We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Reaction Paper on Public Management Essay Sample

  • Pages: 5
  • Word count: 1,191
  • Rewriting Possibility: 99% (excellent)
  • Category: psychology

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues.

Get Access

Introduction of TOPIC

* 11. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.11Humanistic PerspectiveLed by Mary Parker Follett and Chester BarnardIt was Mary Parker Follett who defined management as getting things done through peopleImportance of understanding human behaviors: needs, attitudes and social interactionsHuman Relations MovementHuman Resources PerspectiveBehavioral Sciences0 * 12. Humanistic PerspectiveEmphasized understanding human behavior.Dealt with needs & attitudes in the workplace.Truly effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than authoritarian control.Hawthorne Studies brought this perspective to forefront. * 13. Humanistic PerspectiveThree Sub-FieldsHuman Relations Movement.Human Resources Perspective.Behavioral Sciences Approach. * 14. Hawthorne StudiesHuman Relations MovementTen year study.Four experimental & three control groups.Five different tests.Test pointed to factors other than illumination for productivity.

1st Relay Assembly Test Room experiment, was controversial, test lasted 6 years.Interpretation, money not cause of increased output.Factor that increased output, Human Relations. * 15. Hawthorne StudiesStudy was initiated to at Hawthorne plant of Western Electric- an unit of AT&T to study effects of changes in lighting on productivityPart of unit was divided into experimental group and control groupNo change in lighting was effected in control group but light was enhanced in experimental group from 24 to 46 to 70’ candles- productivity went up in both groupsThen lighting of experimental group was reduced gradually to below normal but without any change in control group – productivity continued to increase in both groups * 16. Hawthorne StudiesProductivity of experimental group finally started to decline when lighting was reduced to moon light level and visibility got affected.It proved that something other than lighting caused changes in productivityAnother experiment was conducted in Relay Assembly Test Room for 6 years.

In this test relationship amongst rest, fatigue and productivity were also examined. * 17. Hawthorne StudiesFirst the normal productivity was measuredThen production based pay system was introduced without any change in working conditions for 8 weeksThen two rest pauses of 5 minutes each were introduced at 10 am and 2 pm In next stage girls were given light lunch during pausesIn next stage workday was reduced by half hourIn next stage workday was reduced by one hourIn next stage 5 day week initiatedGradual rise in output continued till here * 18. Hawthorne StudiesThen original work pattern without any pause, lunch and full work hrs introduced and productivity measured for 12 weeks.Productivity declined but not to original levels meaning physical conditions did not have impactChange in output could be related to attitudes and social factors at work placeWorkers enjoyed getting attention.

This is known as Hawthorne effect. * 19. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.19Human Relations Movement0Control comes from the individual worker rather than authoritarian controlThe Hawthorne studies found increased output due to manager

s’ better treatment of employeesMoney mattered a great dealProductivity increased from feelings of

Sorry, but full essay samples are available only for registered users

Choose a Membership Plan
importanceCreated a focus on positive treatment of employees * 20. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.20Human Resources Perspective0Emphasizes understanding human behavior, needs and attitudes in the workplace.Perspective came from the idea that cows gave more milk when they were more satisfiedMaintains an interest in worker participation. Focus on job tasks and theories of motivationReduce dehumanizing or demeaning workAllow workers to use full potential Main contributors: Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregorMaslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsMcGregor’s Theory X/Theory Y * 21. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

* 22. Abraham Maslow sought to explain why a need become driving at some time and some other needs at some other timeMaslow’s answer is that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy, from the most pressing to the least pressingPhysiological needs – food, shelter most potentPsychological needs like safety, social, esteem and self actualisation are potent in that orderIt says that person shall fulfill its most important need first at least to a minimum level and only then the next level need shall activate * 23. OrganizationalExamplesGeneralExamplesAbraham Maslow’s HierarchySelf-actualizationChallenging JobSelf-fulfillmentEsteemJob TitleStatusBelongingFriendsFriendshipSafetyRetirement PlanStabilityPhysiologicalShelterWagesBased on needs satisfaction

* 24. Douglas McGregor’s Theory X & Theory YTheory X People are lazyPeople lack ambition Dislike responsibilityPeople are self-centeredPeople don’t like changePeople need close supervisionTheory Y People are energeticPeople want to make contributionsPeople do have ambitionPeople will seek responsibilityConsider work as natural as rest & play * 25. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.25Theory X and Theory Y0 * 26. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.26Behavioral Sciences Approach0Scientific methods that draw from sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics and other disciplinesFocus on human behavior and interactionOrganizational development came from behavioral sciences approachApplied behavioral sciences to improve organizational health and effectiveness

* 27. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.27Management Science Perspective0Developed to meet changing and dynamic environment created from WWIIEngaged mathematics, statistics and quantitative techniques to aid in decision makingIncreased study of management led by Peter DruckerUse of technology and programming for optimizing operationsIntroduced new subsets of management:Operations ResearchOperations ManagementInformation Technology * 28. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.28Recent Historical Trends0Systems Theory. A holistic view of management as a interrelated parts to achieve a common purpose.Contingency View. Successful resolution of organizational problems depends on situations.Total Quality Management. Management of the total organization to deliver quality.

