The duty of the government to ensure the safety and security of the citizenry is enshrined in the 1987 Constitution. Article 2, Section 4 of the Constitution states, “The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people. The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law, to render personal, military or civil service.”
It is along this mandate that the state aims to establish a highly efficient and competent police force, the Philippine National Police. The PNP is an organization that is national in scope and civilian in character. It is a nationwide government organization whose jurisdiction covers the entire breath of the Philippines archipelago. As such, all PNP personnel both the uniformed and non-uniformed components are national government employees. They are civilian in character because the organization is independent from the military counterpart (Manwong, 2006).
The PNP is headed by a chief with the rank of Director-General. He has the power to direct and control tactical as well as strategic movements, deployments, placement and utilization of the PNP and any of its units and personnel including its equipment, facilities and other resources. The PNP has a national office, a number of regional offices, provincial offices, district, city and municipal stations. On the average, nationwide, the manning levels of the PNP is strictly in accordance with the police-population ratio of one for every five hundred persons but the minimum police-population ratio shall not be less than one policeman for every one thousand persons.
With this manpower requirement, which is difficult to meet, the PNP also has to rely on solidarity with the people in the community on matters related to peacekeeping. As stated in the PNP’s Manual on Barangay Peacekeeping Operations, “Bayanihan answers the need for the whole neighborhood to get involved in policing and law enforcement. The community relies upon the police to “serve and protect” and the police in turn rely upon community support and cooperation in order to be effective”. The PNP likewise have in its mission that peace and order and public safety can be assured only with the active involvement of the community.
It is with this mindset that the PNP wanted to lead the fight against criminality, through citizen involvement and community empowerment. Thus, the PNP recognizes the role of the barangay tanods in the fight against criminality, insurgency and terrorism.
A Barangay Tanod is a local volunteer who has been deputized and trained to to carry out basic security functions under the auspice of the Barangay Captain for their barangay. This is likely to include basic police functions from arrests, traffic control, keeping the police although the post is quite flexible dependent on the context of the barangay in which they work. They do not tend to carry firearms but sometimes they do, on occasion without a license and therefore are unlikely to have training in it. More often they will be armed with a baton, often made of rattan.
The role of the barangay tanods in peace keeping cannot be undermined. Given that peacekeeping is the basic function of the police and being that police visibility is one of the main thrusts of peacekeeping activity, law enforcement activities of the tanods such as ‘ronda” from one place to another would be of great help towards this end.
However, the performance of these roles is not without risk involved as hazards go with the fulfillment of the duties of the barangay tanods. These are just some of the problems which should be addressed in order for the role of the barangay tanods in law enforcement to be strengthened.
The researchers choose this study to have knowledge about the roles of barangay police and how these significant people participate in the maintenance of peace and order in a community. As future professionals of law enforcement agency, they would like to have a deeper understanding on how they perform their mandates in maintaining peace and order within the community. Furthermore, the study will be beneficial to the chosen respondents since through this study, they will be able to learn the extent of their roles and responsibilities as barangay police.
Statement of the Problem
This study will determine how to strengthen the role of barangay police in law enforcement in Batangas City. Specifically, it will seek to answer the following questions. 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
3. Civil Status;
4. Occupation; and
5. Monthly Income?
2. What are the roles of Barangay Police in law enforcement?
3. What are the problems encountered by the Barangay Police in Batangas City in the performance of their roles in law enforcement?
4. Is there a significant relation between the profile of the respondents and the problems encountered by them in in the performance of their roles in law enforcement?
5. What extension program may be conducted to help solve the problems of barangay police in the performance of their roles in law enforcement?
H01: There is no significant difference between the roles of barangay police and common problems encountered when grouped according to their profile variable.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this study is to assess how to strengthen the role of Barangay police in law enforcement within a community. The study will cover the top ten barangay that has the highest crime rate in Batangas City including Poblacion 24, Alangilan, Cuta, Kumintang Ibaba, Pallocan Kanluran, Bolbok, Sta. Rita Karsada, Balagtas, Calicanto and Kumintang Ilaya.
