A) Joseph has many risk factors, one of them including his family has a history of vascular disease, and he had not thought much about it because he was not living a healthy life style. He had gained weight from eating fatty foods, and had started smoking again. Joseph had a lot of stress from working long hours, and did nothing when he had felt tightness in his chest. These risk factors all affect cellular function. The blood slows, along with oxygen, glucose, and essential ions it carries that are required for the heart to pump, this rapidly uses up ATP supply. Eventually, the cells begin to die, and become leaky. Sodium slowly begins to leak into the cells and potassium leaks out. B) The cellular process that is normally affected when the heart stops beating is aerobic respiration. Glucose begins the process in glycolysis and oxygen is required for reactions in the mitochondria. Carbon dioxide is then produced as a byproduct, which is a waste that requires to be excreted.
When Carbon dioxide level inside the cell rose and PH began to drop, the mitochondria had no more oxygen and glucose to make essential ATP energy. Eventually the cells began to die, active transport pumps shut down the plasma membrane of the heart cells. The cells become leaky; Sodium slowly began to leak into the cell and potassium leaked out. C) The endoplasmic reticulum and the lysosomal enzymes are intracellular organelles that have membranes as part of their structure. When these membranes breakdown it affects the heart because calcium ATPases stops moving calcium from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum of the cardiac muscle cells. When the intracellular calcim levels rise, it causes proteases to spill into the interior of the cell, attacking the cytoskeleton. Lysosomal enzymes normally bound safely inside vesicles begin to digest the plasma membranes and the membranes of the organelles.
D) The instructions Joseph’s body need to repair itself and his predisposition for vascular disease are both contained within the DNA, and the DNA is located in the nucleus. E) The types of proteins in the cell membrane that were involved in the homeostatic imbalances of Joseph’s heart cells are ATP. The ATP supply was rapidly used up, because the flow of the blood slowed, along with the oxygen, glucose, and the essential ions it carried for the heart to pump. Also the calcium from the cytosol ATPases stopped moving calcium from the cytosol into his cardiac muscle cells, causing his intracellular calcium levels to rise. When the intracellular calcium levels rose, it caused proteases to spill into the interior of the cell, attacking the cytoskeleton. F) Reestablishing oxygen flow to Joseph’s body is very important because cells require oxygen to produce ATP, without ATP, oxygen, and nutrients, multiple cellular processes affecting homeostasis can shut down. If Joseph did not reestablish oxygen to his cells it could had caused irreversible cell death in the brain within a matter of minutes.
G) To reduce Joseph’s risk for another heart attack I would suggest a few things. One of them being, to stop smoking. Smoking decreases oxygen to the heart and damages cells that line coronary arteries and other blood vessels. I would also suggest to eat healthier, fatty foods will deposit into the artery walls, this puts more pressure on the heart. I would tell Joseph to keep his hypertension under control. With having high blood pressure the increased pressure of blood flowing through your arteries can cause narrowing and damage to the artery. Lastly, I would tell Joseph, the next time that he feels tightness in his chest to call the doctor immediately.
H) Joseph’s heart has failed because the cardiac muscle cells struggled to survive the lack of blood flow caused by his atherosclerosed coronary arteries. Which made the flow of the blood slow, along with the oxygen, glucose, and essential ions it carried that were required for the heart pump, each cell continued working, rapidly using up its ATP supply. Without ATP the cells began to die, and the active transport pumps shut down the plasma membranes of Joseph’s heart. When the chemical gradients diminished, that is when his heart convulsed in an uncontrolled spasm.