Promote positive behaviour Essay Sample

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Outcome 1 Understand how legislation, frameworks, codes of practice and policies relate to positive behaviour support

1.1 explain how legislation, frameworks, codes of practice and policies relating to positive behaviour are applied to own working practice

Human Rights Act 1998 – individuals’ rights should not be contravened and independence, choice and inclusion are paramount. It is also acknowledged that some individuals require constant supervision due to their conditions/illnesses. The law states that everyone has the right to live without interference from others and should not be unlawfully restrained. Restrictive physical interventions should only be used as a last resort, and should be a part of a behaviour management strategy. This should only be used when other less intrusive strategies have been unsuccessful, and the risks of not using an emergency intervention are outweighed by the need to intervene. There must be clear justification for using physical restraint, and this must be recorded, in line with policies and procedures. The duty of care must be exercised at all times

1.2 define what is meant by restrictive interventions

Restrictive intervention is the act of any intervention which restricts an individual’s right and freedom of movement. This can happen in many forms: social language, including facial expressions physical using body contact
planned using evidence from observations and assessments mechanical use of devices to contain movement

1.3 explain when restrictive interventions may and may not be used

Reasonable force can be used:
to prevent an individual from harming themselves or others
to prevent an individual from causing serious damage to property, with a
consequent risk to individuals to prevent an individual from committing a criminal offence
to stop an individual from engaging in behaviour which is prejudicial to maintaining good order and discipline restrictive interventions must only be used by authorised staff, and when there are safeguards in place restrictive interventions should always only be used with clear justification in guidance of policies, procedures and staff training

1.4 explain who needs to be informed of any incidents where restrictive interventions have been used

next of kin
social worker
Behaviour science team (if applicable)

1.5 explain why the least restrictive interventions should always be used when dealing with incidents of challenging behaviour

promotes positive behaviour
prevents the individual being hurt
helps to prevent the incident escalating, and further aggressive behaviour can help to prevent a breakdown of relationship
decreases the risk of negative side effects
decreases the potential to provoke more anger and hostility
restrictive intervention can often take more than one member of staff, therefore causing staff shortage on the floor restrictive intervention may not be appropriate for an individual who has been sexually abused

1.6 describe safeguards that must be in place if restrictive physical interventions are used

If restrictive physical interventions are to be used, there must be
safeguards in place, to protect all those involved in this practice:

information should be documented in care plans and risk assessments; appropriate policies and procedures should be in place for staff to follow; permission should be obtained from individual, or, if the individual cannot give permission, as deemed according to the Mental Capacity Act, permission should be recorded from the next of kin, GP, advocate or named person; formulations should be in place to help diffuse a situation before intervention is required; all staff should have up-to-date training in restrictive practices; only trained staff should use restrictive interventions;

an agreement should be set up beforehand between individual/next of kin detailing what methods will be used and in what circumstances; debriefing individual, staff, next of kin, etc, as soon as possible after the incident; there should be an effective audit of circumstances;

Restrictive physical interventions should never be practiced if the above safeguards are not in place, and followed.

Outcome 2 Understand the context and use of proactive and reactive strategies
2.1 explain the difference between proactive and reactive strategies

A proactive strategy is put in place to avoid problematic or other unforeseeable situation

A reactive strategy is a response to a situation that has already happened

2.2 identify the proactive and reactive strategies that are used within your work role

Proactive: care plans; risk assessments; behaviour management plans

Reactive: behaviour formulations; debriefing; care plan reviews; risk assessment reviews; team meetings; multi-disciplinary meetings; training reviews and updates

2.3 explain the importance of identifying patterns of behaviour or triggers to challenging behaviour when establishing proactive and reactive strategies to be used

Behaviour charts or distressed reaction charts should be completed after each incident to try and determine certain behaviour patterns and/or trigger factors. This can then be transferred into care plan and risk assessment reviews, to help work towards avoiding certain situations, and reduce the likelihood of re-occurring incidents. They can also help to identify particular behaviours and the reason for them.

2.4 explain the importance of maintaining a person or child centred approach when establishing proactive strategies

Using person centred approaches helps the individual to understand that I am empowering them to make decisions on their particular behaviour patterns; I treat the individual with respect and dignity at all times; working in partnership with the individual and others develops a measurement of trust between all parties; helps the individual to see that they have a choice and the right to refuse. In fact, by taking into consideration all of the person centred values, the individual has a consistent, high quality service delivered to them, meeting individual needs, wishes and preferences.

2.5 explain the importance of reinforcing positive behaviour with individuals

By reinforcing positive behaviour, I am:
encouraging the individual to seek attention as a result of appropriate as opposed to inappropriate behaviour stops me from focusing on the negative behaviour and becoming frustrated can be used to help the individual to identify their strengths can help to stop the individual displaying challenging behaviour

2.6 evaluate the impact on an individual’s well-being of using reactive rather than proactive strategies

Proactive strategies work well in that they can diffuse a situation early on and prevent distress to the individual. Using reactive strategies can cause an individual to become more upset and distressed. There is also the risk of accidental injury.