This study will also cover the role of barangay police, and the common problems encountered in law enforcement within the community. The respondents will be all barangay police of the chosen barangays where the researchers will conduct their study.
The study is limited to the profile of the barangay police and their role in the enforcement of the law within their community. The recommendation, conclusion and plan of action that will be propose will benefit the chosen barangays in Batangas City.
Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial to the following:
The Respondents. The respondents who are the barangay police will benefit from this study since it will tackle the role and common problems encountered, they will be able to thoroughly understand how to strengthen their role in law enforcement within their barangay.
For College of Arts and Sciences, Batangas State University, its teachers and students who are the target beneficiaries of the study, may find this as an interesting paper and realize the roles of barangay police in law enforcement. To the local government of Batangas City, to know/help provide the necessary information that could be their basis to prevent the social and economic role of barangay police in Batangas City. To the researchers, this study would serve as one of their basis and form of practice to their chosen career. For the future researcher, this study will serve as guide and give additional information to their future studies.
Definition of Terms
To understand the study, the researchers define the different terms operationally. Age. In this study this refer to the length of time that an organism has lived (MPDC, 2009) Barangay Police. In this study, this refers to the civilian people who are empowered by the government to enforce law within a community (Amurao, 2009). Child Abuse. In this study, this refers to the physical, sexual or emotional mistreatment or neglect of a child or children. Crime rate. In this study this refers to a major statistical tool utilized by every faction of law enforcement. It gives a picture of how crime is either growing or slowing down in particular areas (Amurao, 2009). Economic effects. In this study this refers to the income and profit derived by the host community when it comes to law enforcement. (MPDC, 2009) Educational Attainment. In this study this refers to the highest degree of education an individual has completed (Microsoft encyclopedia, 2004). Employment rate. In this study this refers to the percentage of working-age people who have jobs (Amurao, 2009).
Gender. In this study this refers to the set of characteristics that humans perceive as distinguishing between men and women, extending from one’s biological sex to one’s social role or gender identity (Microsoft encyclopedia, 2004). Juvenile Delinquency. In this study, this refer to inappropriate behavior of the youth that may lead to crimes or civil cases (Amurao, 2009). Law Enforcement. In this study, this refers to an act to pursue a law or abiding a law within a community level. Married. In this study this refers to the united in wedlock or matrimony, perform the ceremony of joining as a man and a woman for life and to constitute husband and wife according to the laws or customs of the place (Amurao, 2000) Prostitution. In this study this refers to the act or practice of engaging in sex acts for hire. In most cultures, prostitution is viewed as a deviant profession, either discouraged or illegal (MPDC, 2009).
Pollution. In this study this refers to the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem (MPDC, 2009). Role. In this study, this refers to the character or part played by a performer. The characteristic and expected social behavior of an individual Separated. In this study this refers to two people, it maybe husband and wife who become apart (MPDC, 2009). Social effect. In this study this refers to the social exchange that takes place when tourists come in contact with the local residents of the place he visits. (MPDC, 2009) Theft. In this study, this refers to an act of crime wherein the offender is taking another thing from another person (MPDC, 2009). Tumultuous Affray. This takes place when a quarrel occurs between several persons not composing organized groups and they engage in a fight (Amurao, 2009). Widow. In this study this refers to a widow is a woman whose spouse has died (Amurao, 2000)
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
The review of literature is significant to the researchers to acquaint themselves with the history and other related facts about the topic under study.
The barangay tanods or village watchmen who work on a purely voluntary basis to ensure public safety in the more than 4,000 barangays in Western Visayas were given due recognition during the culmination of the National Crime Prevention.
PEACE and order is an essential ingredient in maintaining economic development, social order and political stability. A state of peace and order assists the growth of investments, generates more opportunities for employment and attracts more tourists. Foremost in the government’s agenda is the promotion of peace and order. This is exemplified in the city’s continuous and active campaign against criminality. However, threats to peace and order continue due to undermanned police force as one reason. The City has a total of 436 police officers. The ideal rate is 1 police officer for every 500 constituents. With approximately 325,000 population of the city, the ratio then falls to 1 officer to 745 constituents.
