Receivables Management Essay Sample
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- Category: employment
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Receivables Management Essay Sample
1.1 Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction describes how happy an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Logic would dictate that the most satisfied (“happy”) workers should be the best performers and vice versa. This is called the “happy worker” hypothesis. However; this hypothesis is not well supported, as job satisfaction is not the same as motivation or aptitude, although they may be clearly linked. A primary influence on job satisfaction is the application of design, which aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance using methods such as job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment and job re-engineering. Other influences on satisfaction include management styles and culture, employee involvement, empowerment, and autonomous work position. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute and is frequently measured by organizations.
The most common technique for measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their thoughts and reactions to their jobs. Questions can relate to rates of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities, the work itself, and co-workers. Some examinations present yes-or-no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction using a 1-to-5 scale, where 1 represents “not at all satisfied” and 5 represents “extremely satisfied.” Definition
Job satisfaction can simply be defined as 10the feelings people have about their jobs. It has been specifically defined as a pleasurable (or unpleasurable) emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job, an affective reaction to one’s job, and an attitude towards one’s job. These definitions suggest that job satisfaction takes into account feelings, beliefs, and behaviors. History
One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924–1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.
Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work.
Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.
Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of issues which affect an individual’s experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relationships with other key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, home-work interface, and working conditions. Models of job satisfaction
Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Dispositional theory
Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.
A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge, Edwin A. Locke, and Cathy C. Durham in 1997.Judge et al. argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. Opponent process theory
According to opponent process theory, emotional events, such as criticisms or rewards, elicits two sets of processes. Primary processes give way to emotions that are steady with the event in question. Events that seem negative in manner will give rise to the feelings of stress or anxiety. Events that are positive give rise to the feeling of content or relaxation. The other process is the opponent process, which induces feelings that contradict the feelings in the primary processes. Events that are negative give rise to feelings of relaxation while events that are positive give rise to feelings of anxiety. A variety of explanations have been suggested to explain the uniformity of mood or satisfaction. This theory shows that if you try to enhance the mood of individual it will more likely fail in doing so. The opponent process theory was formulated to explain these patterns of observations. Equity theory
Equity Theory shows how a person views fairness in regard to social relationships. During a social exchange, a person identifies the amount of input gained from a relationship compared to the output, as well as how much effort another person puts forth. Equity Theory suggests that if an individual thinks there is an inequality between two social groups or individuals, the person is likely to be distressed because the ratio between the input and the output are not equal.
For example, consider two employees who work the same job and receive the same benefits. If one individual gets a pay raise for doing the same or less work than the other, then the less benefited individual will become distressed in his workplace. If, on the other hand, one individual gets a pay raise and new responsibilities, then the feeling of inequality is reduced. Discrepancy theory
The concept of self-discrepancy theory explains the ultimate source of anxiety and dejection. An individual, who has not fulfilled his responsibility, feels the sense of anxiety and regret for not performing well, they will also feel dejection due to not being able to achieve their hopes and aspirations. According to this theory, all individuals will learn what their obligations and responsibilities for a particular function, over a time period, and if they fail to fulfill those obligations then they are punished. Over time, these duties and obligations consolidate to form an abstracted set of principles, designated as a self-guide. Agitation and anxiety are the main responses when an individual fails to achieve the obligation or responsibility. This theory also explains that if achievement of the obligations is obtained then the reward can be praise, approval, or love. These achievements and aspirations also form an abstracted set of principles, referred to as the ideal self guide. When the individual fails to obtain these rewards, they begin to have feelings of dejection, disappointment, or even depression. Two-factor theory (motivator-hygiene theory)
Frederick Herzberg’s Two-factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts to explain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace.This theory states that satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. An employee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate. Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal and organizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p. 133). Motivating factors are those aspects of the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for example achievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors are considered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects of the working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and other working conditions.
