Child Development 0 to 16 years
- Word count: 4717
- Category: Child development
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Babies and children develop at different rates, also consideration needs to taken into account any special needs or health problems of individuals any environmental issues such as housing a child living on the top of a high raised lift served block of flats is not going to get the same amount of physical exercise as a child who has a huge back garden, Having said this Parenting is a huge factor, a parent could encourage daily fresh air and exercise. Poor parenting could also affect a Childs development , for example if a child is not spoken to there speech can not be developed , If a child is not given the right foods and vitamins there physical development could be affected in growth and physical development.
Children learn through play and children of all ages need to Play and socialise to learn , grow and develop onto there next stage areas of learning , Each area of learning is connected with holistic development so a child is seen as a whole and is acquiring new Life skills and development . Children usually develop in the same sequel but will develop at different rates, but a typical child could develop at the following rates.
At birth. Newborn babies are born already using their 5 senses but as they grow and learn these senses will grow stronger, they enjoy looking at faces and can focus up to 1 metre away. They are born with many reflexes such as swallowing, suckling, rooting, grasp reflex, startle, walking and standing. Newborn babies are very curled up. They are unable to be toileted so wear a nappy which will need changing often. Newborn babies need lots of sleep. They feed from there mother breast milk or have formula milk made up in bottles.
Gross motor skills. When placed on there back or front a newborn baby turns its head to 1 side, when placed on there front the bottom raises and there knees tuck up under the abdomen.
Fine motor skills. Newborn babies normally hold there hands tightly closed, with there thumbs tucked under there fingers.
Intellectual and sensory development.
Babies are born using there senses, they will turn there heads towards light and enjoy shinny and high contrast patterns or objects. If a baby is held upright they will open there eyes, they will blink and use there startle reflex at sudden load noises or movements. They can recognise there mothers voice but cannot hear very soft sounds yet.
Communication, language and literacy.
A newborn babies communication is by crying, a baby will cry in one pitch at this stage for anything it may need, nappy change, feed, pain etc. A newborn baby can make eye contact.
Emotional, social and Behavioural.
A newborn baby uses total body movements to express pleasure, likes being fed and cuddled , likes skin to skin contact and enjoys being with there parents.
Newborn babies need around the clock care, feeding on demand, frequent nappy changes, and social time with others. Lot’s of physical holding and eye contact. Most enjoy bathing and massage, they like softly spoken words of love and lot’s of smiles from there carer, singing soft songs. Babies should be spoken to face to face and should be allowed to have playtime and exercise by allowing them to kick and stretch on a floor in a safe environment. They enjoy a mobile held above there cots, and bright shining or contrast patterns around for them to look at.
1- 6 month old
Physical development. Babies of a month old seem to be less curled up and spend more time awake during the day and could be sleeping through the night. At 5 months old a baby will start on there first solid foods, baby receives first baby rice and then slowly progressing onto purï¿½ed fruit and vegetables. Mother or formula milk is still a very important part of their diet.
Gross motor skills Babies body has stretched out more, they can turn from there sides onto there backs, they can hold there heads for a short period of time and make jerky uncontrolled movements with there arms and legs. They are beginning to grasp there foot and put into there mouths and can now open there hands.
Fine motor skills. Baby can now open there hand to grasp an adult finger; they are starting to show facial expressions.
Intellectual and sensory development. Babies of a month old can focus there gaze at approximately 9 inches, they can turn there heads toward light, they may turn there head towards a sound source but are unable to locate the sound yet. They are now able to track an object in there line of vision.
Communication, language and literacy. By one month old baby recognises there primary carers and responds by excited movements, they smile and enjoy repeatable movements, and they make non crying noises such as cooing and gurgling. They cry now in a more expressive way. They interact more while being held face to face by looking , listening , facial expressions and body language is starting to appear by them excitedly moving there arms and legs
Emotional, social and Behavioural. Babies are now smiling in response to an adult, they gaze at adults faces while being fed. They are beginning to show there temperament. They turn towards a nearby speaker direction, Baby is now showing more interest in there toys following the mobile around with there eyes, enjoys rattles that can be strapped with Velcro to there wrists and ankles for sound when they move them. . Babies think that everyone has the same feelings and desires that they have at that time.
