Understand how types and methods of assessment are used in lifelong learning. & 1.1) Analysis how types of assessment are used in lifelong learning. Assessment – It is a way of finding out if learning has taken place. It enables the teacher to ascertain if his/her student has gained the required skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes needed at a given point towards their programme of learning. Types of Assessment: It includes Initial(at the beginning) , Formative (ongoing) , and Summative(at the end). An example of an initial assessment could be to ascertain prior knowledge of a topic. An example of formative assessment could be an ongoing learning journal, and a summative assessment could be a test, assignment or an exam. Depending upon the subject I am assessing and the relevant awarding organisations requirement, I might carry out various types of assessment with my students which could be on a formal or informal basis.
An example of a formal assessment can be a test and an example of an informal assessment is a quiz, depending upon my subject and whether the activity is formative or summative. Assessment tasks or activities will be either internal(produced by me or my organisation) or external(produced by the Awarding Organisation). Initial assessment: Further information regarding initial diagnostic assessment. A quick question during my session, has anyone done this before?, Will soon give me some idea of what my students already know. Relevant initial assessment activities will also give me information regarding my students: for example any specific assessment requirements or needs they may have, their learning style, or any further training and support they may need. Formative assessment: These should take place continually throughout my students time with me and allow for development to take place. Simply asking questions and observing actions can help me give ongoing feedback to enable my students to develop further, before a summative or final assessment takes place.
Assessing my students on a formative basis will enable you to see if they are ready prior to a summative assessment. I could use activities, quizzes and short tasks for them to carry out which would make the assessment process more interesting and highlight any areas which need further development. Summative assessment: It usually occur at the end of a programme, topic, unit or full qualification. They can often be quite stressful to students and sometimes lead to a fail result even though the student is quite capable under other circumstances. However I assess my students, I must always make sure I am assessing only what needs to be assessed, i.e. the qualification requirements, for internal assessments, guidance is provided within the curriculum documentation regarding a range of issues.
I could analyse how I use the types mentioned above in different situations. For example, using initial assessments helps me to identify any particular aspects which might otherwise go unnoticed. Some students may be embarrassed or not wish to divulge personal information on application or initial assessment forms. I could have a quiet chat with them away from other students to find out if they have any needs or specific requirements. If I am unsure about how to help them with anything,
Just ask, as they are best placed to know how I could support them. Initial assessment can also include identifying appropriate learning styles, and ascertaining current skills and knowledge. If I am currently teaching, my organisation may have specific assessments or skills tests for me to use which I could explain, along with how I will use them. Assessment types are different from assessment methods. A method is how the assessment type will be used and can be formal or informal. I would then analyse how I would use different types of assessment in formal and informal situations to suit my particular student needs. 1.2) Analyse how assessment methods are used in lifelong learning. The methods of assessment use will depend upon whether I am assessing knowledge, skills or attitudes. Whether the awarding organisation states which methods I must use, or whether I choose my own, I need to treat, each student as an individual, take into account equality and diversity and any particular student requirements. Methods of assessments are different from types of assessment, A method is how the assessment type will be used and will be classed as formal or informal.
The different methods of assessment that can be used for my particular subject. I could list the assessment methods and explain how I would use them . A few examples are given bellow. Assignments : Can be used to formally assess progress. Can assess knowledge and understanding and if structured well can allow for assessment of practice. Can be a longer term activity based around the qualification or topic, which provides evidence of learning- can be practical or theoretical. Observation: Can be used to see students perform a task or skill, putting theory into practice. Oral Questions: A key technique for assessing understanding and stimulating thinking, can be formal or informal. Can be carried out on a one- to- one basis or in group situations. Questions can be closed, hypothetical, open, probing , multiple choice, etc. Can be used to assess knowledge informally during a session or formally as part of an assessment. Puzzles, quizzes, word-search, crosswords & etc. :A fun way of assessing learning in an informal way. Can be used as an informal activity at the end of a session to test knowledge gained, can also be used to fill in time during a session if necessary. Examinations : Formal tests which could be carried out in certain conditions. Journal/Diaries: Students keep a record of their progress, their reflections and thoughts, and reference these to the assessment criteria.
RPL: Assessing what has previously been learnt to find a suitable starting point for further assessment.
Worksheets and gapped handouts: I can use interactive handouts to check knowledge(manual or electronic) . Blanc spaces can be used for students to fill in the missing words.
Discussions/debates: Students talk about a relevant subject which contributes to the assessment criteria.
Portfolios of evidence: Formal records of evidence(manual or electronic) to meet the assessment criteria.
