The law has a lot of information about our professional ethics and health care means to protect us and assist in guidance and practice of our professions and also the clients. There are many ethical dilemmas in practicing healthcare that the professional ethics also is unable to address.
Legal and ethical issues are the ability to interpret the morally correct resolution to a moral dilemma or task as a responsibility more so a profession. The search for universal objective principle for evaluating human behaviors on terms of right or wrong… Fromer (1981, p.453). Legal and ethical issues in a society are developed by government, religion and how people relate through experiences in life. More important is the relation to practitioner related legal and ethical issues.
Legal and ethical issues hand in hand provide guidance or products, people who use CAHC and NPs. They provide ethical and legal framework when dealing with issues raised by increasing interest in and use of complementary and alternative therapies. They help contextualize the problems raised by an issued and mediate differences of views that they need; and the legal products. This is how they are related and function. The ethical product provider, legally are required to provide information about their use. Practitioners are, legally and by ethic of profession knowledgeable about the range of options available to people and provide adequate advice about the risks and benefits in moral way.
Ethical and legal are related in a way that ethical issues guides practitioners morally to abide to legal issues governing the profession the general practice and general well being. For instance, it is important for practitioners to have a professional formation in areas of practice through educational training but also develop professional character and ethical awareness. They should have behaviors in addition to the developed knowledge.
By ethical and legal issues understanding and relation a practitioner is helped play a role for regulatory control and make professional judgment or decision. In practice the, relationship between people receiving health care and the provider (Practitioner) in order to make sound decisions morally and implementation legally, this is a relationship perspective. The overall approach and practice profession in health care are guided by both legal and ethical issues, one of the practices which cannot operate or be done separately without moral guidance…. Fromer (1981, p.153). Ethical and legal issues are a process of clarifying a medical circumstance in question.
In practice personal values and my professional ethics are related. For personal values would consider honest, responsibility, integrity, imagination and ambition among others. Professional values are equality among patients, prevention of diseases and suffering, confidentiality, promoting health care and promoting my profession. Personal values can not be separated from my professional ethics because of the dilemmas faced in practice.
It is my obligation as a personal value to develop and provide quality practice, act responsibly, collaborate, commitment. Consider to being deeply interested in the patient caring compassionate and optimistic. Acting fairly towards all patients and encouraging in the society of practitioners to treat all persons fairly with a special reference to the vulnerable person. To be just in practice courage has helped me to accept taking risks in order to make right decisions as a personal value. Practical skills in solving patient’s disease and ailments.
In addition to this a core personal value is being faithful and truthful which makes one always willing to help, tell truth facts as known to help one take constructive decision and accept. Respect of human dignity in general holds important impact on the patient at the society at large.
Responsibility as a value assists in my willingness to follow up commitments, accept blame and relate responsibility to arising situation in life in relation to the patients. Another value is competence and wisdom which assists achieve my practice goals. And like Aristotle explained “virtues are those values that, when inculcated into an individual, create a habitual disposition to act we.”
In the professional ethics have always conducted as to updates of ANA code of Ethics since 1985. (American Nurse Association). Mainly fiduciary which means trust, to help patients feel my responsibility and can not violate their trust bestowed on me. Combining professional ethical code and moral responsibility codes in practice helps achieving the set goal. Critical thinking, help in analyze the role of a practitioner in nursing. Ethical theories and principles expect one to act like exceptional person whose responsibility and practice works hand in hand. For instance one is expected to be confidential to information by ethics which in some cases it’s difficult to handle. Patients might expect too much from circumstances not available or is not in the focus. A good example is when a patient wants to create a relationship with practitioner for self gain outside the practice goal. In this case, however how much one could be confidential will seek advice from external source. During this information is revealed.
In most cases it’s also difficult to handle some patients as ethics code dictates. This and related to patients are in practice not practicable. In some cases patients would pretend to act insane or become violent with mild reason like they do not like you. Some case patients could be alcoholic addicts or drug addicts.
In case of dialysis unit patient refusal of treatment, the diagnostic could have some uncertainty, there could be lack of a patient-physician relationship, time pressure and resource restriction. Use legal and ethical framework to address issues. For example in an incident where dialysis unit-patient refusal of treatment the main basic item is to look at the patients medical records to enable one make a sound decision as to where to refer the patient and share information from satellite dialysis units that have once attended to the patient. Satellite units help reduce and contain stress, help coping with it and compliance and quality life. This helps a patient access medical care quickly and conveniently. Helps improve data collection are reduce vulnerability of the patients and also the practitioners. It is also time saving since the dialysis units are accessible. In the same case one might feel safe in his comfort zone than in the new environment.
In addition there is freedom to practice this enhances thoughtfulness which improves decision making giving a great sense of autonomy and confidence. Practicing a satellite enables a practitioner enhance skills and expertise that enables quality patient care. This enhances service delivery and enables quality patient care, hence reducing vulnerability variation and change in working scope produces positive impact.
Signing consents need an ethical and legal approach to take situation on arising. For example consent to the use of human reproductive materials (HRM) for the purpose of creating an embryo. A consent is necessary for any of the purposes, for the donors own reproductive use, for posthumous reproductive use by the donors, partner, for a third party reproductive use other purposes as for improving AHR procedures and for providing instruction in AHR procedures. This helps avoid conflicts that might result from actions taken without notice to the specimen and patients.
Consent to the posthumous removal of HRM from a donor’s body for the purpose of creating an embryo is required before removal. For a third party it is not required through insane case might be necessary by the donor to the use of an in vitro embryo for any purpose like research third party reproductive use, reproductive use by a donor’s partner and for the donors own reproductive use.
Where records have been created and maintained properly, relating to the provision of treatment and cares to a patient the DNR order can be applied. A practitioner can enter a DO-Not Resuscitate order legally where professional ethics and moral dictates so. There are protocols to be followed and can not be administered to a person who is not medically warranted. Only patients primary physicians may give DNR order because they are generally the first listed on a patient’s card and probably have more information concerning he general situation of the patient. In case of a cardiopulmonary resuscitating (CPR) there are several options. Typically for a patient it requires that a practitioner suctions the air way, administer oxygen patient be positioned comfort, splint or immobilize control bleeding provide pain medication, provide emotional support and contact other appropriate health care providers (Policy On Do Not Resuscitate n.d). The diversity of patient’s illness and therapies required that DNR orders be adaptive to the specific circumstances and to ensure the flexibility there are three types of orders namely DNR comfort care, DNR comfort care Arrest and DNR specified. To a patient DNR order is only provided only by only authorized health care practitioners and should be recorded in the medical chart.
Medical care has always been affected by patients cultural beliefs whose religion dictates what kind of products and services them can receive …Gorlin, (1999, p.234). For incidence blood transfusion, same patients can not allow blood from other unknown sources to be used or even donate blood. Since hey believe can result to death. Here they need to be reassured by the practitioners how safe the blood is and all procedures are taken for their safety. Making patients knowledgeable about what nutrients are required and from believes. For example preferences and what religion teaches about pork and beef. The practitioners should fully have other options in a situation where one does not take pork and beef or any of the items. It is also advisable not to side with the patient because you have the overall responsibility to provide quality medical care and in charge of he health of the patient.
In conclusion both profession ethics and personal values should be put forward to achieve provision of quality health care as a basic principle.
Gorlin, A.R. (1999). Codes of Professional Responsibility. UK: BNA.
Fromer, M. J. (1981). Ethical Issues in Health Care. Michigan: Mosby.
Policy On Do Not Resuscitate Retrieved on 15th October 2008.