Reading Comprehension of the Third Year High School Students of Roosevelt College Essay Sample

Reading Comprehension of the Third Year High School Students of Roosevelt College Pages
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Introduction
The Government of the Philippines chooses English as one of the compulsory subjects in high school. It is obligatory subject for the student to learn from first year to fourth year high school. Moreover, English has been learned not only by high school students but also by Elementary students.

English as a subject matter in school covers the four basic language skills: Listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Nearly all the subjects of the students learning activities involve reading. Reading is one of the complex ways in learning English. It is a kind of activity to comprehend the writer’s idea or the writer’s way to communicate with the readers by way of the writer or printed words (www.if.ia.org). Besides, reading is important for everybody in order to cope with new knowledge in the changing world of technological age. The third year students are required to master reading texts with three different genres, namely, report, narrative, and hortatory exposition (BSNP, 2006:10). When students read text, they sometimes do not know what the text is about. They are not able to understand the idea of the selection of the text they read. This is why the researchers want to determine the difficulties encountered by the third year high school students of the RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 in reading comprehension.

Theoretical Framework
Reading can be considered to comprise two component skills- word recognition and comprehension. The skilled reader needs to identify
the individual words of text and integrate the meaning of this words of text and integrate the meaning of these words and sentences or comprehend what is being read. This view was described by Gough and Tunmer’s (1986) simple model of reading (see also Gough, Hoover, & Peterson, this volume; Hoover and Gough, 1990). Gough and Tunmer proposed that reading comprehension is determined by decoding language comprehension skills. Each of these components is assumed to be necessary, but not sufficient, for success in reading. According to this theory, the ability to recognize the printed words of text is essential to understanding what is written, but, good decoding is not sufficient for reading; comprehension is also required, the ultimate goal of reading being extraction of meaning. It is in this theory the present study was anchored in.

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1: RESEARCH PARADIGM
The paradigm shows that the respondents of the study were the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012. The study involves evaluation and correlation of reading comprehension skills and grade in English 3. The following variables such as Gender, Grade in English, Availability of reading materials at home are used to deeply characterize the respondents.

Statement of the Problem
1. What is the profile of the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 when they are grouped according to: 1.1 Gender
1.2 Grade in English 3
1.3 Availability of reading materials at home?
2. What is the reading performance of the 3rd year high school students in the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012? 3. What are the difficulties encountered by the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 in reading comprehension? 4. Is there a significant relationship between reading comprehension of the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 and their Grade in English 3?

Hypothesis
There is no significant relationship between reading comprehension of the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 and their grade in English 3.

Significance of the Study
The researchers believe that the findings of the study would be beneficial to the administrators, teachers, students, and future researchers.

To the Administrators: This study will affect the administration of the school to know some weaknesses of the 3rd year high school students. It can help them to create a program for enhancement of the reading comprehension skills, purchase books for the Library and the sponsor seminars for the teachers especially for the teachers in English.

To the Teachers: The teachers will be properly informed of the findings of the study regarding the difficulties encountered by the 3rd year high school students in reading comprehension. The research is expected to be useful for English teachers as information or an input and consideration to apply reciprocal teaching method in teaching reading in order to increase the students reading comprehension.

To the Students: The results of this research are expected to give the 3rd year high school students information on their difficulties in reading comprehension so that they will be motivated and become more attentive in class, to improve their reading skills and confidence resulting to an improved reading comprehension.

To the Future Researcher: The results of this research are expected to be useful for future researchers as a reference in conducting a further research dealing with the application of reciprocal teaching method, which helps to develop the student’s reading.

Scope and Delimitation
The study focuses on the difficulties in reading comprehension encountered by the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012, as respondents of the study. This study deals only with reading comprehension and does not seek to include knowledge in grammar and oral English competencies.

Definition of Terms
For better understanding, the following terms were defined as to how they were used in this study: Difficulties: problems in comprehension as encountered by the students. Reading Comprehension: individual’s way of perceiving and receiving information as influenced by his attitude and motivational level since motives of some individual’s determine behaviour. Reading Comprehension Skills: result of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. Grade in English 3: grade of the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 in the 1st semester Grading Period. Reading Materials: books, magazines, newspapers, etc.