Professional discussions: Conversations between the assessor and student based around the assessment criteria.
E-assessments/online assessments: Assessment using ICT(information computer technology) Essays: Formal pieces of written text.
Peer assessments: Students giving feedback to each other.
Self assessment: Students decide how they have met the criteria, or are progressing at a given time. Tests: Formal assessment situations.
Role plays: Students act out a hypothetical situation.
I could analyse each of the assessment methods I have stated. This will include explaining what the method is, why, when and where I would use it, and how both me and my students will benefit from it. For example, assignments could be used to help students provide evidence of knowledge and skills. An assignment can enable the assessment of several aspects of a qualification at the same time, often known as holistic assessment or practice. Perhaps a short assignment could be carried out during the session, and a longer assignment over a few sessions or as homework. All assessments, whether produced by myself or others, should be valid and reliable. Validity will ensure me is assessing what is meant to be assessed and reliability will ensure that if the assessment was used again with a similar group of students, I would receive similar results. Most assessments will be internally and/or externally quality assured to ensure fairness and consistency, as well as validity and reliability. One way of solving the curriculum coverage problem is to set a multiple – choice questionnaire.
With a questionnaire, it is possible to cover a large body of knowledge or understanding quickly and thoroughly, simply by setting at least one question for each topic covered in the syllabus( Tummons, 2011:52). I could then analyse how i would use multiple-choice questions with my own students. 1.3 Evaluate strengths and limitations of assessment methods to meet individual learner needs. To evaluate the assessment methods/activities that I could use for any particular subject, are they pitched at right level and will they fully assess the criteria. I should take into account any individual needs, for example, a student with dyslexia could complete an assignment using a word processor with a spell check facility. A student with a hearing impairment could write responses to written questions rather than respond verbally to oral questions. In that case I would need to obtain authorisation from my Awarding Organisation before making any changes to formal assessment methods. I am evaluating strengths & limitations of some assessments methods below: Assignments:-
Strengths: Can challenge my students potential or consolidates learning. Several aspects of a qualification can be assessed. Some assignments are set by the Awarding organisation who will give clear marking criteria. Limitations: Everything must have been taught beforehand. Questions can be misinterpreted if written by someone else. Can be time consuming. Must be individually assessed and written feedback given. Assessor might be biased when marking. Observations:-
Strengths: Enables skills to be seen in action. Students can make a mistake enabling them to realise their errors. Can assess several aspects of a qualification at the same time. Limitations: Timing must be arranged to suit each student. No permanent record unless visually recorded. Questions must be asked to confirm understanding. Assessor might not be objective with decision. Oral/Written questions:-
Strengths: Can be multiple choice, short answer or long essay style. Can challenge my students potential. Can test critical arguments or thinking and reasonlng skills. A question bank can be devised which could be used again and again for all students. Limitations: Questions must be written carefully, i.e. be unambiguous, and can be time consuming to prepare. Closed questions only give a yes or no reply which doesn’t demonstrate knowledge. If the same questions are used with other students, they could share the answers. Puzzles and quizzes:-
Strengths: Fun activities to test knowledge, skills and/or attitudes. Useful backup activity if students finish an activity earlier than planned. Useful way to assess progress of lower level students and retention of facts. Limitations: Does not assess my students level of understanding or ability to apply their knowledge to real situations. Can seem trivial to mature students. Can be time consuming to create. Essays:-
Strengths: Useful for academic subjects can check my students language and literacy skills at specific levels. Limitations: Marking can be time consuming. Plagiarism can be an issue. Students need good writing skills. Examinations:-
Strengths: Can be open book, or open notes, enabling students to have books and notes with them. Limitations: Some students may be anxious. Students may have been taught purely to pass expected questions, therefore they may forget everything afterwards. Tests:-
Strengths: Cost effective method as the same test can be used with large numbers of students. Some test responses can be scanned into a computer for marking and analysis. Limitations: Needs to be carried out in supervised and timed conditions can be stressful to students. Feedback may not be immediate, students taking a test before others may communicate the answers. Self assessment:-
Strengths: Promote student involvement and personal anatomy. Encourage students to check their own work before handing it in. Limitation: Students may feel they are doing better than they actually are. Peer assessment: –
Strengths: Promote student involvement, activities can often correct misunderstanding and consolidate learning without intervention by assessor.
