Process for marking
Once submitted, we will acknowledge that your essay has been received and it will be marked by an Assessor. You will receive feedback stating whether you have achieved or not yet achieved.
If you have achieved, you will be contacted by telephone by the Assessor who marked your essay. The Assessor will ask you some questions about your essay to validate this.
If you have not yet achieved, you will either be required to make some written amendments to your essay and then re-submit this for marking, which will be followed up with a telephone conversation as described above. Or, you will be asked questions over the telephone by the Assessor which will then complete and validate your essay.
Guidance for completing your essay
Plagiarism is not allowed. Refer to the Devon County Council policy for further information Reference your work so it is clear where you obtained the information Provide examples; this will help to show your understanding If you wish to cross-reference with other units, the information must be copied and pasted into the essay
Unit 024 – Promote Child and Young Person Development
Be able to assess the development needs of children or young people and prepare a development plan
Explain the factors that need to be taken into account when assessing development Factor Explanation
• Confidentiality and when, for the safety of the child or young person confidentiality must be breached
Parents or guardians have the right to decide what and if information about their child is collected. They should be asked for written permission to collect observation information about their child. This information should be treated as confidential and should be stored in a secure place. Details of these observations should be treated as confidential unless by withholding such information would harm the well- being of the child. For example, if, from observing a child at play, inappropriate behaviour of a sexual nature was noticed , it would be appropriate to involve the child protection team to investigate. The parents would not need to be asked for permission to disclose information about this kind of observation as it would be in the interest of the child’s safety to do so. • Children’s wishes and feelings
Children’s wishes and feelings should be respected throughout the assessment . If they show signs of feeling under pressure or wish to go and play elsewhere it would be best to stop. A child who is upset or feeling under pressure may not display accurate levels of development. Language used in observations should be respectful and it should be borne in mind that parents can read these records. • Ethnic, linguistic and cultural background
If a child does not perform as expected in a task it could be that he does not understand the language used. If a child does not understand the terms being used, such as 1 more/ 1 less because they are unfamiliar with the terms in this language. If English is their second or even third language ( as for one child I worked with last year) it can be necessary to explain what the concept is in a different way. This may also be because of ethnic or cultural factors. In some cultures, it is not acceptable for children to question what adults say or to have an opinion.. This can have a big impact on a child’s observation assessments as it may suggest that they lack critical thinking skills.
• Disability or specific requirements (additional needs)
When assessing a child, you should take into account any special requirements which need to be taken to ensure young people have the support they need. A child who is physically disabled may need help to achieve certain targets, but they may be able to achieve them with some modifications. It may mean that the assessment method needs to be adjusted in order that the child is not put at a disadvantage from the assessment. • Reliability of information
Assessments need to be accurate. If things are recorded as achieved, which are only almost achieved, then the observation is not valid. Next steps cannot be planned as it may be a huge step for the child if they have not yet achieved the previous step • Avoiding bias
. Sometimes it can be useful for a second person to assess a child as observations can be very subjective. It is also useful to use a wide variety of methods of assessment. Things need to be recorded according to what is exactly happening and should not be interpreted according to the assessors point of view. 1.3
Explain the selection of the assessment methods used (See 1.2 below) Method
• Assessment Framework/s
Assessment frameworks are the way in which a child is assessed to see whether they have any particular needs, what they are and how we can help them be met. It is useful in deciding whether a child has reached expected milestones. Assessment frameworks may be summative or formative. Formative assessments are used to check progress and helps us to consider learning opportunities needed to progress. The ongoing observations we do of children are formative assessments. They inform the next steps of the childs learning. Summative assessment provides staff with information about the attainment of knowledge and is usually measured against a benchmark or standard. For example, the EYFS assessment which is done toward the end of the reception year. This “sums up” all the different information from ongoing assessments that have been made.
Observations form a valuable tool in assessing children’s development. They should be carried out in a cycle. Observation is the practice of looking at and listening to children to find out how they are developing, what they like doing and what they are learning through their play and the experiences on offer. Observations of children are vital because each child is unique in their abilities and observations can record these first hand. These observations will help practitioners guage childens needs in order to plan for next steps in their learning. Observations are done as part of the daily routine.