Chapter 2
A REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter discusses the review of related literature and studies, whether local or foreign, about the difficulties in Reading Comprehension of the 3rd year high school students S.Y. 2011-2012.

Related Studies
Foreign Studies
Palinscar and Brown (2006) suggests that when reciprocal teaching was used with a group of students for 15-20 days, the student’s reading comprehension assessment increased from 30% to 80%. Oczkus (2003) found that after three months of using reciprocal teaching strategies with her students three times a week, many of the students jumped one to two grade levels in reading ability. Kurniawati (2008) investigated the reciprocal teaching method to improve student’s reading comprehension achievement. The result showed that the reciprocal teaching method could improve student’s reading comprehension achievement. Oskhull (2010) states that the first area of making skills is inference making. To understand the full meaning of a text, readers need to go beyond what is explicitly stated, to link up ideas within the text, and to bring their general knowledge to bear on their understanding of it. Authors necessarily leave some of the links and expansions of a text implicit. A fully explicit text would not only be very long and boring, but it would destroy the reader’s pleasure in imposing meaning on the text or making it.

Local Studies
Blay (2011), on his study about the relation between motivation and second language reading comprehension among fourth grade Filipino Students, stated that success in first language reading comprehension is said to be influenced by one’s own motivation to read. With an attempt to prove this claim in second language reading, this study aims to (1) identify whether Grade-4 Filipino students motivation has a significant relationship with their L2 reading comprehension (2) determine which of the five aspects of motivation – challenge, curiosity, involvement, competition and compliance – influences student’s reading comprehension as assessed by the reconstructed version of the motivation for reading Questionnaire (MRQ) by Wigfield and Guthrie. Out of the five motivation factors included in the study, two factors namely, competition and challenge, emerged as having a positive relationship with reading comprehension.

Related Literature
Foreign Literature
Stanovich (2011), in the literature of cognitive developmental psychology, reading comprehension problems are typically analyzed in terms of cognitive developmental work, Reading comprehension problems might benefit from searching for explanations at a more distal level than has been typical in our literature. Wijayanti (2010), on his study about Descriptive study of teaching reading comprehension using jigsaw to the second year students of SMP N 2 Simo Boyolali Academic year’s 2009-2010, stated that the conventional method of English language teaching that is still only transferring knowledge from the teacher to the students or teacher centred was felt ineffective any more. Because of that the students will feel bored and have no chance to improve their skills. So, the experts begin to look for a model of teaching learning process that can meet the need of a meaningful teaching learning process that also dig the student’s ability to master the knowledge. Wichadee (2003) states that teacher centred approach taking place in traditional classrooms do not produce active recipients and result in fossilized language learning.

Cubucku’s (2008) study presents a study of the teacher trainees in an English department who have received instructions in metacognitive awareness for reading comprehension. Metacognition or ‘thinking about thinking’ involves the awareness and regulation of thinking processes. Metacognitive strategies are those strategies which require students to think about their own thinking as they engage in academic tasks. Within this study, students have been taught metacognitive strategies for reading in a five week program they have joined voluntarily. The students have used reading logs to reflect on their own thinking processes as they have been engaged in reading tasks. The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of systematic direct instruction of multiple metacognitive strategies designed to assist students in comprehending text. Specifically, the reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement of 130 third year university students has been investigated to determine whether instruction incorporating metacognitive strategies has led to an increase in the reading comprehension of expository texts. In addition, the investigation is also designed to determine the impact of the metacognitive strategies on vocabulary.

Local Literature
Orencia’s (2006) research examined the effects of a whole language inspired literature based reading program on pupils reading comprehension and attitudes toward reading. It employed a naturalistic research design to uncover the usefulness of such a program in improving children reading comprehension and attitudes. Results of the study showed that in the program, children were given ample opportunities to take an active role in their own learning. Factors believe to have contributed to their improved comprehension were the regular independent activities, the engagement activities, the learner centred classroom environment, the broader view of reading underlying the program, the teacher (program) regular demonstrations of reading strategies and the daily reading activities. Attitudes were evidently enhanced by the supportive learning atmosphere. The many varied and interesting activities, the presence of literacy centres, the teachers daily reading aloud of stories, the pupils regular opportunities to read self selected reading materials and activities, and the use of high quality children literature.