Physical development. Baby is growing and settling into there routine with much more ease, they still need there carer to provide all aspects of personal care.
Gross motor skills. A baby now placed onto there backs now can roll onto there stomach and lift there heads and chest by supporting themselves on there arms and hands. When held sitting or standing they can use there shoulders to pull themselves up and do so with a straight back, can bear almost all of there own weight. They are
Now able to sit up in a highchair, they have more control over there arms and can indicate to be picked up. They have more control over there bodies and can reach out for objects, when held in a standing position they can now bounce there feet up and down.
Fine motor skills. Baby can now use there own hand in palmer grasp to pass toys from one hand to another. They tend to try to hold onto bottle or spoon while being fed. They are now able to poke toys and objects with there index finger, and explore objects by there mouths.
Intellectual and sensory development. Baby can now adjust there position to see objects, they are now very alert and will follow activities across a room, they turn towards sounds and may recognise the source.
Communication, language and literacy. By 9 months old most babies will understand some meanings if language such as bye bye. Have an understanding of familiar objects and knows what to expect from them. They turn instantly when hear a familiar voice at a distant, they have an understanding of up and down, and will raise arms to be picked up. They babble and talk to themselves in a singing kind of tone and squeal with excitement. Crying is now very different , seems to be done in different pitches depending on what baby needs, most mothers know what there baby requires .
Emotional, social and Behavioural. Baby at 9 months is now able to feed themselves finger foods, they are able to offer toys, objects or food to others, and quite enjoy this and see it as a game. They are more aware of strangers, and may appear shy; they show distress when being separated from a parent or carer. They are now more aware of others feelings and will try to copy emotions.
Gross motor skills Baby can now sit up unaided with a straight back for approximately 15minutes , they are now able to turn there body’s to look sideways , they can now stretch out there body’s to pick up objects just out of there reach. They can pull themselves up into a standing position holding onto furniture and may cruise around the furniture too. They are now able to move around the floor space by rolling, wriggling or soldier crawling on there stomachs. They may take a few steps if held by both hands.
Fine motor skills Babies are now able to pick up some toys in a pincer grasp from the floor, but she is unable to put it down just yet with control so will drop it.
Intellectual and sensory development. Baby can now judge the size of an object up to 2 feet away. Looks in the right direction if objects falls. Can play a game of find the toy if seen were it has been hidden. She can now recognise pictures of family members and herself.
Communication, language and literacy A baby of nine months old understands there daily routine , she tries to communicating by sound and now has a variety of intonation when babbling , She is able to follow simple instructions like give mummy a kiss , wave bye bye etc. Tries to imitate sounds like a cough or a sneeze; she knows the meaning of NO.
Emotional, social and Behavioural. Baby enjoys songs and rhymes and will play alone for periods of time; she can show likes and dislikes. Baby will still often need a comforter e.g. dummy, blankets favourite teddy etc. She still likes to take everything to her mouth, and like to be around her parent’s and family.
12-18 months old.
Gross motor skills At 12 months Baby can now rise from a lying to a sitting down, position she can rise from sitting to standing with no help and can stand alone for a few moments. She can crawl and cruise around the furniture with ease. By 18 months babies are normally walking, when babies first learn to walk unaided there feet are generally wide apart and there arms raised out to the sides to help them balance. Baby may start to crawl upstairs, but will come down backwards. A stair gate is needed to stop unnecessary accidents.
Fine motor skills Can now pick up small items with a fine pincer grasp, Can point with there index finger and release a small object into someone’s hand. She can now hold a crayon or pencil in a palmer grasp and turn several pages in a book at once; she will show preference in one hand but will use both. She will drop and throw things deliberately as game, can possibly build a few bricks.
Intellectual and sensory development. By 18 months a baby now sees as good as an adult and there visual memory is very good, they maybe able to find things an adult has lost or be able to return things to there right place. They know and respond to there name. They can tell the difference in different food taste and will show preference for sweet, salty and fatty foods. Will feed and drink themselves, May be aware of there toileting needs and hide to pass a motion in there nappies. Can point to familiar people, animal’s toys when requested. They may move one toy to reach another.