Limitations: There may be personality clashes resulting in subjective decisions need careful management and training in how to give feedback. Portfolios of Evidence:- Strengths: Can be compiled over a period of time. Student- centred, promotes autonomy. Limitations: Authenticity and currency to be checked. Tendency for students to produce too much. Can be time-consuming to assess. Discussions/debates: –
Strengths: All students can participate. Allows freedom of viewpoints, questions and discussions. Limitations: Assessor needs to keep the group focused and set a time limit. Some students may not get involved, others may take over. Professional discussions:-
Strengths: Ideal way to assess aspects which are more difficult to observe, or to complete any identified gaps from other assessments. Limitations: A record must be kept of the discussions. Needs careful planning. Journal/Diaries:-
Strengths: Develop self-assessment skills. Relate theory to practice. Help assess language and literacy skills. Useful for higher level programmes. Limitations: Should be specific to the learning taking place and be analytical rather than descriptive. Can be time consuming to read. Online/E. Assessments:-
Strengths: Can take place at a time to suit students. Participations is widened. Results can be instantly generated. Less paperwork for the assessor. Limitations: Students need to be computer literate. Authenticity of students work may need validating. Technical support may be required. Role plays:-
Strengths: Encourage participation, Can lead to debates. Link theory to practice. Limitations: Not all students may want or be able to participate. Clear role must be defined. Can be time consuming. Worksheets & Gapped handouts:-
Strengths: Informal assessment activity which can be carried out individually in pairs or groups. Useful for lower –level students and differentiation. Limitations: Mature students may consider them inappropriate. Too many worksheets can be boring, students might not be challenged enough. 2) Understand how to involve learners in the assessment process. & 2.1) Evaluate how to involve the learners in the assessment process. It is becoming increasingly common for teachers to involve learners in the assessment process. Learners are encouraged to think about the task that then are completing and the criteria that they are working towards, or the ways in which their work can improve and go from being a ‘pass’ to a ’merit’ or from a ‘merit’ to a ‘distinction’. In tutorials and in whole group sessions, the merits of involving students in their own assessment that is to say, engaging in self-assessment can be summarised as follows.
1.Ownership of the assessment process, through involving students as active participants in, as opposed to passive recipients of, the assessment process, teachers can encourage as a higher level of both intrinsic and achievement motivation. 2.Autonomy of learning, if it is accepted that self-assessment can stimulate higher levels of motivation and engagement amongst students. it follows that a deep as opposed to surface approach to learning will be encouraged, with consequent benefits for the learner. Doing assessment in whole group peer assessment can be used, typical examples of peer assessment activities include. a) Small group presentations that receive feedback from one or two members of the class. b) Peer led demonstrations of practical or technical operation. c) Reading and assessing peers assignments.
To evaluate how to involve the learner in the assessment process : Initial assessment will help identify any particular student needs and learning styles. Diagnostic assessment will help identify my students skills, Knowledge and understanding towards the subject, and their literacy, numeracy and ICT skills. I will be involved from the start or even before they commence the programme, to help identify these points. It might be that one of my students has already achieved a unit or some of the qualification requirements elsewhere. I could ascertain if they have any evidence of this, i.e. a certificate, so that I could instigate the process of recognising prior learning (RPL). I can involve my students at the commencement of a session by asking them if they have any prior knowledge or skills of the topic to be covered, In this way, I can draw and build upon their experiences throughout the session. During the session , I could use paired and group activities which require peer and self assessment. This would actively involve my students; however, I would need to ensure everyone was aware of the criteria to be assessed and how to give feedback effectively.
At the end of the session I could informally assess knowledge gained by using a quiz. This would involve the students and end the session on a fun note. If I am agreeing individual assessment plans with students, for example, if they are to be assessed in the workplace, you would involve them by discussing what will be assessed, how and when. This would enable a two way conversation to take place, leading to an appropriate plan of action. Depending upon the topic I am assessing , there are ways of involving my students throughout the process. If I am assessing informally, for example, asking questions during a session, I could start with an open question and move onto a hypothetical question if I am not getting the response I expected. This would help my student think about what they have said. If I am formally assessing a student for a practical skill, I could ask them open questions to check their understanding. I would not be able to lead my student, but I could probe further to obtain a more detailed response. At the end of the assessment activity, I could ask them how they felt it went. This involves them again and allows them to point out anything that didn’t go quite well, before I have to.