With this scenario, there may be certain functions which the police force cannot immediately discharge especially with respect to the implementation of national and local laws within barangays. This is where the role of the barangay tanods would come in. Although not entirely equipped with the authority to discharge functions and power similar to the police, they play an important role in maintaining peace and order within the barangay level, to somehow augment the performance of functions of the police force.
Provided in the trainors guidebook of the DILG, the duties and responsibilities of the barangay tanod among others include: assist the barangay officials in the prevention of crime and promotion of public safety through patrol/”ronda”, reporting of any disturbance or untoward incidents to the concerned offices, monitor the presence and activities of suspicious persons and lawless elements; assist the police and lupong tagapamayapa in the execution of warrants and other judicial processes; and assist the barangay officials in the implementation of national and local laws; and other means as deemed proper in crime prevention.
Last February 22, 2011, the ABC Office headed by Hon. Joel A. Alangsab, held the general assembly and election of officers of Federation of Barangay Tanods wherein Mr. Murphy Alimba from Lower Dagsian was elected as president. The event was attended to by about 392 barangay tanods representing 88 barangays of the city. The presence of the police officials and station commanders of the city showed much support of the police force to the barangay tanods.
P/Supt. Constancio Chinayog acknowledged the efforts of the barangay tanods in their assistance to maintain peace and order. At the end of the Government, the Office of Congressman and the City Mayor ensured the grant of insurance to the newly appointed barangay tanods as those earlier appointed have already received their respective insurance. Hon. Edison Bilog also expressed the efforts of his office in acquiring certain equipments for the barangay tanods such as ID, vests, flashlights, and other privileges. In addition, Mr. Eitosan Ikiuchi also offered free Aikido training for the tanods.
Even with such concerted efforts of the ABC Office and the City Government to provide more benefits to the barangay tanods, it must be acknowledged that the spirit of volunteerism and public service stands, for despite their meager honorarium, the barangay tanods are persistently active in discharging their roles and responsibilities to ensure the safety of the constituents.
P/Supt. Chinayog expressed, “the tanods during the time of the Datus serve as the well-admired and feared peace enforcers.” It is then with the hope that the barangay tanods could looked up to with much respect within their barangays for them to be able to easily discharge their functions as agents of peace and order. But such respect does not come automatically with the position; rather it is earned, for as the saying goes, “Respect begets respect.”
Hence, the barangay tanods must project themselves and act in a manner worthy of such respect, for the people to see them with much admiration and value.
Strengthening the Role
With the existence of crime in society, law enforcement is greatly needed. Although police are always here to protect us, many people wish they had a voice in how they need to be protected. Community policing enable residents to join with local police to more actively combat crime in their communities. Community policing builds on fundamental policing practices with an emphasis on crime prevention and lasting solutions to problems. It requires new commitment from citizens and new thinking from police officers. Central to community policing are three essential and complementary components: Community Partnerships: Community partnerships recognize the value of bringing people back into the policing process. All elements of society must pull together as never before to deal effectively with the unacceptable level of crime claiming America’s neighborhoods. Problem Solving: Once priority concerns have been identified, problem solving involves analyzing information about the problem to find out who is being victimized and how, when and exactly where the problems occur and what environmental (or other) conditions make it easy for the crime to occur.
Once the nature of the problem is better understood, tailor-made solutions are jointly developed and implemented by police and community members. They also work together to define success and measure the impact of their efforts. Change Management: This requires recognizing that forging community-policing partnerships and implementing problem-solving activities will change the organizational structure of policing. Properly managed change involves recognizing the need for change, communicating a clear vision that change is possible, identifying the concrete steps needed for positive change to occur, developing an understanding of the benefits of change, and creating an organization-wide commitment to change. Establishing public safety is among local government’s fundamental obligations to its citizens. The safety of one’s person and security of one’s property are widely viewed as basic human rights and are essential to the community’s overall quality of life.
