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Psychology Study Notes Essay Sample

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Psychology Study Notes Essay Sample

1. Learning is the long lasting changing due to experience. Example: In school, students absorb knowledge from different kinds of subjects.

2. Associative learning is learning to associate one stimulus with another.

3 Example: Lucy opened her car door and got attacked by a swarm of bees that got in through an open window. Lucy developed a phobia of cars and now takes the bus to work. During this situation, US is bees’attack, UR is fear CS is cars, CR is fear.

4. In the experiment, Pavlov presented food, and the dog salivated. Then, he began to ring the bell before he presented the food, at first, the dog didn’t have response. Then, after he repeated this action again and again, then once the bell rang, the dog started salivated. Food was the unconditioned stimulus, the stimulus that naturally evoked salivation. Salivation was the unconditioned response, which is a response that occurs naturally. The bell was the conditioned stimulus, the stimulus that the dogs learned to associate with food. The conditioned response to the bell was salivation.

5. Behaviorism implies that the learner responds to environmental stimuli without his/her mental state being a factor in the learner’s behavior. Individuals learn to behave through conditioning. Then John Watson conduct an experiment to prove classical conditioning called the Little Albert experiment. He found a baby afraid of lond sounds, but not afraid of rats at first. Then he associated these two things together and presented to the baby. He successfully conditioned a child to be afraid of rats in the end.

6. Acquisition is the initial learning stage in classical conditioning in which an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus takes place.

7. Extinction is when the US (food) does not follow the CS (tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and eventually causes extinction, the diminishing of a conditioned response.

Spontaneous Recovery is after a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation) spontaneously recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists alone, the CR becomes extinct again.

8. Generalization is the tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS . For example, Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped.

Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. For example, if you afraid of white rats, you might not afraid of black rats.

9. John Garcia researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance. Identified, along with colleague Robert Koelling, the phenomenon of taste aversion, which established that classical conditioning was influenced by biological predispositions.

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