• Standard measurements
Standard measurements are those which compare outcomes between a large population of same aged children. For example, school tests which give a snapshot of a child’s academic ability. Another example are health programmes which might measure height, weight, visual or auditory functioning. Educational psychologists may use reasoning tests to assess an intellectual age in order to compare to a child’s chronological age.
• Information from parent, carers, children and young people, other professionals and colleagues . It is vital that parents and other practitioners share information as it has a direct impact on the child’s learning and development. They need to work together and value each other’s roles as each has an important part to play in meeting a childs individual needs. Throughout all this, the child should be the priority of the partnership. We know that when parents and practitioners in the early years work together what a direct impact it has on children’s development and learning.
Both partners have much to learn from one another and a great deal to share with each other. Working together to really understand and meet a child’s individual needs begins with valuing and respecting the different roles that each partner plays. It is a process that involves sharing information and skills and building relationships based on mutual respect and trust. Open two-way communication is vital to make sure that knowledge and expertise is shared between partners. Central to all partnerships is the child who remains the priority. By sharing what they know, parents and practitioners can decide whether a child’s development is at the expected stage, and whether suitable toys and equipment are available for the child to promote their development.
Outcomes 1.2 and 1.4 will need to be assessed in a real working environment: 1.2
Assess a child or young person’s development in the following areas: a. Physical
d. Social, emotional and behavioural
1.4 Develop a plan to meet the development needs of a child or young person in the work setting
Plan should feature:
• Encouraging child or young person to take responsibility for own development should feature in plan
Be able to promote the development of children or young people
Explain the importance of a person centred and inclusive approach and give examples of how this is implemented in own work It is Important to be person centred as by taking account of the child’s individual needs and looking at the whole person rather than what is convenient for the setting or adult, it gives them ownership of their learning. Individual needs and interests should be followed and children should be encouraged to become involved in the planning process. By working in an inclusive, person centred way, you are looking at the whole person; their learning styles, strengths, weaknesses, interests, as well as their learning needs.
By encouraging children to participate in their target setting, choosing learning activities and decision making, it enables them to become more proactive in their learning and to be more in control. This will give them encouragement to learn and to reach their goals and to feel in control. By seeing how they are doing, it can motivate them to work to achieve their goals.
By being person centred, it allows children to access the curriculum at their own level rather than restricting learning opportunities.
This is implemented in my own work by involving children in the one to one work I do with them. If they are struggling with a particular concept ,we discuss it and chat about how we could work together to try and help improve on it. Yesterday, a child was having trouble writing number 8 at home. He got very cross that he couldn’t do it and came in this morning asking for help with it. We then worked on it together in our intervention time that morning. The child then felt a great sense of achievement when he could do it. i.e. met the target which he had set himself.
The following outcomes will need to be assessed in a real working environment:
2.1 Implement the development plan for a child or young person according to own role and responsibilities, taking into account that development is holistic and interconnected
2.2 Evaluate and revise the development plan in the light of implementation
2.4 Listen to children or young people and communicate in a way that encouragesthem to feel valued
Encourage children or young people to actively participate in decisions affecting their lives and the services they receive according to their age and abilities.
A development plan can be drawn from a lead practitioner’s (eg a teacher’s) overarching plan.
Be able to support the provision of environments and services that promote the development of children or young people
Explain the features of an environment or service that promotes the development of children and young people Feature
• Stimulating and attractive
Enabling environments encourage young children to play because they feel relaxed, comfortable and at home in them. The emotional environment, indoor environment and the outdoor environment together make up the environment for playing and learning. The new EYFS Framework outlines the enabling environment as one of the four guiding principles which should shape practise in early years settings, thus highlighting its importance.
A good environment should be clean ,tidy and uncluttered. It should be painted in neutral colours with plenty of space for displays of work or topics. Mobiles/ posters/ displays which are 3D. There should be plenty of floor space for children’s play. There should also be spaces for individual play as well as group play. There should be lots of interesting open ended toys which stimulate play. Toys should be stored at a height where children can access them. There should also be a comfy quiet area where children can look at books or rest. There should be a wide variety of toys and activities so that all areas of the EYFS can be accessed.