I could then explain my decision and give constructive feedback, involving my student again by asking them questions and encouraging them to ask my questions. 2.2) Analyse the role of peer and self-assessment in the assessment process. Peer assessment involves a student assessing another student’s progress. Self assessment involves a student assessing their own progress, which can lead to setting their own goals and targets. It can give responsibility and ownership of their achievements. Both methods encourage students to make decisions about what has been learnt so far, and to reflect on aspects for further development. However, both students and their peers might undervalue or overvalue their achievements. My students will need to fully understand the assessment criteria, and how to be fair and objective with their judgements. Throughout the process of peer and self- assessment, students can develop skills such as listening, observing and questioning. Peer assessment can also be useful to develop and motivate students.
I would need to give advice to my students as to how to give feedback effectively. If student feedback is given skilfully, other students may consider assessment more what their peers have said than what I have. If I consider peer assessment has a valuable contribution to make to the assessment process, ensure I plan for it. The final decision as to whether my student has achieved will lie with me. I could analyse the role of peer and self-assessment in different situations, for example, peer assessment after a student’s presentation. I would need to manage the situation carefully, as I may have some students who do not get along and might use the opportunity to demoralise others. Peer assessment might also take place on occasions when I am not present. I could then state how I would ensure the reliability and authenticity of the peer feedback. Self assessment literally , encouraging or requiring students to assess their own learning and progress against the criteria or outcomes established by the programme of study being followed can therefore be a powerful tool but is, arguably, best suited to one-to-one work or private study. In order to generate a similarly student- centred approach to assessment in whole group situations.
When running peer assessment activities , teachers may be concentrated that the feedback that will be given is at risk of being biased or otherwise partial, perhaps as a consequence of group dynamics, friendship groups, or a broader lack of understanding of the assessment process. In fact, current and recent research indicates that if properly planned and managed, peer assessment is on the whole both valid and reliable. 3) Understand requirements for keeping records of assessment in lifelong learning. & 3.1)
Explain the need to keep records of assessment of learning. I could explain the reasons why, I keep particular assessment records, such as to keep track of student achievements for internal and external audits and for quality assurance purposes. If I am currently teaching, I could find out what assessment records my organisation expects me to use and state how I would use them. The syllabus or qualification handbook will give me specific details regarding the assessment strategy; however, they may not provide the assessment documentation I will use to ensure I keep formal records. I could also explain how I use the various
records(whether manual and/or electronic)along with the advantages and limitations of each. I could also explain how records at your organisation are kept confidential and stored securely and safely. Records must be maintained to satisfy my organisations internal quality- assurance systems, and external regulators such as Ofsted, and the awarding organisations requirements, Assessment records must show an audit trail of my students’ progress from commencement to completion and are usually keep at my organisation for three years. If a student loses their work, without any assessment records I have nothing to show that I actually assessed it. If I am teaching a programme which does not lead to a formal qualification, i.e. non-accredited, I will still need to record student to progress. This is known as RARPA- recognising and recording progress and achievement.
Records must be up to date, accurate, factual and legible whether they are stored manually or electronically. If I am saving to a computer, always ensure I have a backup copy in case any data are lost. I must always maintain confidentiality and follow relevant legislation such as the Data protection act(1998), which is mandatory for all organisations that hold or process personal data. The freedom of information act(2000) gives my students the opportunity to request to see the information public authorities hold about them. Keeping full and accurate factual records is also necessary in case one of my students appeals against an assessment decision. If this happens, don’t take it personally; they will be appealing against my decision, not me. 3.2. Summarise requirements for keeping records of assessment in an organisation. I could summarise the requirements for example internal and external. Internal might include the requirements of the organisation, such as: policies; performance indicators; statistics and data, and quality assurance. External might include the requirements of inspectors, legislation, regulators, professional bodies and funding bodies.
Records can either be electronic or manual and should be kept for a minimum of three years. If I didn’t keep assessment records and a student lost their work , I would not have any proof I had planned for and assessed their efforts, unless I kept relevant records. I could be specific about each record I listed by stating whether it is kept due to organisational, inspection, regulatory or for other requirements. I could then give an instance of why the particular record is kept , for example, an action plan is kept as a requirement of the organisation’s assessment policy. If students are taking a qualification, it will also be a requirement of the Awarding Organisation they are registered with. Which made provision for the regulation of the processing of information relating to individuals, including the obtaining, holding, use or disclosure of such information.
1. Gravells Ann, (5th edition,2013)- Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector, Publisher – SAGE Publications Inc. 2. Curzon L.B. and Tummons J.,(7th edition, 2013)-Teaching in Further Education – An outline of principles and practice, publisher – Bloomsbury Publishing Plc., Place – UK. 3. Petty Geoff,(4th edition, 2009),Teaching Today – A Practical Guide, Publisher – Nelson Thornes Ltd., place – UK.