Communication, language and literacy They are now able to follow simple instruction like clap hands, come to mummy etc. She has learnt approx two to six words and babbling is more speech like. She is showing she understands more speech and can understand some parts of the body e.g. clean your teeth. She will understand no, show me and look
Emotional, social and Behavioural. They are likely to have fluctuating moods and are very dependent on adults for reassurance. Can carry dolls and teddies under arms and show caring manor towards it. She will still often need her comforter and can be shy with strangers. She enjoys socializing with familiar people and will show affection to them. She may help with some of her daily routine like cleaning teeth, washing at bath time.
18 months to 2 years
Physical development Children of 18 months to 2 years are normally walking well and with ease, and may be starting to climb. They may show an interest in there own toileting needs like trying to use a potty or the toilet.
Gross motor skills Can walk steadily while carried a toy and stop without sitting down. Can climb onto a chair and turn into a sitting position. She can kneel upright. And squat down to pick up something from the floor and return to a standing position. Can climb upstairs with support by a rail or an adult hand, but May still come down stairs on there stomachs or crawl backwards. She is starting to run, but unable to avoid obstacles in her pathway.
Fine motor skills Can now build a tower with 3 or more wooden blocks or bricks, Can scribble when holding a pen or pencil, and thread a few large beads onto a string. Can remove objects from bottles or tubs by turning them upside down. She has more control over her wrist movements.
Intellectual and sensory development. She can now recognise familiar people at a distance, and recognises herself in a mirror. She no longer takes everything to her mouth.
Communication, language and literacy. She could know the names of most of her body parts and will point to them when asked. Uses between 6 and 40 words and understands many more. Can echo the last part of what someone else is saying, will start to use gestures as well as words. Will enjoy trying to sing and enjoys songs and song type games. She may referrer to herself by her name, and she will start to recognise that people have different thoughts and feeling then she has.
Emotional, social and Behavioural. Long term memory is progressing, plays still alone or alongside others, Independence has started and they like to try things for themselves like dressing, washing teeth cleaning etc. They are also aware that others are concerned or fearful for them when they are climbing running etc. Have occasional temper tantrums and get frustrated when unable to do something. Enjoy stories and rhymes that are of a repetition nature. They enjoy fine motor and sensory play such as posting objects, screwing unscrewing, Painting and scribbling, sand and water play, stacking beakers and putting them inside each other, simple wooden puzzles etc.
2-5 Pre School Years
Physical development By 2 years of age children can run, jump, climb and kick a ball and have achieved most of there physical movement, Muscular strength is needed now and will build up over the course of growing and age. They will be more independent by toileting, feeding, dressing with there personally care issues.
Gross motor skills. They can run more safely now and able to avoid obstacles, they are climbing higher and more challenging frames, They can throw a ball and catch it at approx 3 years of age, they can push and pull wheeled toys, and ride on large wheeled toys such as cars, tricycles, starting by pushing there feet on the ground to move the vehicle at around 2 years of age, but won’t learn to peddle until the age around 3. They are able to stand on tip toes and balance. They can walk sideways and backwards. They climb stairs with confidence starting with both feet on 1 step, then progressing onto one foot on alternative steps, by the time they are 5 they are running up and down steps.
Fine motor skills. Drawing skills develop from scribbling into patterns, lines and shapes , developing into drawing of a body face arms etc , by five some children will be able to write there names , and other letters and numbers and hold a pencil correctly . Children can now hold a book more confidently and turn the pages one by one to see the illustrations some May recocise text. At two a child can hold a cup and drink from a open cup with less spills and mess , and feed confidently with a spoon , by the time they are 5 they are using a knife and folk correctly , Meals may still need to be cut up for them by an adult. They are able to use tools e.g. scissors, Paint brushes, Sharpen pencils, hairbrushes etc and realise that tools serve a purpose. They are now able to thread small beads onto thread or string, and building blocks now become high and wider with construction, they can copy simple picture instructions.
Intellectual and sensory development. At 2 years of age children are learning there primary colours by the age of 5 they are able to match and know at least 10 different colours. There are aware of numbers and learn to count. They are able to recognise text in books and some learn letters, and the letters make words .There attention span improves greatly and children of this age group and are able to listen to long stories. There are more aware of there environment and will notice a lot more, Like aeroplane in the sky, birds in the garden etc. Children of this age group love to please adults and love praise. They are starting to use imagination while playing and become more creative.