• Well planned and organised
The environment needs to be well planned and organised in order to promote young people’s development. Children need time and opportunities to become absorbed in what they are doing. Also, they need to have the opportunity to do things again and again until they get fed up with it. However, the activities need to be balanced and cover all areas of the EYFS.
• Personalised and inclusive
The setting, equipment and resources should be suitable for use by children with disabilities. Each child should have a key worker who pays particular attention to a child during his time at the setting. By being responsible for a small group of children , the key worker gets to know them and their family members well. This shows children that they are valued and respected and helps avoid children getting “lost” in a large group. By the key worker getting to know the children and family they can build a relationship and use the information to plan experiences and opportunities which are personal to the child.
• Encouraging and practising participation
Children should be empowered to make personal choices about the things they experience, and we should listen to their views. This is key in providing a child centred service. If children are involved in devising play opportunities or spaces they will be keener to play in them. Consultation can be done during formal planned consultations such as circle time or planning sessions, or during casual conversations. At our setting, we use a mixture of activities which are set out daily, along with space/times for free choice so that the children can choose what they want to get out to play with. As well as encouraging participation, it encourages discussion and cooperation as a small group must decide together what to play with.
• High quality policies in place and followed
In order to promote the development of young children, policies should be in place which ensure that the requirements of regulatory bodies are met. For example, health and safety requirements; safeguarding requirements, OFSTED and EYFS requirements. Policies are the details of how these requirements are going to be met, who is responsible for meeting them, how they will do it, records which will be kept. Policies not only give staff clear direction of what is expected of them, it gives parents a clear understanding of how the setting should be organised and run and what the setting expectations are of the children.
• Regulatory requirements met
The EYFS requirements( which were updated in 2014) set the standards that all Early years providers must meet in order to ensure that children learn and develop well and are kept healthy and safe. It helps ensure quality and consistency are in all settings, that parents are involved and are working in partnership with staff, and that every child is included and supported in a non-discriminatory way. There are safeguarding and welfare requirements which covers the steps which providers must take in order to keep children safe and promote their welfare. The EYFS also sets out the learning and development requirements.. This includes: the areas of learning which must shape activities and experiences; the early learning goals which children work towards; assessment arrangements for measuring progress and reporting it.
Children should have a diverse range of play and learning areas in order to provide a balanced approach. Thre should be child initiated play of different types.e.g. a home corner for imaginary play ( at present we have a shoemakers as our ole play to fit in with the story of the elves and the shoemaker. Maths activities are based on this theme too.) There should be a range of adult initiated planned activities such as story time, planting seeds.( at present, we are making Christmas decorations with the children). Playing alone with peers or adults, taking part in play and activities that are personalised to the childs interests and learning needs. Children are given the choice at choosing time to pick an activity within the group to take out to play with as well as other activites which are put out. There should be quitere activites as well as physical activity. There should also be both indoor and outdoor activites. At present, it is too cold and damp to have our outdoor space functioning fully, but children still go outside to play.
• Meeting individual and group needs
As well as meeting group needs, there should be provision to tailoring play to individual needs or preferences. By getting to know the children well, we can use their preferences to encourage learning. Children can be grouped according to ability, but also within those groups they can for instance, if counting objects, use cars or toy horses , or whatever the child is interested in. We can also tailor the learning to the individual child by working at the childs own pace. Children who have achieved what we set out to achieve can be pushed further by giving them extra tasks . Children in our setting are pushed to produce more if they are more able. A Reception aged child was working at a higher level than others in the group so she worked alongside the year 1 group for many maths activities. Children who are struggling get extra help during intervention time to meet their individual needs.
• Providing appropriate risk and challenge
Children need to have managed risks in order to be able to develop the skills required in negotiating their environment. They need to learn how to use equipment safely, develop co-ordination skills and to learn about the consequences ( positive and negative) of risk taking. Equipment should be age/ developmentally appropriate for children in order to provide them with a challenge, but not overstretch them and become a hazard. Condition of equipment should be regularly checked for wear. Equipment should conform to appropriate safety standards and have appropriate kite marks .