When the citizenry is not, and does not feel, reasonably safe, other critical local government functions such as economic development, government finance, public education, stable housing, and basic local government services become that much more difficult to provide. In short, a community’s reputation for public safety heavily influences its appeal as a place to raise a family or open a business. If they are a mayor or county executive voters directly elected, or a city or county manager elected officials appointed, they hardly need a guide to remind they of this: their constituents do so regularly. And yet, notwithstanding much popular rhetoric about the nature of crime and what should be done about it, establishing real and perceived public safety is one of local government’s more complex and challenging undertakings. This guide is intended to help them as a local government executive better understand how local government in general, and local police in particular, can more effectively meet public safety challenges. The guide is a companion to several guides in a series known collectively as the Problem-Oriented Guides for Police, produced by the Center for Problem-Oriented Policing and published by the COPS Office.
The three series—the Problem-Specific Guides, Response Guides, and Problem-Solving Tools Guides—represent a summary of the growing body of knowledge about how local police can more effectively address the multitude of specific and varied public safety problems that they routinely confront. This guide does not directly address other aspects of the local police function, such as criminal investigation, emergency response, police integrity, or political accountability, although how the police carry out their crime-prevention function has profound implications for those matters as well. Citizens largely think of police as crimefighters. Certainly, Hollywood plays up this image. They know that audiences won’t be terribly interested in watching films and shows about police as service providers, traffic controllers, and conflict managers. Audiences want action and they want stories about the fight between good and evil.
Police officers themselves like and perpetuate this crime-fighting self-image, even though they understand it represents but a partial truth about real policing. Real policing is, of course, at least partly about crime-fighting. But it is about much, much more, and it is inescapably complex. In addition to dealing with such better-known crimes as murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, and theft—which combined comprise only about 10 percent of all police business—police are routinely expected to deal with other offenses such as drug dealing and prostitution; such nuisances as excessive noise and panhandling; and such safety hazards as traffic crashes and crowd control, to name but a few.
By some counts, police routinely deal with hundreds of types of public safety problems, each one different from another, each calling for different and multifaceted responses. Moreover, as the American Bar Association has stated so clearly below, the police have multiple objectives that sometimes must be balanced one against another. Police objectives include the following: Prevent and control conduct threatening to life and property, including serious crime. Aid crime victims and protect people in danger of physical harm. Protect constitutional guarantees, such as the right of free speech and assembly. Law Enforcement
In trying to achieve their multiple objectives, police have at their disposal a wide variety of tactics and strategies. Although many people think that the main way police achieve their public safety objectives is to enforce the law, in fact, police commonly do things other than just enforce the law. In most interactions with the public, police do not issue a citation or make an arrest. Indeed, even were it possible for police to fully enforce the law—which it is not—it is unlikely that most communities would tolerate such a thing. Sometimes strict law enforcement is neither fair nor effective; indeed, sometimes it is counterproductive to public safety, as, for instance, when it provokes such widespread public hostility as to engender even more widespread disorder and lawlessness. Essential to fair and effective policing is the need to expand the range of viable alternatives to criminal law enforcement so that police have multiple tools from which to fashion effective responses to quite varied public safety problems.
Examples of alternatives to criminal law enforcement police commonly use to address particular public safety problems include the following: Mobilizing the community (as witnesses, to patrol the community, for advocacy). Requesting that citizens exercise informal social control over one another (e.g., parents over children, employers over employees, coaches over athletes, teachers over students, military commanders over soldiers, lenders over borrowers, landlords over tenants). Using mediation and negotiation skills to resolve disputes. Conveying information (e.g., to reduce exaggerated fear, to generate public awareness, to elicit conformity with laws that are not known or understood, to show citizens how they contribute to problems and ways to avoid doing so, to educate the public about the limits of police authority, to build support for new approaches) safeguards designed to ensure due process and protect defendants’ civil liberties help render the criminal justice system ill-suited for high-volume business.