Communication, language and literacy. Speech in a 2 year old have greatly improved , they can speak approx 200 words , they talk to themselves often and may not be understood by others, by approx 5 years old speech is more clearer and can be understood by strangers and the vocabulary has improve to approx 5000 words , they still understand more words than they speak . They are beginning to show empathy towards others. They will continually ask questions with why, what, who.
By 3 years old they are beginning to understand the concept of time, memory is improving were they can remember events in past and disgust them. They are able to anticipate events yet to happen. They love to sing nursery rhymes and repeat songs.
Emotional, social and Behavioural. Pre school children are beginning to express there own feelings, they are curious about there environment, and love to try new things. They can know dress independently and are normally dry day and night.
They like to help, and love little jobs to do to please an adult. They can use a spoon and folk independently by the time they are 5 they will be using a knife and folk and holding tools correctly, joining in with family meal time. They like to do things for themselves and are becoming self efficient. Young pre school children play along side each other and find sharing hard, then later relationships form and they understand friendship and sharing. Everyone is seen as a friend at 2 by the time they are 5 they will choose a few friends to play with. They are aware of there gender, they can show sensitivity to others and are aware of others feelings. They like to be with other children. Enjoying games of role play, messy play, sand and water still a big favourite. Like the feeling of being in a group. Boys at the age of 4 have a sudden rush of testosterone , they may become competitive , they become interested in superhero’s and may fight , argue with there pears.
5-9 Lower School Years
Physical development. Children enjoy showing what they can do, Love to hop, skip and jump, they are starting to gain there own interests such as football, dance and will favour to do these things. Children are learning self control, and have a great understanding of there world. There are able to take turns and are learning patients, they are completely independent in self care.
Gross motor skills. Children of this age group have increased agility , show good balancing skills , and will learn to ride a bike without stabilizers , They have good co ordination skills , being able to bend at waist to touch toes without bending knees., Have increased and growing stamina , which enables children to swim , skate and try all area’s of sport and fitness.
Fine motor skills. This age group child are able to do more precise work such as threading needles and sewing stitches, holding tools correctly and written work gets smaller and neater over time. They can follow picture instructions to create buildings, cars etc out of small Lego bricks. Children can draw shapes and pictures with greater ease.
Intellectual and sensory development. Children are now drawing more life like pictures, adding details. Begin to notice and add colour correctly in there pictures, like blue sky, green grass etc. Children are aware of themselves and there individual qualities, they seemed to be positive about themselves and what they achieve,
Communication, language and literacy.
Children speak now about the past, now and future and has a good idea of time, some could be learning to tell the time. They are now fluent in there speech and show a good understanding of body lanunage. Have a sense of humour and can understand simple jokes and funny storeys. They are beginning to learn concepts of quantities in lengths, measurements, volumes etc; they are also beginning to understand the difference between reality and fantasy. They think in a more co-ordinated way. By the time they are 7 years of age they are expressing themselves in speech and writing, most are able to use a computer, and are able to calculate simple sums in there heads. They are able to hold a conversation with peers and adults.
Emotional, social and Behavioural. Choose there own close friends due to interests and personality, enjoy doing simple tasks around the home such as watering plants, dusting hovering etc. They develop concepts and are aware of being fair and forgiving and show sympathy and concern for others. Learn how to deal with there emotions and are now aware that they can hide there emotions and how they are feeling from others.
9-12 Middle School Years
Physical development. Children’s weight and height continues to grow at a steady rate, strength and co-ordination skills are increasing. Children are very energetic and have good appetites. Girls may start puberty in this age group. There body proportions are becoming adult like.
Gross motor skills. Children have increased there body and mussel strength again, have quicker reaction time and good co ordination. They are able to ride a two wheeled bike with ease. They enjoy energetic high impact games and sports, will enjoy competitive sports.
Fine motor skills. Children have more control over small muscles now so they can write and draw will more skill and detail , including 3 dimensions and shading, joining letters in handwriting, can do more precise work in needlework and woodwork etc.
