Analysis of art and culture reveals the relationship between civilizations and the dominant figures that existed in the respective cultures. The study of languages, artifacts, geographical factors, and natural principles indicate man has a strong inclination towards the historical events (Smith 230). Archeology and the related objects in the southern Caucasia revealed what happened to Prometheus during his time in bondage. In this respect, it is vital to establish how mythologies, literary arts, and modern scientific research complement each other in establishing the truth about creation and sacrifices. A dynamic and multidimensional approach to matters of history, myth, and empirical studies is fundamental in understanding the events in the modern world basing on the history. The following discussion will delve into the role of Prometheus in creation, in relation to sacrifice, and giving life.
The early life of Prometheus was tempestuous and challenging because the father had rebelled against the gods. Two of his siblings Manutius and Atlas joined the father in the rebellion while Prometheus and Epimetheus chose to obey the gods. The concept of obedience is critical to understanding the role of sacrifices and giving life to the relationship between the gods and the creatures (Kaplan 661). The Greek mythologies, the biblical point of view, and the modern social order share the idea that obedience explains someone’s association with the authorities. Some myths describe the causes of rebellion and other does not explain (Rolnik 34). The explanation for the cause of revolution is providing the justification for disobedience. The authorities may order the subjects to engage in unethical practices. The moral reference for right and wrong helps the subjects and the readers of the myths to determine the justification of disobedience (Kaplan 665).
Studies of literary arts such as the characters in the drama and analysis of the stories of the Greek Mythology share the dilemma of moral relativity. It is impossible to know whether Prometheus was right in disobeying the father to obey the gods unless one knows the cause of the rebellion (Grundrise 82). As noted in the case of Zeus, he denies man fire because he wants to limit the scope of knowledge and revelation for man. However, Prometheus steals the fire and gives it to the man. In this situation, the act against the wishes of Zeus helps man but upsets Zeus. If the judge of the morality of stealing fire is man, the act is likely to be ethical.
Prometheus created man from mud. Epimetheus gave out all the good qualities of nature and forgot man. The action forced Prometheus to create man upright in the bid to make him superior to other creations (Kaplan 661). Three issues arise from this case of creation. First, the creator is not always perfect. Prometheus could not depend on Epimetheus to give the man better qualities. He would have created man and bestowed him with good qualities at once. Reflecting on the question of obedience, it is self-evident that the creator is not always right. Therefore, it is wrong to obey god on the mere basis of creation. The second issue that arises is the case of creation is the nature of the good qualities. The mythology paints the picture of quantitative conditions.
This means that the sound qualities are divisible and limited in the amount. The aspect of quality depletion contradicts the very principle of perpetuation good quality to many people. The third issue that arises is whether the creation denies man the good qualities in reality. Prometheus loved man as compared to the Olympians. He gave man the upright stature and fire, but there are no qualitative features that attract him to a man. In this perspective, one may question the authorities obtained through creation. In drawing analogy to the biblical creation, the two forms of creation are logical to explain the origin of man. However, the cause, effect, and the essence of the existence of man is complicated. Man fails on morality because of the freewill to choose (Cantz and Kaplan 487). It is hard to tell whether creation of man with the best qualities and denying him the freedom to choose would make him obey.
During the creation, Epimetheus gave good qualities of nature and forgot man. However, man became the focus for the creator and the gods. For instance, the decree of Zeus required man to bring a portion of the sacrifices to him. The behavior of the gods and Prometheus shows that there was greater value in a man than the qualities such as shrewdness and possessions such as a fire. The life of man and his sacrifice was of greater value to the gods and the creator (Grundrise 82). The trick on the sacrifices made Zeus take the bones and Prometheus to take the good meat. The mythology does not explain the motivation for the trick.
The actions of Zeus against Prometheus show how the past events and beliefs influence actions taken later on in life. Although the issue of sacrifice and the disobedience of Prometheus contributed to his punishment, Zeus wanted to know who among his children would dethrone him. Prometheus knew him and kept it as his secret (Smith 230). The behavior of Zeus stems from his consciousness about what happened when he became the ruler of Olympus. His father was called Crones, and his mother was Rhea.