Relatedness of the study
The studies are related to the present study in the sense that they explain what are the difficulties encountered by the students in reading comprehension. Related studies stated that when the reciprocal teaching was applied, the student’s reading comprehension assessment will increase. Related literature stated that when different strategies and processes were applied, the reading comprehension skills of the students will improve. The two studies were considered in the present study with its similarities on the objective of determining the difficulties of reading comprehension of the students on the respondents which uses high school or secondary students.

Chapter 3
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the methodology in research, respondents of the study, locale of the study, the research instruments, data gathering procedure, and statistical tools.

Method of Research
In this study, the researchers used the descriptive method. The principal aim in employing this method is to describe the nature of an existing situation and to explore the causes of a certain phenomenon. Likewise, the method was used to determine the difficulties in reading comprehension encountered by the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012. The means to obtain descriptive information was through the use of a test to conduct measurement from the identified respondents. The use of a test is to closely determine the difficulties in reading comprehension of 3rd year high school students of RCM. Respondents of the Study

This study involves the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012. Slovin’s formula with 5% margin of error was used in determining the percentage of the respondents needed in this study. There are 28 respondents in each sections namely; Gold, Silver, Bronze, Copper, Nickel, and Aluminium.

Locale of the Study
This study was conducted at Roosevelt College Marikina. It is a private non-sectarian co-educational institution with come offers pre-school, elementary, high school and college. It is one of the five campuses of the Roosevelt College System offering a quality education which is a corporation run by a board of trustees with the president as the executive officer. Its borders are Sampaguita Village and Filipinas Village and the Aglipayan Cemetery. There are 168 3rd year high school students in this school. This research was conducted during the S.Y. 2011-2012. Research Instrument

The researchers used a questionnaire to gather information. The questionnaire was constructed into two parts. The first part consists of the personal information of the student such as gender and the availability of reading materials at home. The second part consists of a question regarding on their difficulties in reading an English article. The level of reading comprehension process was evaluated using the results of the student-respondent’s National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) S.Y. 2011-2012 from the file of the Guidance Office.

Data Gathering Procedure
To gather data for the study, the following procedures were performed. First, the researchers wrote a letter of permission to the directress. Second, the researchers identified the respondents who will be given questionnaires. Then, the researchers formulated questions that can be easily understood by the respondents. Last, the researchers administered the questionnaire to the respondents.

Statistical Tools
The following statistical tools and test were used.
1.) For the descriptive part, simple frequency distribution was used. 2.) To describe the level of reading comprehension, mean and standard deviation were used. 3.) To determine the relationship of the level of reading comprehension and the respondent’s grade in English 3, chi-square was used with 5% level of significance.

Chapter 4
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter focuses on the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data that would determine the difficulties in reading comprehension of the 3rd year high school students of Roosevelt College Marikina S.Y. 2011-2012.

Problem no.1 Profile of the 3rd year Students
The following table shows the profile of 3rd year high school student-respondents S.Y. 2011-2012. Table 1.1
Frequency Distribution of the Respondents when grouped according to Gender Gender| f| %|
Male| 84| 50|
Female| 84| 50|
Total| 168| 100|

Table 1.1 shows the gender of the 3rd year high school student-respondents. There are 84 males and 84 females with a total of 168 respondents. It shows that there are equal numbers of males and females.

Table 1.2
Frequency Distribution of the Respondent’s Grade in English 3 in the 1st Semester Performance in English| f| %|
| Male| Female| Male| Female|
V-Satisfactory (87 above)| 7| 8| 8.33| 9.52|
Satisfactory (75-86)| 60| 71| 71.43| 84.52|
Poor(74 below)| 17| 5| 20.24| 5.96|
Total| 84| 84| 100| 100|

Table 1.2 shows the grade in English 3 of the 3rd year high school student-respondents during 1st semester. It shows that there are more male than female students who got a grade of 75 to 86 and only few who got a grade of 87 above and 74 below.

