an illegal government of the Philippines. On November 6, 1959, Laurel died at the Lourdes Hospital, in Manila,[16] from a massive heart attack and a stroke. He is buried in Tanuan.

4. Sergio Osmena (1944 – 1946)
Sergio Osmeña ý Suico (9 September 1878 – 19 October 1961) Sergio Osmeña was born in Cebu. He was a Chinese Filipino politician who served as the 4th President of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President under Manuel L. Quezon, and rose to the presidency upon Quezon’s death in 1944, being the oldest Philippine president to hold office at age 65. A founder of Nacionalista Party, he was the first Visayan to become President of the Philippines. Osmeña became president of the Commonwealth on Quezon’s death in 1944. He returned to the Philippines the same year with General Douglas MacArthur and the liberation forces. After the war, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth government and the various executive departments. He continued the fight for Philippine independence. For the presidential election of 1946, Osmeña refused to campaign, saying that the Filipino people knew of his record of 40 years of honest and faithful service. He lost to Manuel Roxas, who won 54 percent of the vote and became president of the independent Republic of the Philippines. After his defeat in the election, Osmeña retired to his home in Cebu. He died at age 83 on 19 October 1961 at the Veteran’s Memorial Hospital in Quezon City. He is buried in the Manila North Cemetery, Manila.

Third Republic
5. Manuel Roxas (1946 – 1948)
Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was born on January 1, 1892 in Capiz (present-day Roxas City). He was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948. His term as president of the Philippines was also the third shortest, lasting 1 year 10 months and 18 days. Roxas served as the President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines in a brief period, from his subsequent election on May 28, 1946 to July 4, 1946, the scheduled date of the proclamation of Philippine Independence. His administration was marred by graft and corruption; moreover, the abuses of the provincial military police contributed to the rise of the left-wing (Huk) movement in the countryside. His heavy-handed attempts to crush the Huks led to widespread peasant disaffection. . In the morning of his death Roxas delivered a speech before the US Thirteenth Air Force After the speech, he felt dizzy and was brought to the residence of Major General E.L. Eubank, where he died that same night.On April 17, 1948, two days after Roxas’ death, Vice-President Elpidio Quirino took the oath of office as President of the Philippines, per line of succession.In his honor, Roxas District (Project 1) in Quezon City, Roxas, Capiz and Roxas, Isabela was named after him .

6. Elpidio Quirino (1948 – 1953)
Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines. Elpidio Quirino’s six years as president were marked by notable postwar reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States. Basic social problems, however, particularly in the rural areas, remained unsolved, and his administration was tainted by widespread graft and corruption. On July 17, 1948, the Congress approved Republic Act No. 333, amending Commonwealth Act No. 502, declaring Quezon City the capital of the Philippines in place of Manila. Nevertheless, pending the official transfer of the government offices to the new capital site, Manila remained to be such for all effective purposes. The Quirino administration was generally challenged by the Hukbalahaps, who ransacked towns and barrios. Quirino ran for president again in the 1953 presidential election, but was defeated by Nacionalista Ramon Magsaysay. Following his failed bid for re-election, Quirino retired from politics to private life in 1953. He offered his dedication to serve the Filipino people, he became the Father of Foreign Service. He died of a heart attack on February 29, 1956. He was buried at Manila South Cemetery in Makati.

7. Ramon Magsaysay (1953 – 1957)
Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay (31 August 1907 – 17 March 1957) was the seventh President of the Republic of the Philippines, serving from 30 December 1953 until his death in a 1957 aircraft disaster. An automobile mechanic, Magsaysay was appointed military governor of Zambales after his outstanding service as a guerilla leader during the Pacific War. He then served two terms as Liberal Party congressman for Zambales before being appointed as Secretary of National Defense by President Elpidio Quirino. He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He was the first Philippine President born during the 20th century. In the Election of 1953, Magsaysay was decisively elected president over the incumbent Elpidio Quirino. He was sworn into office wearing the Barong Tagalog, a first by a Philippine president. He was then called “Mambo Magsaysay”. His administration was considered one of the cleanest and most corruption-free; his presidency was cited as the Philippines’ Golden Years. Trade and industry flourished, the Philippine military was at its prime, and the Filipino people were given international recognition in sports, culture and foreign affairs. The Philippines ranked second in Asia’s clean and well-governed countries. Magsaysay’s term that was to end on 30 December 1957 was cut short by a plane crash.