Intellectual and sensory development. Children will learn at an increased rate during the middle school years. They have the opportunities to experience lots of new things, and gain life skills, like cooking, woodwork, group sports etc. Children will be going through the process of puberty and will be experiencing lots of different emotions as there bodies are preparing for the change from child into adult.
Communication, language and literacy. Children now have the ability to remember more and have a longer attention span, they will freely express there ideas. They are learning to plan ahead and evaluate what they have done. They are beginning to devise memory stragies.
They use and understand more complex sentences, they enjoy tell jokes and making people laugh. There ability to reason and think things through is stronger. They can read story’s and use references books. Can write essays and short stories.
Emotional, social and Behavioural. There friends are really important at this stage in there life’s, they like to feel included and to part of a group. They may be curious about grown up things like smoking, alcohol etc. They begin to understand that there could be motives in other people’s actions. Like to join clubs, like guilds, scouts, football clubs etc and show loyalty to there chosen groups. They are very easily embarrassed and are discouraged easy, they can be argumentative and bossy, but can be caring, generous and compassionate too. They still do not completely understand feelings and the needs of others, but enjoy the closeness of friends.
12-16 Year Upper School Years
Physical development. Adolescences involve intense physical, emotional and psychological changes. Puberty starts in girls around the age of 9 to 12 and boys at around 11-14 years of age. In both girls and boys puberty starts with a release of hormones from the pituitary gland in the brain. The hormones released in girls is called oestrogen and in boys Testosterone.
In girls the first signs of puberty is that there breasts develop, Girls body and shape changes, she will grow taller and her hips become wider and fat develops, the waist becomes smaller and her body will become more curved shaped. Pubic hair grows around the genitals, under the arms and legs .Body odour becomes a problem, skin becomes oilier and they are prone to spots.
The first signs of boys starting puberty is an increased size if the testicals and penis, followed by the growth of pubic hair on the genitals, chest and underarms .His body will grow taller, the shoulders and chest become broader. The voice deepens (Voice breaks caused by testosterone that enlarges the vocal cords), Adam’s apple protrudes, and his muscles will develop larger. Towards the end of puberty boys will develop facial hair. His penis can erect without physical touch. Mature sperm is present towards the end of puberty. Like girls Body odour becomes a problem, skin becomes oilier and they are prone to spots.
Communication, language and literacy. After puberty young adult experience a shift in thinking and think more like adults , think about possibilities , starting planning ahead for there future’s , thinking through hypotheses , solving problems in a systematic manor. Have fast, neat handwriting, most will be preparing for exams, colleges and there future.
Emotional, social and Behavioural. Adolescence is a very emotional and confusing time for teenagers .They want to be liked and excepted by there peers , they show a interest in fashions and music and like being with the in crowd. Peer pressure kicks in. They are increasing there independence and depend on friends rather than parents for emotional support. Some may alternate from child behaviour to adult behaviour; they are aware of there changing bodies and may be anxious about this and become self conscious. They often felt misunderstood as they will not share the same views as parents, they may want to test the boundaries against there parents and authorities. Some may be having relationships , others may be questioning sexuality , drugs , alcohol and some may be smoking to fit in with there peers.
Birth to three matters framework. The birth to three matters frame work is for all who work with any child. The frame work focuses on the child rather than the curriculum. It identifies four aspects:
1) A strong child, this is to develop a strong child through support emotionally, encouging self confidence, sense of belonging.
2) A skill full communication. Building up relationships, encouraging a voice, listening skills and responding.
3) A competent learner. Giving children the opportunity to explore and understand the world in which they live.
4) A healthy child This is not only about healthy food, it is about healthy choices, learning about there bodies, being able to show personal preferences, being kept safe and protected, physical and emotional well being.
Special needs. All children are different and grow, learn and develop at different rates. You have to take into account any special needs , Special needs means that a child may have a health problem , a medical contion , physical or sensory impairment , speech and language difficulty , emotional and behavioural problems , learning disabitys and giftedness.
Also taking into account a Childs back ground for example they may have be at risk from there main carers through neglect or abuse . They may have been sepaterated from there parents for lot’s of different reasons, this will leave a damaging affect on there emotional behaviour and could affect there development both physically and mentally.