Race and Ethnicity Essay Sample

Race and Ethnicity Pages
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* Southern slavery
* Age of flexibility (1619-1680)
* South Carolina
Slave Majority
* Slave codes

-status of the mother

-chattel slavery-slaves are not even people, no rights


After the revolutionary war:
Economics- economy based on agriculture in south, so slaves are key

Land expansion

Property rights

Scientific racism
* carl Linnaeus

Haitian revolution (1791-1804) scares americans -Toussaint L’ouverture

Scientific Racism
Africans-slow, relaxed, negligent, to be called blacks
Native americans- to be called red, eager,
Europeans- pale, muscular, swift, clever, inventive

Abolition in the north
* Gradual emancipation
* Immediate emancipation_ only Massachusetts did this

* End of atlantic slave trade (1808)
* Self perpetuating slave population

Antbellum Slavery (1800-1865)
The peculiar Institution

Task slavery- when u give your slaves a you
Gang slavery
Plantation slavery
Slaver quaerer

Hierarchy of management
Planter- owns plantation
Absentee planter-does not live there
Overseer-don’t work for more than two years at any plantation- has weapons Driver- overseers right hand man- makes sure everyones doing their job- has no weapons

Types of crops
* Sugar
* Cotton
* Tobacco
* Indigo
* rice

Henry box brown- slave, wife and kids get sold, his new lifes mission is to escape, get job, make money, and buy back his wife and child Carpenter builds him a box, he wants to be mailed to philly

Abolition-American anti slavery society (1833)
-Sojourner Truth
-“Aren’t I a woman?”

William Lloyd garrison- Pro-Abolitionist
-“The Liberator”
Immediate, Non-Compensated Abolition

Free Blacks in the South
-Black Slave Owners
-Richards Family_ Had sugar Plantations- 150 slaves-lousiana -Antoine Dubuclet- Louisiana-had about 150 slaves-before civil war, was wealthiest black in the south


Emancipation Proclamation- Abe says “if slaves of confederacy are not freed by 1863, they will become free.” Doesn’t actually do anything, but makes clear of his objective. With end of civil war, 4 million slaves are “technically” freed


13th amendment- Ends slavery in the U.S. and its territories 14th amendment- grants citizenship to blacks (only men)
15th amendment- Black men have the right to vote

Southern Backlash

Economic Backlash
-Sharecropping(outlawed in 1900)
-Tenant Farming
-Vagrancy Laws

The Great Migrations: Moving out of the south
* Post civil war migration
* Industral Revoltion Migration (1880)
* WWI Migration (1911-1930)

* One million African americans move back north

* Black institutions:

– businesess
-Madame C.J. Walker- first African American millionaire -Harlem Renaissance

WWII Migration (1939)
* Tuskegee Airmen
* 91st Infantry Division
* 2 million African Americans move north

Civil Rights
* The civil rights act of 1964
* The voting rights act (1965)

Irish in the US

* Who comes?
* Anchor immigrant
* Chain migration
* Lean-tos
* Tenement buildings

1st ethnic group to ever have laws against their immigration. Also, they are the first people who were banned from coming to America.

Chinese in China.
* Silk road
* Divisions within china- topography, Family divisions
* Guadong or Canton province
Push factors
* Government- Qing dynasty
* Overpopulation
* Imperialistm-box rebellion (1899-1901)
* Weather- period of drought, followed by period of flood-Tsunami
* War and rebellion
* Chinese in the USA
* Pull Factors-Gold rush- Gum saan
* 300,000 came to America

Chinese in America
* Chinatown, san fransisco
* Work:
* Gold miners-foreign miner’s tax
* Domestics
Despite the fact that they took low wages, one weeks pay in America was still 2 months pay in china.

Bachelor society
The six companes
* Yan Wo company
* Tongs- involved in organized crime, usually members aren’t involved with 6 companies * Criminals
* Vice district

5 main causes of anti-chinese sentiment
-Vice districts
-religion (lack a church structure)
-yellow peril
-labor disputes
* Dennis Kearney
* Denver riot of 1880- 1 chnese killed
* Rock Springs Massacre of 1885-28 chinese killed

The Chinese question of 1867
(how do we stop chinese immigration)

-naturalization act of 1870- gov makes usre everyone knows about it(chinese cant be citizens) -chinese exclusion act of 1882-( government keeps this quiet, helps get chinese out of country) 8,031 chinese legally entered u.s. the year before this act, afterwords, 10 were allowed in

-scott act of 1888- chinese laborers that leave the U.s. temporarily are not let back in -Chae Chan Ping v. US 1889, takes this to supreme court, but court sides with u.s.

cable act of 1922
* Anxiety of about white girls marrying blacks
* Women get right to vote in 1920


ANGEL ISALND9(like ellis island, but only for chinese immigrants

Paper Sons (1906)


* Sephardic Jews
* The Spanish inquisition
* “Auto de fe”-act of faith, a prayer to show people your dedicated to Christianity, a way to prove you converted * Alhambra Decree- if your one of these converted people, then gtfo of spain (edict of expulsion) * Formative Wave immigration

* New Amsterdam
* 3,000


* German jews
* First wave (1830s)
* Religious freedom
* 30,000
* peddlers- almost all male german jews do this- traveling, selling things people need. High quality, low prices * reformed Judaism-alternative to being orthodox, heped jews blend in
* wealthy went to mid west, rest went to cities i.e. boston, NY

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