On 16 March 1957, Magsaysay left Manila for Cebu City where he spoke at three educational institutions. That same night, at about 1 am, he boarded the presidential plane “Mt. Pinatubo”, a C-47, heading back to Manila. In the early morning hours of 17 March, the plane was reported missing. By late afternoon, newspapers had reported the airplane had crashed on Mt. Manunggal in Cebu, and that 36 of the 56 aboard were killed (the actual number on board was 25, including Magsaysay). Only newspaperman Néstor Mata survived. Vice-President Carlos García, who was on official visit to Australia at the time, assumed the presidency to serve out the last eight months of Magsaysay’s term. An estimated 5 million people attended Magsaysay’s burial on 31 March 1957. He was posthumously referred to by the people the “Idol of the Masses”. He is the most recent Philippine head of state to die in-office.

8. Carlos P. Garcia (1957 – 1961)
Carlos Polistico García (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) García was born in Talibon, Bohol, he was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighth President of the Philippines. At the time of the sudden death of President Ramon Magsaysay, Vice President and Foreign Affairs Secretary Carlos P. García was heading the Philippine delegation to the SEATO conference then being held at Canberra, Australia.[3] Having been immediately notified of the tragedy, Vice President García enplaned back for Manila. Upon his arrival he directly repaired to Malacañang Palace to assume the duties of President. President García exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known.

This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country.At the end of his second term, he ran for re–election in the Presidential elections in November 1961, but was defeated by Diosdado Macapagal. After his failed re–election bid, García retired to Tagbilaran to live as a private citizen. On June 1, 1971, García was elected delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. The convention delegates elected him as the President of the Convention. However, just days after his election, on June 14, 1971, García died from a fatal heart attack. He was succeeded as president of the Convention by his former Vice President, Diosdado Macapagal. García became the first president to have his remains lie in-state at the Manila Cathedral and the first president to be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

9. Diosdado Macapagal (1961 – 1965)
Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970. He is the father of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010. As president, Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. He introduced the country’s first land reform law, placed the peso on the free currency exchange market, and liberalized foreign exchange and import controls. Many of his reforms, however, were crippled by a Congress dominated by the rival Nacionalista Party. He is also known for shifting the country’s observance of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the day Filipino patriots declared independence from Spain in 1898.

His re-election bid was defeated in 1965 by Ferdinand Marcos, whose subsequent authoritarian rule lasted 20 years. Like Ramon Magsaysay, President Diosdado Macapagal came from the masses. He savored to call himself the “Poor boy from Lubao”. Ironically, he had little popularity among the masses. This could be attributed to an absence of charismatic appeal of his stiff personality. But despite this, Macapagal had certain achievements. Foremost of these was the Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 (Republic Act No. 3844) which provided for the purchase of private farmlands with the intention of distributing them in small lots to the landless tenants on easy term of payment.In his retirement, Macapagal devoted much of his time to reading and writing. He published his presidential memoir, authored several books about government and economics, and wrote a weekly column for the Manila Bulletin newspaper. Diosdado Macapagal died of heart failure, pneumonia and renal complications at the Makati Medical Center on April 21, 1997. He is buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.

10. Ferdinand Marcos (1965 – 1986)
Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was born September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte. He was President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986. He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949–1959) and a member of the Philippine Senate (1959–1965). He was Senate President from 1963–1965. Marcos declared martial law on September 22, 1972, by virtue of Proclamation No. 1081 which he signed on September 21, 1972, extending his rule beyond the constitutional two-term limit. He justified this by exaggerating threats of Communist and Muslim insurgencies. He would later tell historians that he signed Proclamation No. 1081 as early as September 17.Ruling by decree, he curtailed press freedom and other civil liberties, closed down Congress and media establishments, and ordered the arrest of opposition leaders and militant activists, including his staunchest critics, senators Benigno Aquino, Jr.

In 1983, his government was accused of being involved in the assassination of his primary political opponent, Benigno Aquino, Jr. Public outrage over the assassination served as the catalyst for the People Power Revolution in February 1986 that led to his removal from power and eventual exile in Hawaii. It was later discovered that, during his 20 years in power, he and his wife Imelda Marcos had moved billions of dollars of embezzled public funds to accounts and investments in the United States, Switzerland, and other countries. In 1978, the position returned when Ferdinand Marcos became Prime Minister. Based on Article 9 of the 1973 constitution, it had broad executive powers, that would be typical of modern prime ministers in other countries. The position was the official head of government, and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. All of the previous powers of the President from the 1935 Constitution were transferred to the newly restored office of Prime Minister. The Prime Minister also acted as head of the National Economic Development Authority. Upon his reelection to President, Marcos was succeeded as Prime Minister by Cesar Virata in 1981.