• Involving parents and carers where appropriate to setting or service
It is essential to work with parents as they spend more time with the child than us and therefor know their child the best. Contributions from parents should be used to help plan the childs learning. If parents can spare some time to come in and help at sessions it can help them understand how their children are learning and what they can do to help. It is also important to have regular parents meetings to discuss their child’s progress, and to be available to answer questions or discuss concerns as required. We are learning about jobs and the materials used in them at the moment. Three of the parents have been into school to talk with the class. One, who makes glass jewellery brought a design sheet for the children to design their own piece, which she then went away and made for them…the whole 20 children in the class! Parents are also encouraged to attend sessions to help their childs learning. There is a phonics and reading update in a few weeks for parents. Parents are encouraged to read at home with their children and help them learn their sounds. This week a plea has been put in the newsletter asking if any parents can spare an hour to listen to children read.
https://hantschildmindinginfo.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/environment_3-5_yr_olds.pdf http://earlyyearsmatters.co.uk/index.php/eyfs/enabling-environments/ http://www.foundationyears.org.uk/files/2014/07/EYFS_framework_from_1_September_2014__with_clarification_note.pdf http://www.kidsafensw.org/playground-safety/challenging-play-risky/
The following outcomes will need to be assessed in a real working environment: 3.2
Demonstrate how own work environment or service is organised to promote the development of children or young people
How own work environment or service is organised may include:
• Taking into
account personal and external factors
• Providing specific activities such as play, learning, home visiting
• Providing services
• Measuring outcomes
• Communicating effectively and showing appropriate empathy and understanding
• Supporting participation
• Involving parents and carers where appropriate to setting or service
• Supporting children and young people’s rights
Understand how working practices can impact on the development of children and young people
Explain how own working practice can affect children and young people’s development
We should treat children as we would wish them to behave. i.e. be polite to them, behave in an appropriate manner, listen to them so that they feel valued, praise and encourage them. If we shout when telling children not to shout, it does not model the behaviour we are trying to promote. Listening to children and encouraging them to communicate and express themselves not only promotes their self esteem, confidence and learning; but it also contributes to keeping them safe from harm and abuse. If we do not model good behaviour or practises we cannot expect children to do them.
Children tend to copy what they see and hear so if we do not wash hands before lunch, they will not think to do so; if we do not get down to speak to a child at their level, we cannot expect them to converse with others in an appropriate way. If we use bad language, children will also assume it is ok to do so. In our setting last year, there was a member of staff who constantly sat on the tables, we had a staff meeting to discuss the appropriateness of this and the need to model good behaviour. By allowing children to take controlled risks we can increase their self esteem. By praising and encouraging them we can make them feel valued. Equipment and resources should be appropriate for the child’s age. Activities which are not age appropriate or suited to the child may actually discourage them from joining in or may affect their development in a negative way.
All of these things help promote childrens development both indirectly and directly.
4.2 Explain how institutions, agencies and services can affect children and young people’s development
There are a range of services which can affect children’s development through positive support. These services and institutions should work together in a joined up way – multi-agency working, to ensure that the needs of children and families are met in a co-ordinated way.
The Common Assessment Framework is a framework which helps practitioners working with children to assess additional needs for earlier and more effective services. It develops a common understanding of those needs and how best to work together to meet those needs. The Common Assessment Framework operates by identifying needs, assessing needs , delivering integrated services and reviewing progress.
There are many services which a child may need to help their development:
Speech Therapists may be required to help a child who does not have the speech and language development expected for their age. This is important as it is essential to many other areas of development. If children gain the ability to use speech and language it helps their confidence and self esteem. Behaviour problems can often stem from the inability to express their needs. We have a child at school at present who has issues with his behaviour, and the educational psycologist feels it is because his language is not as expected for his age.
The educational psychologist is a professional who helps support children who have learning or behavioural difficulties. They work with teachers and professionals to provide aimed support programmes for that child once they have identified the child’s needs . This may also involve other profesionals such as behaviour specialists or play specialists.
The Senco in a setting is responsible for the identification of special needs and for giving support to children and families. Sometimes additional funding may be applied for in order to provide extra support for children. There is in our setting, children for whom extra funding pays for additional support in the way of a one to one teaching assistant in order to support the children both educationally and also with behaviour. The extra support enables them to be taught in the class without having a negative effect on the learning of the rest of the children. Children who are identified as having special educational needs have an individual learning plan in place which can be used to track their progress.
