Health care in Canada is known as ‘Medicare’. Public finances health care system in Canada but it is run privately. It provides universal treatment along with free care. The system is composed of five main principles. Care must be universal, comprehensive, portable, accessible, and publicly administered.
History and Development of Medicare in Canada:
Canada’s health care system is a group of socialized health insurance plans to provide treatment for all Canadian citizens. It is publicly funded and administered on a local or territorial basis, surrounded by guidelines set by the federal government.
Under the health care system, individual citizens are provide preventative care and medical treatments from primary care physicians along with access to the hospitals, dental surgery and additional medical services. Canada’s health care system is under discussion of much political controversy and debate in the country. Efficiency of the current system depends upon deliver treatments in a timely fashion, and adopting a private system similar to the United States. On the other hand, there are worries that privatization leads to inequalities in the health system that only rich people can afford. In spite of the political debate, Canada does have one of the highest life expectancies (about 80 years) and lowest infant morality rates of developed countries, which characterize Canada’s health care. (canadian health care)
National public health insurance in Canada is characterized by local control, consumer choice and doctor autonomy. Patients are free to select physician and hospital. Local governments are the main providers of health care, along with constitutional responsibility for development, financing, and evaluation of the provision of hospital care. Other services may include optometric services, dental services, chiropractic services and drug prescription profit. (Kraker, 2002) The progress of Canada’s health info structure has been vibrant and fairly rapid. It was just two years between the initial recommendations and the central government’s 1997 Budget commitment for the develop of national health information highway.
In October 1994, the Prime Minister of Canada launched the National Forum on Health (NFOH) (1994-1997) to direct the federal government on novel ways to progress the health care system. In reports of 1997, the Forum accomplished that a prime objective for an evidence-based health system should be the rapid development of health system, where decisions would be made by health care providers, administrators, policy makers, patients and the public on the bases of suitable, balanced and high-quality confirmation. (Klatt, 2002)
Advisory Council on Health Info structure (1997-1999) was established by the Minister of Health. After 18-month permission, the Council presented the final report in February 1999. It was confirmed that to set up nationwide health information highway could considerably improve the quality, ease of access and effectiveness of health services across the entire choice of care in Canada. There are main four objectives of Council which includes: progress of Canadian vision for health information system and to identify its essential needs; generating a federal action program to execute the most fundamental components of the system; suggesting mutual mechanisms to achieve a Canadian harmony on an integrated health information system; and to identify the issues, challenges and barriers for the effective use of information and communications technologies, and recommending possible solutions. (Canada’s Health Infostructure)
In February 1998, Health Canada hosted a two-day’s meeting of senior government officials for discussion of impediments to the application of in order to manage the information technology within Canada’s health system. The Federal/Provincial/Territorial Chief Information Officers Forum (1998-1999) documented the benefits of inter governmental cooperation and in June 1999 the Forum evolved into the Advisory Committee on Health Info structure at the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Deputy Ministers of Health Conference. (Fuchs, Beth C. and Sokolovsky, Joan, 1990)
The Advisory Committee on Health Info structure (ACHI) (1999 – 2002) which had different type of group like federal, provincial, and territorial representatives, integrated these group have Different main five priorities like strategic planning, telehealth, protecting personal health information, health supervision, and electronic health records. Health Canada participated on all these five priorities. Advisory Committee on Information and Emerging Technologies(ACIET) (2002-2005) this committee made by some people like representatives from the federal, provincial, and territorial governments along with six external experts.
Its consent was to address five priorities such as promising Technologies Assessment, Genomics, Pharmaceuticals Strategic Advances, Strategic Directions for a pan-Canadian Health Info structure (includes Information Technology), and Privacy. On September 11, 2000 the Canadian government announced that they are going to invest 500$ million in the technology to improve the health care system as well as patient care. For pan-Canadian health surveillance system government also give around An additional $100 million in March 2004 for the progress. (Canada’s Health Infostructure, 2007)
THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTOR IN HEALTH CARE
Canada allocates a high proportion of national wealth to health care. Estimates for 1990 shows that Canada spent more than 9% of its GDP, or $60 billion dollars on health care. (June 1991) The health care system in Canada is characterized by well-built government involvement. As can be seen in Table 1, of total health care spending in Canada in which 72% was funded through federal, provincial and local governments. Canadians use their pocket only for services, which are not included by their local government insurance plan, which is 21% of total health care expenditures. TABLE 1
HEALTH CARE FINANCING BY SOURCE OF FUNDS, 1990
| Canada Percentage of Total|
Federal Government| 28|
Provincial/State and Local Governments| 44|
Out-of-Pocket Spending and Private Insurance| 27|
In Canada, health care is treated as a public service, which Canadians think that it should not be subjected to the laws of the marketplace and the system of price and profit. Canadian government intervention in health care is usually explained with reference to certain market failures. In the private sector, resources are normally owed as per the law of supply and demand. The resulting price levels ensure best allocation of resources which provides certain conditions related to supply and demand. (Deber, 1991) There are many healthcare facilities available for all Canadians apart from their caste, Religion, ethnicity, race or colour. Most of the Canadians are happy with the healthcare system provided. Three of the most used healthcare systems are Nursing Care, Children Mental Hospital, and Canadian Liver Foundation.