While Hertzberg’s model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliably empirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzberg’s original formulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the theory does not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in an identical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has been criticized in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured. Job characteristics model
Hackman & Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc.).The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee’s attitudes and behaviors. A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. Motivating Potential Score
The motivating potential score (MPS) can be calculated, using the core dimensions discussed above, as follows;
Jobs that are high in motivating potential must be high on at least one of the three factors that lead to experienced meaningfulness, and also must be high on both Autonomy and Feedback. If a job has a high MPS, the job characteristics model predicts that motivation, performance and job satisfaction will be positively affected and the likelihood of negative outcomes, such as absenteeism and turnover, will be reduced. Factors that influence job satisfaction
Communication overload and communication under load
One of the most important aspects of an individual’s work in a modern organization concerns the management of communication demands that he or she encounters on the job. Demands can be characterized as a communication load, which refers to “the rate and complexity of communication inputs an individual must process in a particular time frame.”Individuals in an organization can experience communication over-load and communication under- load which can affect their level of job satisfaction. Communication overload can occur when “an individual receives too many messages in a short period of time which can result in unprocessed information or when an individual faces more complex messages that are more difficult to process.”
Due to this process, “given an individual’s style of work and motivation to complete a task, when more inputs exist than outputs, the individual perceives a condition of overload which can be positively or negatively related to job satisfaction. In comparison, communication under load can occur when messages or inputs are sent below the individual’s ability to process them.”According to the ideas of communication over-load and under-load, if an individual does not receive enough input on the job or is unsuccessful in processing these inputs, the individual is more likely to become dissatisfied, aggravated, and unhappy with their work which leads to a low level of job satisfaction. Superior-subordinate communication
Superior-subordinate communication is an important influence on job satisfaction in the workplace. The way in which subordinates perceive a supervisor’s behavior can positively or negatively influence job satisfaction. Communication behavior such as facial expression, eye contact, vocal expression, and body movement is crucial to the superior-subordinate relationship (Teven, p. 156). Nonverbal messages play a central role in interpersonal interactions with respect to impression formation, deception, attraction, social influence, and emotional. Nonverbal immediacy from the supervisor helps to increase interpersonal involvement with their subordinates impacting job satisfaction. The manner in which supervisors communicate with their subordinates non-verbally may be more important than the verbal content (Teven, p. 156). Individuals who dislike and think negatively about their supervisor are less willing to communicate or have motivation to work whereas individuals who like and think positively of their supervisor are more likely to communicate and are satisfied with their job and work environment.
A supervisor who uses nonverbal immediacy, friendliness, and open communication lines is more likely to receive positive feedback and high job satisfaction from a subordinate. Conversely, a supervisor who is antisocial, unfriendly, and unwilling to communicate will naturally receive negative feedback and create low job satisfaction in their subordinates in the workplace. Effective human resources practices lead to positive financial outcomes A Watson Wyatt Worldwide study identified a positive outcome between a collegical and flexible work environment and an increase in shareholder value. Suggesting that employee satisfaction is directly related to financial gain. Over 40 percent of the companies listed in the top 100 of Fortune magazines, “America’s Best Companies to Work For” also appear on the Fortune 500. It is possible that successful workers enjoy working at successful companies, however, the Watson Wyatt Worldwide Human Capital Index study claims that effective human resources practices lead to positive financial outcomes more often than positive financial outcomes lead to good practices. Individual factors
Mood and emotions form the affective element of job satisfaction. Moods tend to be longer lasting but often weaker states of uncertain origin, while emotions are often more intense, short-lived and have a clear object or cause. Some research suggests moods are related to overall job satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions were also found to be significantly related to overall job satisfaction. Frequency of experiencing net positive emotion will be a better predictor of overall job satisfaction than will intensity of positive emotion when it is experienced. Emotion work (or emotion management) refers to various types of efforts to manage emotional states and displays. Emotion management includes all of the conscious and unconscious efforts to increase, maintain, or decrease one or more components of an emotion. Although early studies of the consequences of emotional work emphasized its harmful effects on workers, studies of workers in a variety of occupations suggest that the consequences of emotional work are not uniformly negative.