Social workers are there to help vulnerable children and their families. This might include foster children, disabled children or children on the child protection register Youth justice workers work with children who have committed an offence and receives a reprimand or warning. The age of criminal responsibility in England is 10 years, but Youth justice workers can work with children and families whose behaviour puts them at risk of contact with the youth justice system. Many of these children will have wide ranging needs and experiences so many professionals may work together. Specialist Nurses provide support for children with medical conditions that need specialist care. In our setting we have a dedicated Teaching Assistant for a diabetic child as she needs constant monitoring and help to manage her condition. The Specialist diabetic nurse advises on the care required.
Health visitors are involved with measuring and assessing a child’s development, as are School Nurses. A psychiatrist is a Doctor who is trained in mental health problems . They work alongside other professional to help diagnose or support children and young people with mental health problems. There has been considerable discussion about childrens mental health services recently. With good mental health, children will do better in every way. They are happier, able to learn better, do better at school, and enjoy friendships. A Physiotherapist can help children who have limited movement to get the maximum movement and skill level. If children are able to join in with their peers is develops their self confidence and friendships.
Be able to support children and young people’s positive behaviour 5.2
Evaluate different approaches to supporting positive behaviour (You may wish to create a table for this)
Providing an alternative
Motivates as once task is completed they can look forward to doing alternative activity. Gets the task completed
Sets out the expectation that work will be done
Others may see alternative as a reward for poor behaviour
Alternative will have to be provided…time and effort involved. Child may always expect there to be negotiation to get something they want by completing set task. Ignoring negative behaviour
Children learn that they will only receive attention for positive behaviour.
Can be disruptive to the teaching environment
Other children may try and copy behaviour
Only really works if behaviour is due to attention seeking.
Encourages children to repeat positive behaviour
Gives children an incentive to behave in a positive way.
Is achievable by all
Can lose their incentive if used either too often or not often enough. May
not work for older children
You have to spot the behaviour and reward at the time.
Takes the child’s mind off the trigger for the negative behaviour Provides a means for reinforcing positive behaviour.
May not work, then the situation may escalate.
May be difficult to enforce in a class situation as may require planning.
Rewards and incentives
By rewarding the positive behaviour it encourages more of the same. Achievable by all. The level of expectation can be tailored to an individual child. Rewards do not need to be tangible – praise, smiles or choosing the story at storytime can be used as a reward. Tangible rewards can lead to jealousy from others.
Levels of expectation for individual children need to be considered. It can be easy for give a reward to a child who is sitting still if they find this difficult. Most children do this all the time and do not get a reward. Rewards need to be given soon after the behaviour occurs to ensure relevance and meaning. It is only seen as a reward if a child likes it…not all children are the same!
Modelling good behaviour
Adults in the setting should model good behaviour without having to think about it! Sets the tone for a positive behaviour culture in the setting
If good behaviour is always modelled, and the child does not behave in appropriate ways, the practise is obviously not working for that child, in that situation. Time out
Instant. The child is removed from the situation.
Gives everyone time to calm down.
Child will have time to think about their actions and why they have been removed from the situation. Can teach children to make good choices about behaviour.
Consequence of behaviour may not be realised and child unsure of why they are there. Time out needs to be tailored to childs age – generally agreed this should be a minute for each year of their age from age 3 – 12. This can be difficult to police as staff often get distracted with other children. Other children may interfere with the situation and may aggravate the situation . The time out place needs to be suitable so that it can be effective.
Our setting uses a mixture of time out, positive reinforcement and rewards and incentives mainly. We have a Happy face chart and sad face chart. The child can earn a place on the happy face by doing good work or by behaving in a positive way. Children who do not behave appropriately can get put on the sad face. They are then encouraged to earn their way back to the happy face by behaving in an appropriate way. At the end of each day, a note is made of who is on the happy face. At the end of the week, this is taken into account when “Devon Bear” is allocated to go home with a child for the weekend. Being on the happy face does not mean getting the bear, it is more likely to be given to someone who has made a real effort with something they find hard…this way well be behaving in an appropriate way for some children.
Positive reinforcement is used to praise children for making good choices…maybe because they move themselves if they are sitting beside someone who is annoying them in order to resist temptation to lash out.
Time out is particularly effective in the playground when inappropriate behaviour means a spell of standing against the fence. Children are always asked why they have been put against the fence to ensure they understand the reason they were behaving inappropriately before being allowed to return to their play.