Crones killed five of his children at birth because of the fear that one of them would come and remove him from the throne. Zeus was born the sixth and the mother tricked Crones and hid him in Crete. Upon maturity, Zeus came back to Olympus and dethroned the father. Zeus ensured that the father coughed the five children; he had eaten. The fear of one of the children taking over from Crones resurfaced in Zeus. He was sure that one of the children would remove him from the throne. As a father, he does not know whom exactly. Zeus chains Prometheus because of the innate fear that one of the children will challenge his authority (Kaplan 664).
Psychoanalysis plays a vital role in explaining the situation of Zeus in relation to his father, Crones, and the secret of Prometheus. Analysis of the life and the psychology of characters across generations show how literature, psychology, and mythology relate (Shephard and Wallis 67). The psychological factors that motivate the behaviors of a character in the previous settings may arise in a character much later on. Characters who understand their background can predict the future events about their life or the life of the people close to them. In some instances, the behavior occurs unconsciously. The fears of Zeus are real and are also motivated by the psychological understanding that what he did to the father will also be done to him. He was raised in Crete secretly and at present, the child who will challenge him is in secret.
Prometheus presents the question of the beginning of life in three perspectives; Creation of man, the creation of Pandora and life after the floods. The creation of man in involves Prometheus and Epimetheus. Prometheus creates man from mud, and Epimetheus breathed life into man. The creation of Pandora takes place later on. There is a slight difference between the creation of man and creation of Pandora with reference to the biblical accounts. The purpose of creating Pandora in this case is to punish Prometheus and Epimetheus. The beauty of Pandora is not to glorify the creator, but for the deception. Pandora brought a gift to Epimetheus from which all evil flew. The gift is also a form of deception. The narrative about the creation of man and Pandora depicts a situation where men and women originate from separate sources. The purpose of their creation is also divergent. The third perspective of creation occurred at the time of floods. Zeus used a great flood to destroy the strong race of men. The men were compared to bronze. Prometheus told his son Deucalion and his wife, Pyrrhic to make a boat that would save them from the great flood (Kaplan 664).
After the distinct approach to the creation of man and Pandora, continuity of life after floods is also unique. Deucalion portages men and Pyrrhic propagates women. In the modern times, the propagation is equivalent to cloning. The move by Prometheus succeeds to save the life of the two couples, but their continuity of life is inconsistent with the method of their creation and also different from the normal procreation. The mythology indicates that the father of Deucalion is Prometheus, but it does not say who the mother was. This could explain the nature of continuity of life after the floods (Kaplan 665). The creation of man by Prometheus and the creation of woman of the order of Zeus create the differences between the views of a woman and a man. The independent propagation of life after the floods furthers the idea of how man and women are distinct. The difference in perceptions about gender cuts across civilizations. Modern literature and social discussions have sentiments that associate men with Mars and women with Venus. The emotions show that women and men came from different sources (Cantz, and Kaplan 486).
The Freudian psychoanalysis has also displayed the differences in the psychological makeup of men and women. Freud’s origin was Hebraic. His discussion of the gender, psychology, and psychiatry takes the Hellenic perspective. The Hellenic school of thought view women as mortal, alien. The deceit and gullibility associated with Pandora demean her moral position in the Hellenic view. The creation and nature of Pandora inspire these opinions. The mythology also presents man as superior creation. In the first account, Prometheus created man, but after the floods, Deucalion, the son of Prometheus becomes the focus. In this regard, a woman retails the nature of the first account of creation while the man takes the titan characteristics from the lineage of Prometheus (Cantz and Kaplan 486). The modern teachings about men and women have an element of centrality. The life of men and women came from the same source.
The flood sent by Zeus targeted the man referred to as the bronze man. The account of creation does not consider the five Hellenic views on the ages of humans. The golden race, the silver race, the brass race, heroes, and the iron race are the five categories of the human races. The bronze man was much superior and Prometheus ensured that Zeus could not destroy it. For instance, the iron man was wicked, and the narrator observes that Zeus would destroy the iron man because he would seek to overthrow him. The creations and the superiority between Prometheus and Zeus are Greek symbolic on the authority and continuity of life (Grundrise 79).
The creation contest between Zeus and Prometheus depicts good and evil. The attempts of Zeus to keep a man in darkness led to disobedience of Prometheus in bringing the light to man. Zeus orders the creation of Pandora in order to inflict pain on man, but Prometheus strives to keep the evil away from warning Epimetheus not to take the gift. He also averted the destruction of the bronze man through Deucalion. The existence of man and the position of his creator is the fundamental cause of the conflict between the gods. From an outward view, they are striving for the sacrifice, but the essence of sacrifice is reverence. Reverence explains the acknowledgment of who is greater and who the source is. The other cause of conflict is the ownership and control of life. The narrative indicates that Zeus wants to control life for pride and self-glorification.