11. Corazon C. Aquino (1986 – 1992)
Maria Corazon Sumulong “Cory” Cojuangco-Aquino (January 25, 1933 – August 1, 2009) Born on January 25, 1933 in Paniqui, Tarlac . She was a Filipino politician who served as the 11th President of the Philippines, the first woman to hold that office, and the first female president in Asia. Regarded as “The Mother of Philippine Democracy”, Cory led the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines. She was named Time magazine’s “Woman of the Year” in 1986. After her husband’s assassination on August 21, 1983, upon returning to the Philippines after four years in exile in the United States, Corazon Aquino emerged as the leader of the opposition against the Marcos administration. In late 1985, when President Marcos called for a snap election, Aquino ran for president with former senator Salvador Laurel as her vice-presidential running mate. After the elections were held on February 7, 1986, and the Batasang Pambansa proclaimed Marcos the winner in the elections, she called for massive civil disobedience protests, declaring herself as having been cheated and as the real winner in the elections.

Filipinos enthusiastically heeded her call and rallied behind her. These events eventually led to the ousting of Marcos and the installation of Aquino as President of the Philippines on February 25, 1986 through the “People Power Revolution”. As President, Aquino oversaw the promulgation of a new constitution, which limited the powers of the presidency and established a bicameral legislature. Her administration gave strong emphasis and concern for civil liberties and human rights, and peace talks with communist insurgents and Muslim secessionists. Aquino’s economic policies centered on bringing back economic health and confidence and focused on creating a market-oriented and socially responsible economy. Aquino’s administration also faced a series of coup attempts and destructive natural calamities and disasters until the end of her term in 1992. By July 2009, Aquino was reported to be in very serious condition, suffering from loss of appetite, and was confined to the Makati Medical Center.] Later on, it was announced that Aquino and her family had decided to cease chemotherapy and other medical interventions for her.[On August 1, 2009, the 76-year-old Aquino died peacefully at the Makati Medical Center at 3:18 a.m., of cardiorespiratory arrest.

12. Fidel V. Ramos (1992 – 1998)
Fidel “Eddie” Valdez Ramos, GCMG (born March 18, 1928), popularly known as FVR, was the 12th President of the Philippines from 1992 to 1998. During his six years in office, Ramos was widely credited and admired by many for revitalizing and renewing international confidence in the Philippine economy. Under Ramos, the Philippines experienced a period of political stability and rapid economic growth and expansion, as a result of his policies and programs designed to foster national reconciliation and unity. Ramos was able to secure major peace agreements with Muslim separatists, communist insurgents and military rebels, which renewed investor confidence in the Philippine economy. Ramos also aggressively pushed for the deregulation of the nation’s major

industries and the privatization of bad government assets. As a result of his hands-on approach to the economy, the Philippines was dubbed by various internationally as Asia’s Next Economic Tiger. At the time of his assumption into power, Ramos was the oldest person to become President of the Philippines at the age of 64. He is also the first Protestant President of the country and the only Filipino officer in history to have held every rank in the Philippine military from Second Lieutenant to Commander-in-Chief. The first few years of his administration (1992–1995) were characterized by economic boom, technological development, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people. During his time, he advocated party platforms as outline and agenda for governance. As in his case, he was the first Christian Democrat to be elected in the country, being the founder of Lakas-CMD (Christian-Muslim Democrats Party).

He was one of the most influential leaders and the unofficial spokesman of liberal democracy in Asia. While campaigning for the presidency, Fidel Ramos declared his support for reinstating the death penalty. Capital punishment was abolished for all crimes in 1987, making the Philippines the first Asian country to do so. In 1996 Ramos signed a bill that returned capital punishment with the electric chair “until the gas chamber could be installed”.[8] However, no one was electrocuted nor gassed, because the previously used chair was destroyed earlier and the Philippines adopted the lethal injection. Some people were put to death by this means, until the death penalty was abolished again in 2006.

13. Joseph E. Estrada (1998 – 2001)
Joseph “Erap” Ejercito Estrada (born Jose Marcelo Ejercito on April 19, 1937) was born on April 19, 1937 in Tondo, an urban district of Manila. he was the 13th President of the Philippines, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency. Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in an acting career spanning 33 years. He used his popularity as an actor to make gains in politics, serving as mayor of San Juan for seventeen years, as Senator for one term, then as Vice President of the Philippines under the administration of President Fidel V. Ramos. Estrada was elected President in 1998 with a wide margin of votes separating him from the other challengers, and was sworn into the presidency on June 30, 1998. In 2000 he declared an “all-out-war” against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front and captured its headquarters and other camps. However, allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment trial in the Senate, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted by “People Power” 2 after the prosecution walked out of the impeachment court when the Senator Judges voted no in the opening of the second envelope.