Nursing is the one of the most important part of Canadian healthcare system it’s have huge role to play as the primary healthcare provider which provide quality care to the patients admitted to hospitals. (CANADA, 2009)
All Canadians contribute for the cost of their nursing home care. The system of contribution varies from province to province, and may be based on a flat charge or means test. All provinces have responsibility to ensure that anyone who requires nursing home care can receive it no matter even they are unable to pay. It is also significance that access to nursing home care in each region of Canada is now through a “single entry system,” where all applicants can have access to nursing home care based on their need for the level of service.
Nursing home care in Canada refers to Type II care and it I s defined by the Federal-Provincial Working Party on Patient Care Classification (1973). Nursing home care is involved in availability of supervision, activities of daily living, and personal care for continuing 24- hour. Even though each area has its own way of categorizing facility-according to long term care, where in primarily residential care which has less assistance available than Type II care, and in chronic level of care there is much more intensive medical and nursing care than Type II care.
a) Quality :-
Nurse is knowledgeable, skilled and capable of having high quality care every time and nurse should have caring and humane attitude which make patients to feel protected and comfortable. The attitude and approach of the nurse is very important factor in securing the experience of patients, enabling them to be ‘treated as a human being not a case’ with sympathy, respect, compassion. (2007)
Nursing provides quality healthcare service to in patients as they know how it is important to provide best care to patients who are critical and needs special attention ,so they work with accurate data so there should not be an error in any medication given to the patient and they are quality health care professionals because they are regulated by CNA(Canadian nurses association) they provide quality care because they are specialised to do so that means there are different nurses for different units such as cardiovascular, nephrology, surgical, medical etc. Some nurses also work to encourage general health by educating the public on warning signs and symptoms of disease. Nurses also participate in general health screening or immunization clinics, blood drives, and public seminars on various conditions. b) Availability :-
After 1991 there are different departments for nurses were successfully established. (Association, 2010) , now in each specialized unit nurses are available for each patient. Registered nurse who is head of all nursing department has proper control on all nurses in the wards .Therefore the patients are treated with care and special attention.
Nurse strategies support nurses to identify and deliver quality nursing care reflective of responsibility, caring, intentionality, empathy, respect and advocacy. Hospital nursing is beneficial than any other nursing units because they deal with patients who need critical care and their responsibilities are comparatively more than other nurses because of masses of daily work and care for patient, avoid all supply from where contamination could arise.
d) Equal access :-
Nurses in the hospital are assigned for different units in which they are expert and each hospitalised patient has equal access to nursing .Nurses are available to assist all the patients and giving them their medication on time. Nurses teach patients and their families about how to control their illnesses or injuries. And give explanation of post-treatment and home care. Nurses also guide patients about their diet, nutrition, exercise programs and self-administration of medication and physical therapy.
Canadian Liver Foundation (CLF):
The liver is a more tough and strong organ. If there is a damage to liver than it would destroy other organs and it is also capable of regenerating itself. Regardless of this resilience, long-time alcohol over use for many years can damage the liver. Each time liver filters alcohol and during that times some of the liver cells die. The liver has ability of regenerating new cells, but to drink alcohol heavily for many years, liver will lose its ability to regenerate new cells and that causes serious damage such as liver cancer. Cirrhosis is mainly considered to be a form of liver disease. Cirrhosis is a state in which there is a permanent damage or scarring of the liver.
It is the last stage of several different forms of liver disease and it causes a number of other health problems like variceal bleeding, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy. (Liver Disease) With the support of some volunteers, donors, regional and national staff, the Canadian Liver Foundation is working against liver disease from over 40 years. For the sake of all Canadians living with or at risk of liver disease, Canadian Liver Foundation promote liver health by raising public awareness, understanding the causes of liver disease, raising money for research; providing support to patients and their families; advocating for improved standards of prevention and with the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease.
a) Quality :-
Canadian Liver Foundation is a national charity devoted to liver health and prevention where early diagnosis and treatment of all forms of liver disease is carried out. Across the country, foundation raise funds to support liver research and education for the help of patients, health care professionals and the general public. For families and individuals living with liver disease are provided with patient support services including a toll-free National Help Line (1-800-563-5483) and online health information (www.liver.ca), access to look closely for support and educational means and the opportunity to connect with others through Living with Liver Disease group sessions.