Relying too heavily on this expensive system designed primarily to deal with serious and habitual offenders creates several important public safety risks, including the following: It compromises the care and attention that it can give to the most serious offenses and offenders. It detracts resources and attention away from other institutions and systems that are equally essential to ensuring public safety. Properly resourced and accessible systems for mental health, substance abuse treatment, victim and witness protection, property code enforcement, consumer product design, school discipline, youth recreation, social services, civil law enforcement, and dispute resolution, to name a few, are as important to police effectiveness as is a well-functioning criminal justice system. It places undue pressure on police officers to distort and manipulate their authority in ways not intended under the law and that can lead to abuse allegations. It can strain police-community relations and erode public trust in local government generally. This has proven particularly true in some racial and ethnic minority communities. Research Literature
Synthesis of the Study
In social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1984), people are neither driven by inner forces nor automatically shaped and controlled by the environment. As we have already seen, they function as contributors to their own motivation, behavior, and development within a network of reciprocally interacting influences. Persons are characterized within this theoretical perspective in terms of a number of basic capabilities, to which they turn next. Knowledge of the factors, whether planned or fortuitous, that can alter the course of life paths provides guides for how to foster valued futures. At the personal level, it requires cultivating the capabilities for exercising self-directedness. These include the development of competencies, self-beliefs of efficacy to exercise control, and self-regulatory capabilities for influencing one’s own motivation and actions. Such personal resources expand freedom of action, and enable people to serve as causal contributors to their own life course by selecting, influencing, and constructing their own circumstances.
With such skills, people are better able to provide supports and direction for their actions, to capitalize on planned or fortuitous opportunities, to resist social traps that lead down detrimental paths, and to disengage themselves from such predicaments should they become enmeshed in them. To exercise some measure of control over one’s developmental course requires, in addition to effective tools of
personal agency, a great deal of social support. Social resources are especially important during formative years when preferences and personal standards are in a state of flux, and there are many conflicting sources of influence with to contend. To surmount the obstacles and stresses encountered in the life paths people take, they need social supports to give incentive, meaning, and worth to what they do. When social ties are weak or lacking, vulnerability to deleterious fortuitous influence is increased (Bandura, 1982b). The life paths that realistically become open to individuals are also partly determined by the nature of societal opportunity structures. To the extent that societal systems provide aidful means and resources they increase people’s opportunities to influence the course of their lives.
This theory is used by the researchers as theoretical framework of the study. The social cognitive theory can affect the role of Barangya police in law enforcement. It also advocate their capability of emergence and overcome the possible problems in enforcement of law by barangay police
Barangay Peacekeeping Action.
The PNP employs the Barangay Peacekeeping Action Team (BPAT) as force multiplier. The BPAT shall be composed of different organized sectors in the community (Tanod, youth, women, transport, elders, homeowners, etc.). Being the PNPs force multiplier, the BPAT shall do the ff: (to support the public safety project of the government) (a) Community based activities (b) Information Campaign.
The BPAT shall be under the direct supervision of the lowest PNP unit the locality. Particularly the BPAT shall function for: (a) Law Enforcement, (b) Community Organization, (c) Disaster Management, (d) Environmental Protection, and (e) Barangay Conflict Resolution.
Stage of doing things to: (A) Prevent crimes: Patrolling, traffic enforcement, information gathering. (B) Solve a crime: arresting offenders, investigating a crime, preserving crime scene and information gathering
Input Process Output
The conceptual framework of the study is shown in Figure 1. The paradigm shows that I-P-O process is the most appropriate diagram to be used by the proponents. The Input of the study will be the demographic profile of the respondents, the assessment of their roles, the strategies done by the government in strengthening their roles and the common problems encountered in enforcing the law. The process of the study will be survey and assessment to be done by the proponents and the output of the study will be the action plan to enhance the enforcement of law in Batangas City. Chapter III
RESEARCH METHOD AND PROCEDURE
This chapter presents the methods adopted in the research design, subject of the study, research procedure, data gathering procedure, and data analysis.
The main objective of the study is to know how to strengthen the role of barangay police in law enforcement in Batangas City.
In order to attain this objective the researchers find it appropriate to use descriptive method of research. A descriptive method of the study describes and interprets what is occurring in the present time (Tan, 2006). Respectively, descriptive research involves collecting data to answer questions concerning the current status of the study. It is said to be the most appropriate method to be used because the present study analyzed a present condition which is the resort industry in Sabang Puerto Galera.