The EDSA 2 protests resulted from the concerted efforts of political, business, military, and church elites who were displeased by Estrada’s policies that included removal of sovereign guarantees on government contracts. In October 2000, the Daily Tribune reported about elite plans to “‘constitutionally’ oust President Estrada under ‘Oplan Excelsis.” Emil Jurado of the Manila Standard reported as early as 1999 about a PR demolition work designed to embarrass Estrada “by attributing to his administration all sorts of perceived faults and scams with the end in view of covering up anomalies and scams also committed during the Ramos administration.” Former First Gentleman Mike Arroyo also admitted in an interview with Nick Joaquin that he and then-Ilocos Sur Gov. Chavit Singson and certain military officials plotted plans to oust Estrada in January 2001, with the alternative plan B being violent “with orders to shoot. And not only in Metro Manila.” In 2007, he was sentenced by the special division of the Sandiganbayan to reclusion perpetua for plunder, but was later granted pardon by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. He ran for president anew in the 2010 Philippine presidential election, but lost to then Senator Benigno Aquino III.

14. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (2001 – 2010)
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947) María Gloria Macaraeg Macapagal is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga. She was the country’s second female president (after Corazón Aquino), and the daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal. Arroyo was a former professor of economics at Ateneo de Manila University where Benigno Aquino III was one of her students. She entered government in 1987, serving as assistant secretary and undersecretary of the Department of Trade and Industry upon the invitation of President Corazon Aquino. After serving as a senator from 1992 to 1998, she was elected to the vice presidency under President Joseph Estrada, despite having run on an opposing ticket.

After Estrada was accused of corruption, she resigned her cabinet position as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development and joined the growing opposition to the president, who faced impeachment. Estrada was soon forced from office by the EDSA Revolution of 2001, and Arroyo was sworn into the presidency by Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. on January 20, 2001. She was elected to a full six-year presidential term in the controversial May 2004 Philippine elections, and was sworn in on June 30, 2004. Following her presidency she was elected to the House of Representatives, making her the second Philippine president—after José P. Laurel—to pursue a lower office after their presidency. On November 18, 2011, Arroyo was arrested following the filing of criminal charges against her for electoral fraud. As of December 9, 2011, she is incarcerated at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City under charges of electoral sabotage.[2][3]

15. Benigno C. Aquino III (2010 – Present)

Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III born on February 8, 1960 in Manila also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th President of the Philippines since June 2010. He is sometimes called Abnoy by his detractorsFollowing the death of his mother on August 1, 2009, many people began calling on Aquino to run for president. On September 9, 2009, Aquino officially announced he would be a candidate in the 2010 presidential election, held on May 10, 2010. On June 9, 2010, the Congress of the Philippines proclaimed Aquino the winner of the 2010 presidential election. On June 30, 2010, at the Quirino Grandstand in Rizal Park, Manila, Aquino was sworn into office as the fifteenth President of the Philippines, succeeding Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, by Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Conchita Carpio-Morales. Although the official residence of the President is the Malacañang Palace, Aquino actually resides in the Bahay Pangarap (House of Dreams), located within the Palace grounds.[ The Presidency of Benigno S. Aquino III began at noon on June 30, 2010, when he became the fifteenth President of the Philippines, succeeding Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Aquino is the third-youngest person to be elected president, and the fourth-youngest president after Emilio Aguinaldo, Ramon Magsaysay and Ferdinand Marcos.

Aquino is the first president to be a bachelor, being unmarried and having no children. Aquino is the third president who will only hold office in Malacañang Palace, but not be a resident, following Corazon Aquino and Fidel V. Ramos. Aquino is the first president to make Bahay Pangarap his official residence. The presidential transition began on June 9, 2010, when the Congress of the Philippines proclaimed Aquino the winner of the 2010 Philippine presidential elections held on May 10, 2010, proclaiming Aquino as the President-elect of the Philippines. The transition was in charge of the new presidential residence, cabinet appointments and cordial meetings between them and the outgoing administration. During the inaugural address, Aquino created the no ‘wang-wang’ policy, strengthening the implementation of Presidential Decree No. 96.. Aquino also traded the official black presidential Mercedes Benz S-Guard limousine for his own white Toyota Land Cruiser 200. After the inaugural address, the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority began to enforce Aquino’s no ‘wang-wang’ policy, confiscating ‘wang-wang’ from public officials and private motorists who illegally used them.

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