It was found that suppression of unpleasant emotions decreases job satisfaction and the amplification of pleasant emotions increases job satisfaction. The understanding of how emotion regulation relates to job satisfaction concerns two models: 1. Emotional dissonance. Emotional dissonance is a state of discrepancy between public displays of emotions and internal experiences of emotions that often follows the process of emotion regulation. Emotional dissonance is associated with high emotional exhaustion, low organizational commitment, and low job satisfaction. 2. Social interaction model. Taking the social interaction perspective, workers’ emotion regulation might beget responses from others during interpersonal encounters that subsequently impact their own job satisfaction. For example: The accumulation of favorable responses to displays of pleasant emotions might positively affect job satisfaction. Genetics
It has been well documented that genetics influence a variety of individual differences. Some research suggests genetics also play a role in the intrinsic, direct experiences of job satisfaction like challenge or achievement (as opposed to extrinsic, environmental factors like working conditions). One experiment used sets of monozygotic twins, reared apart, to test for the existence of genetic influence on job satisfaction. While the results indicate the majority of the variance in job satisfaction was due to environmental factors (70%), genetic influence is still a minor factor. Genetic heritability was also suggested for several of the job characteristics measured in the experiment, such as complexity level, motor skill requirements, and physical Personality
Some research suggests an association between personality and job satisfaction. Specifically, this research describes the role of negative affectivity and positive affectivity. Negative affectivity is related strongly to the personality trait of neuroticism. Individuals high in negative affectivity are more prone to experience less job satisfaction. Positive affectivity is related strongly to the personality trait of extraversion. Those high in positive affectivity are more prone to be satisfied in most dimensions of their life, including their job. Differences in affectivity likely impact how individuals will perceive objective job circumstances like pay and working conditions, thus affecting their satisfaction in that job. Measuring job satisfaction
There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers. This data are sometimes collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or can’t decide (indicated by ‘?’) in response to whether given statements accurately describe one’s job.
A related scale is the Job in general index, which asks employees how satisfying their job is in a broad overall sense. In certain situations, it can be more useful than the JDI because rather than focusing on individual facets, it asks about work satisfaction in general. Other job satisfaction questionnaires include: the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ), the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS), and the Faces Scale. The MSQ measures job satisfaction in 20 facets and has a long form with 100 questions (five items from each facet) and a short form with 20 questions (one item from each facet). The JSS is a 36 item questionnaire that measures nine facets of job satisfaction. Finally, the Faces Scale of job satisfaction, one of the first scales used widely, measured overall job satisfaction with just one item which participants respond to by choosing a face. Importance to Worker and Organization
Frequently, work underlies self-esteem and identity while unemployment lowers self-worth and produces anxiety. At the same time, monotonous jobs can erode a worker’s initiative and enthusiasm and can lead to absenteeism and unnecessary turnover. Job satisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and self-development. To the worker, job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that often leads to a positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative, flexible, innovative, and loyal. Importance to Worker and Organization
Frequently, work underlies self-esteem and identity while unemployment lowers self-worth and producesanxiety. At the same time,monotonous jobs can erode a worker’s initiative and enthusiasm and can lead toabsenteeismand unnecessary turnover. Jobsatisfaction and occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and self-development. To the worker, job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that often leads to a positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative, flexible, innovative, and loyal.- 1 – For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and committed to high quality performance. Increased productivity€”the quantity and quality of output per hour worked€”seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life. It is important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent.
However, studies dating back to Herzberg’s (1957) have shown at least low correlation between high morale and high productivity, and it does seem logical that more satisfied workers will tend to add more value to an organization. Unhappy employees, who are motivated by fear of jobless, will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. Though fear is a powerful motivator, it is also a temporary one, and as soon as the threat is lifted performance willdecline.Tangible ways in which job satisfaction benefits the organization include reduction incompliant and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked to a more healthy work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, Brown (1996) notes that some employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers, thus protecting the “bottom line.” No wonder Andrew Carnegie is quoted as saying: “Take away my people, but leave my factories, and soon grass will grow on the factory floors. Take away my factories, but leave my people, and soon we will have a new and better factory”
Creating Job Satisfaction
So, how is job satisfaction created? What are the elements of a job that create job satisfaction? Organizations can help to create job satisfaction by putting systems in place that will ensure that workers are challenged and then rewarded for being successful. Organizations that aspire to creating a work environment that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following:
1. Flexible work arrangements, possibly including telecommuting
2. Training and other professional growth opportunities
3. Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to “put his or her signature” on the finished product
4. Opportunities to use one’s talents and to be creative
5. Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one’s own work
6. A stable, secure work environment that includes job security/continuity
7. An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides timely feedback as well as congenial team members
8. Flexible benefits, such as child-care and exercise facilities
* Up-to-date technology
* Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion.
Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies from one worker to another and from day to day. Apart from the factors mentioned above, job satisfaction is also influenced by the employee’s personal characteristics, the manager’s personal characteristics and management style, and the nature of the work itself. Managers who want to maintain a high level of job satisfaction in the work force must try to understand the needs of each member of the work force. For example, when creating work teams, managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing people with similar backgrounds, experiences, or needs in the same workgroup. Also, managers can enhance job satisfaction by carefully matching workers with the type- 3 -of work. For example, a person who does not pay attention to detail would hardly make a good inspector, and a shy worker is unlikely to be a good salesperson.
As much as possible, managers should match job tasks to employees’ personalities. Managers who are serious about the job satisfaction of workers can also take other deliberate steps to create a stimulating work environment. One such step is job enrichment Job enrichments a deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in the work itself. Job enrichment usually includes increased responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and achievement. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee motivation and job satisfaction include AT&T, IBM, and General Motors (Daft, 1997).
Good management has the potential for creating high morale, high productivity, and a sense of purpose and meaning for the organization and its employees. Empirical findings show that job characteristics such as pay, promotional opportunity, task clarity and significance, and skills utilization, as well as organizational characteristics such as commitment and relationship with supervisors and co-workers, have significant effects on job satisfaction. These job characteristics can be carefully managed to enhance job satisfaction. Of course, a worker who takes some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction will probably find many more satisfying elements in the work environment. Everett (1995) suggests that employees ask themselves the following questions:
* When have I come closest to expressing my full potential in a work situation?
* What did it look like?
* What aspects of the workplace were most supportive?
* What aspects of the work itself were most satisfying?
* What did I learn from that experience that could be applied to the present situation?-
History of the company:
Indroyal furniture company private limited is an Indian arm of well known furniture manufactures Royal Place Group of companies, based at Ajman, U.A.E. Having base also in chine through Emir international furniture co-with top-notch technology & manufacturing facilities we aspire to life your dream rooms. Where you can feel the ambience.
In India, we focus on furniture manufacturing marketing, trading and the export of domestic as well as office furniture. To meet growing customer demands, we have set up an extensive network of 14 company owned outlets and 12 dealer networks spread throughout south India.
We have our factories based in Tenkasi, Tamilnadu and KinfraPark, Trivandrum. The three factories combined cover a total area of 125000 sq.ft sprawling over 100 acres. Kinfra Park, Trivandrum deals with all export activities of the company. We maintain an exclusive export oriented unit (EOU) here. Our Tamilnadu branch deals with commission of all activities and orders in the local scenario. Over the years we have put together a brilliant team of dedicated and technology skilled employee complimented with the use of up-to-date technology we great furniture that leaves customer overwhelmed. We engaged principally in the manufacture of products like sofas, Bedroom set, office furniture, Rupper wood panels, Boards, Mattress, pillows etc., Products:
Indroyal furniture is involved in the manufacturing, marketing, trading and the export of a wide range of sofa sets. The sofas are made of pure leather which offers a comfortable seating to the visitors. These are offered at market leading rates. 2. Bedroom Sets:
A distinct range of superior quality bedroom sets is manufactured and supplied by indroyal furniture. This wide range of superior furniture set as crafted by the skilled crafts man of the organization and are available in various sizes/designs and colors. 3. Office furniture:
The office furniture consists of the sofas, computer tables, centre tables, chairs etc and as more officers are coming up so is the demand of furniture is increasing.
4. Dining tables:
The dining tables are designed in accordance with the stylish and classic designs that add a royal look to the dining room. They use high grade raw materials for the manufacturing of these tables which are exclusive available for their clients in different varieties. 5. Ward robes:
Indroyal furniture is offering wooden wardrobes in a variety of designs and pattern. The company offering is of the most varied products to help buyers to make a deal at the pocket friendug rates. Objectives of the company:
The main objective is 100 corers in 2015.
* Customer Satisfaction
* Quality products
* Timely delivery work
* Effective and quality management system
* Smooth relationship between workers and superior.