e) Availability :-
Group of doctors and business leaders in 1969 were mostly concerned about raise in the incidence of liver disease. Canadian Liver Foundation (CLF) was the first organization in the world devoted for providing support for research and education interested in the causes, diagnoses, prevention and treatment of all liver disease. Throughout 40+ years foundation has served as a model for parallel organizations around the world. Today focus of the organization remains almost unchanged as compare to early days. Directives of the organization are to promote liver health and to lessen the incidence and influence of all liver disease. To achieve this goal, foundation work through volunteer chapters across the country to improve public awareness and understanding of liver health and liver disease, raise funds for research and reach out to liver disease patients and their families. (Who We Are)
The CLF partners with some professional associations such as Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL) and the Canadian Association of Hepatology Nurses (CAHN) along with many academic institutions, hospitals, government agencies, pharmaceutical companies and other organization to focus efforts and funds towards common goal of improving liver healthcare in Canada. CFL also require help from the medical community to create professional education programs, which meet the needs of patients and their community. (Resources for Health Professionals)
Children Mental Health Ontario:
The Ontario Association of Children’s Mental Health Centers (OACMHC) was established in 1972, by its member centers. With help of Association, children’s mental health centers began distributing information and advocating policies, programs, and funds for improving the state of children’s mental health throughout the area. In 1999 The Ontario Association of Children’s Mental Health Centers (OACMHC) changed its name to Children’s Mental Health Ontario (CMHO). New name signifies a broader, more child-focused importance, and reflects acknowledgment that children’s mental health centers are one part of inclusive system of health and social services. In 2004, the membership of CMHO was expanded to include more organizations to provide mental health services to children. Any individual or organization devoted to CMHO’s goal of a sustainable system can also be a member of mental health services for Ontario’s youth. (About CMHO)
a) Quality :-
Main objective of CMHO is about children, youth and families who get services from CMHO-affiliated organizations to achieve a better quality of life. Fundamental goal of CHMO is that all services delivered by child and youth mental health providers turn into evidence-based, empirically supported and result in positive clinical outcomes. CMHO has taken a proactive role for its Accreditation Program and EBP Working Group in the agreement and accomplishment of evidence-based, empirically supported service delivery models.
CMHO’S Accreditation Program is a service, which is available for member centres for improving their services. CMHO attributed centres are specialized for the achievement of highest standards of quality in the delivery of children’s mental health services. Each accredited centre is issued a Children’s Mental Health Ontario (CMHO) Accreditation Certificate to significantly display in the office. Canadian Centre for Accreditation (CCA) Webcast is a project funded by the Ontario Trillium Foundation. Six accrediting bodies have joined to develop an independent third party authorization program for Canadian community based health and social services which is called as Canadian Centre for Accreditation (CCA). The Standards Working Group was set up to develop and implement this new organization and to sponsors this webcast. The purpose of organization is to inform the various network of the progress of the accreditation process and the accreditation standards, which are in the development phase. The webcast also provide an occasion for on-line feed-back to the Working Group. (CMHO’s Accreditation Program)
Children’s Mental Health Ontario (CMHO) represents and supports all providers of child and youth mental health treatment services all over Ontario. Core membership of Children’s Mental Health Ontario (CMHO) consists of more than 85 community-based children’s mental health centres, which help about 150,000 children and their families per annum. Other child-serving organizations and individuals can also join as CMHO members. CMHO is governed by a Board of Directors, which include volunteers, consumers, and children’s mental health professionals who represent all regions of the state.
d) Equal access:
Children’s Mental Health Ontario (CMHO) plays leadership role in advocating for the well being of children and families by promoting an environment which leads to excellent mental health and it also promote the quality children’s mental health programs. It induces the development of public policy through the Policy analysis and by developing policy papers that eloquent position on children’s mental health issues and recommends areas for reform.
Canadian health care system is one of the best health service among the whole world but it is also facing increasing strains. ‘Medicare’ assures that all Canadians have access to all necessary medical requirements and hospital services without paying anything to government. With the increase in population services for all Canadians has not decline but with the increase in population the number of doctors available is same so sometimes there is a delay in the services provided to all Canadians. Then after new policy came which brought a humongous change in healthcare services. Investment from last 12 years from the government has enlarged the standard of healthcare services.
Good payment methods have been developed. To increase the level and quality of healthcare regular investment is carried out. [ (Wilson) ] Nursing has also developed and has a great hand in healthcare services because nursing units help in providing care to critical patients some special dysfunctions patients along with special care because they are regulated by CNA. Canadian live foundation also play major role in health care system for liver safety and also liver disease cure. Children mental hospital also play a major role in to take care of mental health of children.. Overall health services offered by Canadian healthcare system is very good because there are record keeping , technology used , sustained investment ,publicly funded and equal access is given to all poor and rich residents of Canada.
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