Table 1.3
Availability of Reading Materials at Home
Available reading materials at home| F| %|
Books only| 15| 8.93|
Books and magazines| 26| 15.48|
Books, magazines, newspapers, etc.| 127| 75.59|
Total| 168| 100|

Table 1.3 shows the availability of reading materials at home of the 3rd year high school student-respondents. It shows that there are more student-respondents who have books, magazines, newspapers, etc.

Problem no.2 What is the Reading performance of the 3rd year high school students in the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012? The table shows the performance of the 3rd year high school student-respondents in comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. Table 2

Reading Comprehension Level Based on the NCAE Practice Test S.Y. 2011-2012 Reading comprehension level| F| %|
V-Satisfactory(87 above)| 0| 0|
Satisfactory(75-86)| 22| 13.1|
Poor(74 below)| 146| 86.9|
Total| 168| 100|

Table 2 shows the reading comprehension level of the 3rd year high school student-respondents. It shows that there are no students who got a grade of 87 above. Many students failed in the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test SY 2011-2012. Only few have passed the entire test.

Problem no.3 What are the difficulties encountered by the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 in reading comprehension? The table shows the difficulties in reading comprehension encountered by the 3rd year high school student-respondents S.Y. 2011-2012. Table 3

Areas of Difficulties in Reading Comprehension of the Respondents Areas| F| %|
Find the idea of the text| 14| 8.33|
To get general figure about the content of the text| 22| 13.10| To find
main ideas| 24| 14.29|
To find supporting details| 16| 9.52|
To make inferences| 16| 9.52|
To interpret word meaning, phrase and sentences related to the text| 55| 32.74| To get enjoyment| 21| 12.5|
Total| 168| 100|

Table 3 shows the areas of difficulties in reading comprehension of the 3rd year high school student-respondents. It shows that many students encountered their difficulties on interpreting word meaning, phrase and sentences related to the text. Only few encountered their difficulties on finding the idea of the text.

Problem no.4 Is there a significant relationship between Reading Comprehension of the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 and their Grade in English 3? The table shows the relationship between reading comprehension skill of the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 and their grade in English 3. Table 4

The Relationship between the Reading Comprehension skill and Performance in English 3 Performance in English| NCAE comprehension skill| Average(75-86)| Below Average(75 below)| Total| Above Average (87 above)| 8| 7| 15|

Average (75-86)| 15| 119| 134|
Below Average (75 below)| 0| 19| 19|
Total| 23| 145| 168|

x2 = 168
df = 2
x2 tabular 0.05 = 3.991

Table 4 shows the relationship between the reading comprehension skill of the 3rd year high school students and their performance
in English 3. Through analyzing the table, the hypothesis is Reject since the x2 computed value of 168 is greater than the tabular value 3.991 (for alpha = 0.05).

With the rejection of the null hypothesis, it means that the relationship between the reading comprehension skill of the 3rd year high school students and their performance in English 3 is significant.

Chapter 5
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter contains the summary of the findings, conclusions and the recommendation of the researchers.

Summary of the Findings
In this study, the researchers presented problems that were clearly answered by the data findings. These questions were clearly answered by the help of the data gathered by the researchers. The findings were as follows: 1. Regarding the profile of the student-respondents, it was found out that: 2.1 There are equal total numbers of male and female respondents. 2.2 One hundred thirty one out of one hundred sixty eight or 77.38% of the respondents have a grade of 75-86 in English 3 during 1st semester. 2.3 One hundred seven out of one hundred sixty eight or 75.59% of the respondents have more reading materials available at home. 2. Regarding the reading comprehension level, it was found out that: 3.4 One hundred forty six out of one hundred sixty eight or 86.9% of the respondents failed the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. 3.5 Twenty two out of one hundred sixty eight or 13.1% of the respondents have passed the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test and got a grade of 75 above.