After the incident has happened, the individual may be confused, ashamed and humiliated, whereas, proactive strategies help prevent the incident happening. Reactive strategies can also cause the individual to feel oppressed, and this can lead to a hatred of staff

Outcome 3 Be able to promote positive behaviour
3.1 explain how a range of factors may be associated with challenging behaviour

lack of communication can lead to frustration and displays of challenging behaviour boredom can lead to an individual seeking attention through displays of challenging behaviour excessive demands on an individual can lead to stress and anger, which can lead on to episodes of challenging behaviour mental health problems

lack of boundaries can lead an individual to ‘test’ staff past history of abuse; eg. witnessing/experiencing abuse can lead to an individual copying behaviours the environment
inconsistent approaches

3.2 evaluate the effectiveness of proactive strategies on mitigating challenging behaviours

setting boundaries and rules for everyone to follow means the individual knows which behaviours are appropriate and which are not policies and
procedures should be in place so all staff know how to respond to challenging behaviour formulations and person centred care plans are effective, as they take into account trigger factors, etc having other strategies in place, eg. changing routines or environmental factors that trigger challenging behaviour, to help prevent the incident happening by removing the trigger

3.3 highlight, praise and support positive aspects of an individual’s behaviour in order to reinforce positive behaviour

We all respond to praise: this helps to promote confidence and well-being. We should always focus on the positive aspects of an individual’s behaviour, offering encouragement and praise to them, rather than the negative aspects. An individual may pick up negative vibes from staff, which may lead to an episode of challenging behaviour to ‘punish’ staff. Therefore, by reinforcing positive behaviour, and praising the individual for doing well, we are giving the individual the chance to see that there are more positive aspects in their lives, rather than negative.

3.4 demonstrate how to model to others best practice in promoting positive behaviour

(met with observation)

Outcome 4 Be able to respond appropriately to incidents of challenging behaviour

4.1 identify types of challenging behaviour

self-harm: biting, cutting, head-butting
aggression: spitting, hitting others, punching, kicking stealing property
throwing objects
verbally aggressive
anti-social or illegal behaviour
inappropriate sexualised behaviour, eg. public masturbation, groping

4.2 demonstrate how to respond to incidents of challenging behaviour following behaviour support plans, agreed ways of working or organisational guidelines

(met with observation)

4.3 explain the steps that are taken to maintain the dignity of and respect for an individual when responding to an incident of challenging behaviour

communicate with respect and dignity
do not shout
speak in a calm and friendly, but firm, tone
ask the individual to co-operate, rather than telling them what to do provide privacy – bring the individual off-side / ask others to leave inform the individual what I am doing and why listen to what the individual has to say, and try to determine the reason for the behaviour offer reassurance to the individual develop strategies to try and prevent the individual from feeling the way they so when they display challenging behaviour

4.4 demonstrate how to complete records accurately and objectively in line with work setting requirements following an incident of challenging behaviour

(met with observation)

Outcome 5 Be able to support individuals and others following an incident of challenging behaviour

5.1 demonstrate methods to support an individual to return to a calm state following an incident of challenging behaviour

(met with observation)

5.2 describe how an individual can be supported to reflect on an incident including: how they were feeling at the time prior to and directly before the incident their behaviour
the consequence of their behaviour
how they were feeling after the incident

I try to identify the mood, emotion and level of stress to assist the individual to recognise the part their feelings may have played in the incident. I remain calm and patient; I offer a private place; I maintain eye contact; I listen to what the individual has to say without being judgemental; I ask open questions; I am aware of my body language; I offer reassurance I ask the individual how they were feeling before they felt the need to display challenging behaviours, and if they feel that they could deal with those feelings in any other way. The individual may feel ashamed and remorseful after the incident – I offer reassurance and try to assist the individual to try other coping mechanisms.

5.3 describe the complex feelings that may be experienced by others involved in or witnessing an incident of challenging behaviour

Others may feel:
happy that it is all over
Others may feel a combination of emotions during and after the incident, and these feeling may last for some time .

5.4 demonstrate how to debrief others involved in an incident of challenging behaviour

(met with observation)

5.5 describe the steps that should be taken to check for injuries following an incident of challenging behaviour

the individual should be checked by a member of staff, who was not involved in the incident a 24 hour observation chart should be put in place, as some injuries, eg. bruising, may not develop immediately a full body map should be completed at the first available opportunity, detailing placement of any obvious injuries medical help/first aid should be provided immediately, if necessary relevant paperwork should be completed immediately

Outcome 6 Be able to review and revise approaches to promoting positive behaviour

6.1 work with others to analyse the antecedent, behaviour and consequences of an incident of challenging behaviour

Following an incident of challenging behaviour, a behaviour chart and incident form/book is completed. Details of antecedent, behaviour and consequences are then discussed with the individual’s social worker, next of kin, GP and behaviour science team, if applicable. This ensures that everyone who is involved with the care/support of the individual has an input into devising and creating a more detailed care plan and risk assessment and putting it in place, with the agreement of the individual. Everyone must work as a team to ensure the holistic care/support needs of the individual are met

6.2 work with others to review the approaches to promoting positive behaviour using information from records, de-briefing and support activities

All staff and the entire multi-disciplinary team should be involved in this process, for the reason as mentioned above. Strategies should be put in place to ensure that everyone is following and using person centred approaches for promoting positive behaviour. This can only be achieved through effective communication and correctly completed records are shared between everyone concerned.

6.3 demonstrate how reflection on own role in an incident of challenging behaviour can improve the promotion of positive behaviour

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