Prometheus wishes to control life for the benefit of the gods. In denying man light, Zeus knew that lack of self-awareness would make it easy to control man. The myth of Narcissus explains how Zeus would divert the sacrifices and the human understanding of life by lack self-awareness. Narcissus was conceived through rape when the god river raped his mother. The soothsayer advised the mother to keep him in the darkness of who he was. If he knew who he was, he would rebel against the mother (Kaplan 663). In Oedipus Rex, the priest warns king Oedipus of the plague that would be unleashed in Thebes.
The warning enables the new king to plan on how to handle the epidemic and how to resolve the concerns about the murder of King Laius (Kaplan 663). The case of Oedipus Rex and Narcissus relate to the narrative of creation, life, and sacrifice. For lack of self-awareness, man would share the sacrifices meant for the gods with Zeus. The warning of Prometheus also saved Deucalion his wife during the great flood. The symbolism in the narrative indicates that when Zeus became angry with Prometheus and took fire from man. Prometheus lights a torch from the sun to ensure continuity of light in the life of the creation. The light represents his desire to keep them from evil (Grundrise 76).
The struggle between Prometheus and Zeus ends in the capture and torment of Prometheus. The captors of Prometheus put him in isolation and chain him using adamantine chains of the Caucasus Mountains. Zeus sends an eagle to torment him day and night. The giant eagle tore his liver to shreds. Zeus thought that the pain would entirely subdue Prometheus. Zeus gave Prometheus three conditions for release. The first condition was for Prometheus to tell Zeus, the mother of a child who would come to dethrone him. The second condition was for the immortal to die for him, and the third option was to ask a mortal to kill the giant eagle and set him free. The capture and torment of Prometheus were symbolic are real.
The symbolic aspect involves the defeat of darkness by light (Smith 235). In the Hellenic mythology, one of the symbols of Zeus is an eagle. The psychological implication of the torture by an eagle was that Zeus directly inflicted pain on Prometheus. The condition that the immortal could die for him to be released was to mock and ridicule his gods. He was reducing the gods to the level of man and other mortals. The condition that a human could kill the eagle is also symbolically a mockery. The giant eagle represents the god who is immortal, and a mortal being could not kill him. However, in the end the release of Prometheus disapproved the mockery. Chiron and Centaur offered to die for Prometheus. The mythology ends without the conclusion on whether they actually died for him. The death of Chiron and Centaur are uncertain because Heracles are responsible for killing the eagle. Rather than his captors, Heracles unbound Prometheus (Smith 247).
According to Cantz and Kaplan, the modern studies of the Hellenic mythologies draw parallels with the Hebraic and psychological principles (493). The authors can demystify the egoistic perspectives held in the mythologies. For instance, the Hellenic beliefs show the masculinity and the heroic aspects of men while they demean women as the cause of evil. The thoughts are derived from the views held about Pandora. Some aspects of Psychoanalysis authenticate the Hellenic view about gender and the psychological perceptions about life (Grundrise 78). The appropriate approach to the ideas and the opinions in the mythologies is to establish the artistic and the cultural values of the narratives. An empirical study of the subject by drawing from principles in psychology, literature, and psychiatry is critical in relating the subject to the reality of life.
There is a scholarly value concerning the literary art of the prehistoric time with the modern art and culture. For instance, in the discussion of Oedipus and the stranger in the drama of Sophocles, the stranger describes the torch of Prometheus. He also relates the light to the setting in the Athens and the physical appearance (Manis 64). Although the drama of Sophocles is set in the ancient times, this is related to the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry (rank 37). Archeological research reveals the lifestyles and the settings presented in the literary arts of the different ages of civilization (Shephard, and Wallis 132). The study of artifacts and the settings on the stage explain the culture and the social practices of the people who lived in the same period of the arts. The characters and the setting in the drama reflect the society. The concerns about the origin of life, the meaning of life, and the destiny of man are common in the modern society. The creatures in the mythologies also raised the issues. The striving for freedom and the desire to control by denying the subjects the means for self-awareness are applied in the modern social organization.
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