Supporting positive behaviour may include:
• Least restrictive principle
• Reinforcing positive behaviour
• Modelling/positive culture
• Looking for reasons for inappropriate behaviour and adapting responses
• Individual behaviour planning
• Phased stages
• Planning interventions to reduce inappropriate behaviour
• Deescalate and diversion
• Following management plans
• Boundary setting and negotiation
• Supporting children and young people’s reflection on and management of own behaviour
• Anti-bullying strategies
• Time out (following up to date guidance)
• Use of physical intervention (following up to date guidance)
The following outcomes will need to be assessed in a real working environment: 5.1
Demonstrate how they work with children and young people to encourage positive behaviour
Be able to support children and young people experiencing transitions
6.1 Explain how to support children and young people experiencing different types of transitions Type of transition
Explain how to support:
• Emotional, affected by personal experience eg. Bereavement, entering/leaving care
An emotional bereavement may benefit from support by a specially trained counsellor. Bereavement can involve sadness, loss of self worth and depression. Supportive relationships can help provide consistency. Talking can help the child understand that the sense of loss is healthy. Children may find it helpful exploring what has happened and how it makes them feel. In the case of a bereavement, it may be helpful to make a memory box which can be decorated by the child. They can then choose special and significant items to put in the box to remind them of their loved one. Parents separating can be a common cause of emotional bereavement.
It is vital for both parents to be honest with the children and not give them false hope or expectations as this may make things worse in the long term. Entering or leaving care can be a cause of emotional transition. Children are likely to feel unloved, a loss of self worth, and may miss their parents despite any problems at home if they are put into care. Siblings may be split up, and there is the uncertainty of what happens next. School may be the “constant” in their lives at this time so we need to ensure that they are given opportunity to discuss their concerns and feelings.
• Physical eg moving to a new educational establishment, a new home/locality, from one activity to another The change in environment can be a big thing to deal with for children. This can be moving house or changing schools or even moving from one activity within a setting to another is difficult for some children. They become “comfortable” in their environment, know where things are; then have to learn a new way of doing things, new teachers, having to make new friends. Their old friends may not move to the new school with them so that means making new friendships. Schools usually provide taster days which enable new students to visit the school and be shown around, meet some of the staff, and foster new friendships. Schools may provide mentors to help settle new pupils so they have someone who is their first port of call for worries..
• Physiological eg puberty, long term medical conditions
Children need reassurance that physiological changes are normal and that they should be encouraged to discuss concerns with a parent or carer. If they are unable to do this, it may be more appropriate for them to talk to someone else – a school nurse or counsellor. Long term medical conditions can make children feel isolated . If children are well prepared for these transitions they will cope better with them. In our setting, the school Nurse comes into class to teach the children in year 6 about puberty. Children are then encouraged to discuss concerns or questions with their parents or with staff. If children are prepared for the changes, they will be able to deal with them better.
• Intellectual eg moving from pre school to primary to post primary
Although there is often not the problem of leaving friendships when moving to a new class or school, may children experience anxiety about having a new teacher, things not being in the same place, routines being different, not knowing where the toilets are. It is common for there to be a day or at least an afternoon towards the end of the school year where children visit their new class. This gives them the opportunity to get to know where things are and to know the teacher. This should avoid the whole of the summer holidays being spent worrying about it! For children moving from Pre-school to primary school, our setting first sends staff out to meet the children in their preschool setting, then visits the home, before having 3 or 4 afternoons where the children visits the class. These sessions are made very informal and fun.
• Smaller daily transitions
Small transitions may affect young children especially if they are enjoying an activity and don’t want to stop. Children may also become very unsettled if there is a change of staff in the class – our setting has 2 staff job sharing and there are some children who find this very difficult to deal with. It is important to tell children what day it is tomorrow, who is working, and any exciting events they know will be happening to distract them from the change. Children like to have a routine to follow, and a visual timetable on the board every day can help the transition throughout the day as they know what to expect. By developing positive relationships with the child, many problems can be averted.
The following outcome will need to be assessed in a real working environment: 6.2 Demonstrate provision of structured opportunities for children or young people to explore the effects of transitions on their lives.