3.6 There are no students who got a grade of 87 above in comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test. 3. Regarding the areas of difficulties in reading comprehension, it was found out that: 4.7 Fifty five out of one hundred sixty eight or 32.74% of the respondents encountered their difficulties in reading comprehension on interpreting word meaning, phrase and sentences related to the text. 4.8 Twenty four out of one hundred sixty eight or 14.29% of the respondents encountered their difficulties in reading comprehension on finding the main ideas. 4.9 Twenty two out of one hundred sixty eight or 13.10% of the respondents encountered their difficulties in reading comprehension on getting the general figure about the content of the text. 4.10 Twenty one out of one hundred sixty eight or 12.5% of the respondents encountered their difficulties in reading comprehension on getting enjoyment. 4.11 Sixteen out of one hundred sixty eight or 9.52% of the respondents encountered their difficulties in reading comprehension on making inferences. 4.12 Sixteen out of one hundred sixty eight or 9.52% of the respondents encountered their difficulties in reading comprehension on finding supporting details 4.13 Fourteen out of one hundred sixty eight or 8.33% of the respondents encountered their difficulties in reading comprehension on finding the idea of the text. 4. Regarding the relationship between Reading Comprehension of the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 and their Grade in English 3, it was found out that:

5.14 Eight respondents with an above average performance (87 above) in English during the 1st semester passed the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. 5.15 Seven respondents with an above average performance (87 above) in English during the 1st semester did not pass the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. 5.16 Fifteen respondents with an average performance (75-86) in English during the 1st semester passed the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. 5.17 One hundred nineteen respondents with an average performance (75-86) in English during the 1st semester did not pass the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. 5.18 There are no respondents with a below average performance (74 below) in English during the 1st semester who passed the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. 5.19 Nineteen respondents with a below average performance (74 below) in English during the 1st semester did not pass the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. 5.20 There is a significant relationship between reading comprehension of the 3rd year high school students of RCM S.Y. 2011-2012 and their grade in English 3.

Conclusion
After a thorough study, the researchers therefore conclude that: 1. Majority of the respondents passed during the 1st semester grading system in English 3. 2. Majority of the respondents have their reading materials at home. 3. Majority of the respondents have failed the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. 4. Majority of the respondents encountered difficulties in reading comprehension on interpreting word meaning, phrase and sentences related to the text. 5. Majority of the respondents with an average performance in English during 1st semester did not pass the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test while. 6. Not all students with enough supply of reading materials at home and an average performance in English can pass the comprehension skill of the NCAE practice test S.Y. 2011-2012. 7. With the rejection of the null hypothesis, it means that the relationship between the reading comprehension skill of the 3rd year high school students and their performance in English 3 is significant.

Recommendation
As a result of the findings of the present study, the following recommendations are advanced: 1. Teachers should help their students enhance their reading skills and comprehension for reading. It is one of the most important skills one must have to be able to learn more. 2. The students should enhance their reading skills for it is their very foundation towards learning. 3. The research may be replicated in another setting. 4. The future researchers should make equal number of items of each category to add more categories if necessary. 5. The future researchers must find the relationship between the certain independent variable with regards to reading comprehension difficulties. 6. The students who are known to have difficulties in reading comprehension should be given more attention by their teachers so that they will cope with the topics of upcoming lessons. 7. Parents must encourage their children to be exposed in reading materials so as to give their children prior knowledge about general facts. Parents should be a model to their children. 8. Future researchers can use this study to serve as basis for their studies.

References

Blay, R. (2010). The Relationship between Motivation and Second Language Reading Comprehension among Fourth Grade Filipino Students. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://www.philippine-esl-journal.com/Volume-2-rb.php

Cubukcu, F. (2008). Enhancing Vocabulary Development and Reading Comprehension through metacognitive strategies. Retrieved July 19, 2011, from www.iier.org.au/iier18/cubukcu.pdf

Gough, P. (2001). Some Information on a simple view of reading. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26028582

(2010). Improving the second year students’ reading comprehension using reciprocal teaching method at man. Retrieved July 19, 2011, from http://www.placeschool.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=113

Orencia, M. R. (2006). Enhancing reading comprehension and attitudes through a whole language inspired literature based reading program. Retrieved September 8, 2011, from www.celea.org.cn/teic/67/67-03.pdf

Wijayanti, D. (2010). Descriptive study of teaching reading comprehension using jigsaw to the second year students of SMPN2 Simo Boyolali academic
year’s 2009/2010. Retrieved July 18, 2011, from http://etd.eprints.ums.ac.id/8020/2/A320050242.pdf

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