Population and Respondents
The population of the study will be 100 percent of barangay police in top ten barangay with highest crime namely Poblacion 24, Alangilan, Cuta, Kumintang Ibaba, Pallocan Kanluran, Bolbok, Sta. Rita Karsada, Balagtas, Calicanto and Kumintang Ilaya in Batangas City. The total respondents will be 172 barangay police in Batangas City.
Purposive Sampling will be used as sampling design of the study. It is the subset of individual as sample chosen from a large set of population. Each individual is chosen with purpose. During the conduction of the study, the respondents are the barangay police who have the purpose of being chosen by any stage during the sampling process. The researchers asked the Batangas Police Provincial Office which barangay has the highest crime rate and the researchers asked each ten barangay the population of their barangay police. From this, the study came up with a total of 172 respondents.
Measurement and Instrumentation
The main instrument that will be utilize in the study to gather pertinent data will be a self made survey-questionnaire. A questionnaire is a tool or device for securing answers to set of questions made by the researchers themselves. It is a systematic compilation of questions that are submitted which composed of the information desired.
The survey-questionnaire is useful for gathering great deal of specific information. The questionnaire used by the researchers was composed of three parts.
The questionnaire will consist of 4 major parts. The first part will include the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, civil status, monthly income and length of years in service.
The second part will include the roles of barangay tanod in law enforcement.
The third part will include the strategies does by the government to strengthen the role of barangay tanod in enforcing the law.
And lastly, the fourth part will include the common problems encountered by the respondent in enforcing the law.
The researchers gathered data by referring to different books, published studies and surfing the internet. The researchers visited different libraries to support their study. The data was mainly sourced through survey and documentary analysis. They come up with the topic regarding how to strengthen the role of barangay police in law enforcement.
The researchers will construct a questionnaire and will be submitted to the panelist and statistician for the validity and reliability. After the approval of questionnaire, a letter of request addressed to the Barangay Captain of top ten highest crime rate barangay asking permission to distribute the questionnaire. After it is granted, the researchers provide 172 copies of the questionnaires, which were distributed personally to the barangay police in Batangas City.
The data were gathered and treated statistically using various formulas. The statistical treatment will be necessary to determine the response of the target respondents the researcher used the following statistical tools. 1. Relative frequency – it is use to find out the distribution of the respondents according to their profile. The formula for relative frequency Rf = f/n x 100
Where Rf = relative frequency
N =total number
2. Weighted mean – it is the center of the gravity of the distribution of scores, it is use to present the impact of profile regarding factors that affect the total residents. The formula for weighted for weighted is
Where; WS = weighted sum
TR = total # of respondents
3. Independent T –Test used to determine the difference of the role and common problem encountered by barangay police when grouped according to their profile variable. 4. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA). This is used to compare the means of response of more than two groups of respondents. It will be used to determine the difference of the role and common problem encountered by barangay police when grouped according to their profile variable
Koper, C., et al. (2007). “Hiring and Retention Issues in Police Agencies: Readings on the Determinants of Police Strengths, Hiring and Retention of Officers, and Federal Cops Program.” Journal of Criminal Justice. Vol 7, No. 33. pp 234
Kelly, L., Lovett, J. & Regan, L. (2005) A Gap or a Chasm? Attrition in Reported Rape Cases, Home Office Research Study 293, London: Home Office. Available online at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs05/hors293.pdf.
Manwong, R (2006). Fundamentals in Criminology. Philippines: Manwong
Massey, D (2005)“Backfire at the Border,” Cato Institute Center for Trade Policy Studies, June 2005, at www.freetrade.org.
Regan, L. & Kelly, L. (2003) Rape: Still a Forgotten Issue, Briefing Document for Strengthening the Linkages – Consolidating the European Network Project, London: Child & Woman Abuse Studies Unit. Available at: http://www.rcne.com/downloads/RepsPubs/Attritn.pdf. Robles, D (2008) “Military contractors see new dollars in border defense,” Arizona Daily Star
Batangas State University
College of Arts and Sciences