HR ManagerFactory Manager Accounts Manager
HR executive Production Manager Accountant
Assistant Production Manager
To know the A STUDY ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO INDROYAL FURNITURE COMPANY (P) LTD, Ayikudy, Tirunelveli (Dt). Secondary Objectives:
* To find out the current satisfaction level of employees INDROYAL furniture company (P) ltd. * To study related to the factors influencing the satisfaction of employees in their respective job. * To find out the relationship between employees and employer and also among employees. * To identify the difficulty faced by employees in performing their job. * To offer various suggestions to improve job satisfaction.
2.2 Scope of the study:
* This study gives valuable information regarding to the workmen’s satisfaction at Indroyal furniture company private limited. * With the help of the study and also from the suggestions given by the employees the company can provide the necessary facilities and changes, which the employees expect.
2.3 Need for the study:
* To study the satisfaction of employees.
* To know the employee requirements.
* To study team sprit among them.
* To study the internal environment towards the employees.
Indroyal furniture company private limited has nearly 190 employees. The company is highly labour oriented, the organization should satisfy the employees and so this project aims to study the satisfaction level of employees.
2.4 Limitations of the study:
* It was difficult to meet all the respondents in the unit due to shift constraints. * The respondents were reluctant to answer due to their busy schedule. * Due to time constraint only 100 workmen were taken as sample out of 190, (52.63% of sample). * Time is a limited factor.
3.1 RESEARCH METHODLOGY
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem it may be understand as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. Research
Research is an organized, Systematic, data based, critical, scientific, inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the purpose of finding answers of solutions to it. Research design
The research design of this study is descriptive research. The descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characterized of a particular individual or of a group. The studies concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts & characteristics concerning individual, group or situation are all examples of descriptive research studies. Sampling
Sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number element from the population, so that a study of the sample and an understanding for it properties or characteristics would make it possible for us to generalize such properties or characteristics to the population element. Sampling type
* Probability sampling
* Non probability sampling
In this sampling each unit of the universe has been known and has equal chance of being selected. The tools used for selection are lots or random numbers. Non-Probability sampling:
In this sampling each unit of the universe has been known and has not equal chance of being selected. The tools used for selection are lots or random numbers. Sampling design
A research design is considered as the framework or plan for a study guides as well as helps the date collection and analysis of data. The search design may be exploratory, descriptive and experimental for the present study. The descriptive research design is adopted for this project. Sampling Method:
Probability sampling has been used in which simple random sampling was used for collecting the data. Area of Study:
Employees of the indroyal furniture private limited at KAMPLY nearby Ayikudy, Triunelveli (Dt). Sample Size:
For this study, 100 employees were selected as a sample size out of 190 populations. Sources of data:
* Primary data
* Secondary data
Primary data consist of original information collected for specific purpose. The primary data for this research was collected through a direct survey with the respondents guided by a structured questionnaire. The questions were structured and directed and direct as to make respondents understand easily. Secondary data:
Secondary data consist of information that already exist somewhere, have been collected for specific purpose in the study. The secondary data for this study collected from company profile, and website. * For this study Primary data is used for collecting data from respondents through questionnaire. * Secondary data used for reference of review of literature, company profile are secondary used for this project. Data
The data are collected via survey. In these surveys, the respondents respond to a series of question based around a number of key. Research instrument: questionnaire
Meaning of questionnaire:
The questionnaire is the list of questions linked in survey method for collection of data. This questionnaire is generally filled in by informants. These questionnaires are handled over to the research that compiles and tabulates the data from the questionnaire. Types of questionnaire:
* Open ended questionnaire
* Close ended questionnaire
Open ended questions:
There are unstructured questions which provide full scope to the respondents to replay with their own choice of words and ideas. Closed ended questions:
These are structured questions which provide two or more alternative responses for the purpose of selecting their best choice. So the researcher use close questions for collecting primary data. The researcher select closed ended questionnaire for this study. Data Analysis:
The process of data collection and the sampling technique used in the study are given. The data obtained from the respondents need to be analyzed to understand the underlying structure of inter-relationship among variables. The software used is SPSS. Tools For Analyze:
The researcher has used the following statistical tools.
* SPSS is short for Statistical Package Social Science. In the current study the statistical tools used are:
* Frequency analysis