* 29. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.29The Systems View of Organizations0 * 30. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.30Contingency View of Management0 * 31. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.31Total Quality Management0W. Edward Deming, known as the father of the quality movementUS initially scoffed at DemingDuring the 1908s and 1990s, quality became a focus to meet global competitionFour key elements of quality management:Employee involvementFocus on customerBenchmarkingContinuous improvement

* 32. Copyright ©2010 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.32The Learning Organization0Learning aids in the adaptation to changePeter Senge began the discussion about the learning organizationAll employees are engaged in identifying and solving problemsLearning increases the capacity to learn and growMove from efficiency to solving problems * 33. 33Managing the Technology-Driven Workplace0Most work is performed on computers in today’s workplaceCompanies use technology to communicate and collaborateKey technologies in today’s workplace:Supply Chain ManagementCustomer Relationship ManagementOutsourcing * 34. 34Supply Chain for a Retail Organization0

* 35. Management Science PerspectiveEmerged after WW II.Distinguished for its application of mathematics, statistics to problem solving.Operations Research emerged.Operations Management emerged.Management Information Systems emerged.

Mary Parker Follett was a prominent business philosopher of the period, who agreed with Sheldon about the need to emphasize human factors in management, but placing greater stress on the need to develop a science of cooperation. According to Follett, what she called her ‘Law of the Situation’ could be a means for bridging the gap between an ideal of scientific management and the unilateral position that it seemed to involve in practice. In effect she was proposing the same collaboration between leaders and subordinates that was usually to be found between leaders of the same rank.

We can write a custom essay on

Reaction Paper on Public Management Essay Sample ...
According to Your Specific Requirements.

Order an essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Battles with anorexia nervosa

The Dad of the family, Stephen aged 52 ,is a heart surgeon who travels around the world working for charities .The mum of the family is called Marisa aged 50,she is an ex catwalk model, now fixated on plastic surgery to keep her body looking young. Their Daughter Alice aged 25 is a successful shop owner of high end clothing, also with a clientele who are loyal and wealthy. she is very successful in running her business, but also suffers with low self esteem and battles with “anorexia nervosa”, occasional “bulimic “tendencies and struggles to maintain relationships with males. From a psychodynamic approach, it would have been argued that anorexia can start to develop in adolescence. Girls are suggested to make up 90% of the patients with these disorders. It was suggested by the theorist’s that the anorexia is due to the fear of sexual desire or “oral impregnation” (Eysenck2000)....

Analytical psychology

Termed by Carl Jung, collective unconscious offers a respectable insight into the field of analytical psychology. Describing the concept as “a psychic activity which goes on independently of the conscious mind”, Jung clearly differentiates this term from personal unconscious and states that collective unconscious, as suggested by its name, refers to the part of a person’s unconscious that is shared by all people, ignoring the uniqueness of each person (Jung). Born with a set of beliefs that were inherited from our previous generations, we do not form the thoughts as a result of our current life experiences, but is rather already present from the start (Jung). Although not available to us directly, collective unconscious, he argued, is encountered by us in our unconscious states, such as in dreams, religious beliefs, and myths. A huge component of, as well as a way Jung justified his concept of collective unconscious, is the...

Social Sciences: Geography, Anthropology, Sociology, Eeconomics and...

Geography is the study of the physical parts of the earth and its atmosphere, geography can also be the study of the human activity. Every day, geography affects our daily lives. Examples of geography affecting us on a regular basis are shown from everyday experiences. The environment constantly affects us, whether it be by weather and climate change or giving us natural resources like energy and water. The study of geography lets us work with our planet to better ourselves and itself. Geography helps us with what we know about our earth now and what we will know about our earth later. Anthropology is the study of various aspects of humans within the past and present societies and culture,\"(\"anthropology\". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 10 August 2013.), everyone wants to know where we all came from, where all of it started. we can apply anthropology in our lives with...

Popular Essays


Emma Taylor


Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?