In this report, I am going to describe and explain the recruitment and selection process and the different stages that the business has to go through when filling a vacantly
Recruitment is when an organisation identifies a vacancy and from the range of applicants that require a job, the organisation employ the best candidate from the application forms received to fill the vacancy in order for the business to run efficiently. Selection is when all the applicants are shortlisted and from them, the employer chosen the best candidate for the job role.
The human resources (HR) department are required to work for the organisation by recruiting, training staff also motivating them to work hard in the business. If the employees are trained and recruited correctly, it would show that the business is successfully operating. There are also many other tasks the HR department do such as giving employees promotions and a wage/salary boost, annual appraisals and other employee benefits.
Recruitment can be internal or external depending on the job role and the vacancy being filled.
Internal recruitment is when an employee already within the business fills a vacancy rather than employing someone outside the business. The vacancy for internal recruitment can be advertised by putting up notice boards, on the intranet and it can also be discussed during staff meetings on who would be the best person to fill the vacancy. The advantages of recruiting internally in the business are that when performing an induction for them, it will not be as difficult because the employee would be familiar with the business workplace and surroundings also it is quicker and less expensive than recruiting someone externally because the amount of candidates is already been narrowed down to certain employees inside the business. The disadvantages if recruiting internally is that the person filling the vacancy from inside the business may not have all the required skills and qualifications to perform the job effectively and by recruiting someone externally offers a versatile range of skills, qualities, experience and qualifications.
External recruitment is when someone from outside the business is employed to fill a vacancy. This is a more common approach when recruiting as there is a larger range of candidates that have different skills and abilities. There are many ways to recruit externally. Most businesses will advertise using media such as the internet, newspapers, company newsletters and magazines. Another way to recruit is to go to the job centre and tell them that the company has a vacancy and eventually there will be a range of different candidates with different levels of experience, qualifications and skills. The advantages of using external recruitment are that a wider audience can be reached which increases the chance that the business will be able to recruit the skills it needs also the disadvantages mentioned for internal recruitment are advantages of external recruitment. The disadvantages of external recruitment are firstly even if the new employee has all the experience and skills required for the job, he may not be able to adapt to the businesses system and therefore will take longer to familiarize with the workplace and the employees however with internal recruitment, you would not have this problem.
During the recruitment process, candidates must go through seven different stages before a suitable candidate can be chosen and made an employee in the business. This applies to both internal and external recruitment.
The seven stages are:
1) Identify a vacancy – This is when the business makes it known that a job is available and currently vacant so this could be because an employee has either left the business and this could be for a number of different reasons for example One reason could be that they have had a disagreement and there has been conflict between them and the owner or manager or another reason could be because they have had a better offer from a different business and they are receiving a better wage or salary. Recruitment does not have to be permanent as female employees could be on a maternity leave or an employee could be sick for a long time so they will need someone to cover for them while they return to their job and in these cases, most businesses would internally recruit someone and the advantages of this are it’s quicker and causes less hassle. Human resources will need to formally agree with the department that is requiring an employee to fill the vacancy so a replacement can be searched for immediately. Since recruiting employees cost a large amount of money, the business will only hire employees if it is absolutely vital for their business to run efficiently as the money could be spent on other parts of the business such as paying off any bills or ordering stock.
2) Draw up a job description – This is when the job is described in detail so firstly, the name of the job or job title. This is important because it gives a brief ideas of what the job involves e.g. if the job that is a marketing director, the candidates applying for the job will know what they are applying for just from the name. Marketing means to advertise the products and make sure the customers are aware of what products the business offers and persuade them to buy it. Some job titles may change over time such as in schools, the head teacher may chance to principal or head master to give a different feel to the job and possibly increase the prestige and responsibility of the job.
Job description also includes employment conditions such as how much the employee will get paid and how many hours a work so for example a cashier could get ï¿½5.50 per hour so if they work 8 hours a week for 6 days then they will receive aï¿½264 a week.
The employee will also need to know how much pay they will receive and that depends on whether the business pays an annual salary or wages every week. If the employee is temporarily working then they may receive the same pay as the employee they are covering for e.g. john is a cashier who earns ï¿½7 an hour and he is off sick long term so an internal employee is recruited and will receive the same pay until john is healthy and fit enough to work again. The business will be looking to recruit someone that not only matches the job description but also has additional qualities which will make them be more conspicuous.
Finally, the job description will include duties and responsibilities that are involved in the job and have to be performed on a daily basis so the applicants will understand how important the job is and how hard they will have to work. Job security is another element in the job description which will tell the employee how long they are being employed for because not all jobs are permanent as mentioned before, employers can just temporarily fill a vacancy and once that person returns to their job, the temporary employee will have to leave the job. The job description will also have a large variety of candidates all after the same job with different skills and traits.
This is an example of a job description. It shows what the job is (which is a technical support engineer), the required skills but also useful and desirable extra skills which could be the difference to whether they are recruited or not and the qualifications and experience are required also. The desired skills mention what experience they have so has the candidate worked before and if so how long for, education is their school, college and university placements and what they have achieved in the time they have spent there also the work status is what type of job they like as there is part- time which is only a couple of hours so no more than 30 hours in a week. full-time work is over 30 hours a week and this shows that they may in the job for a long time and the befits of working full time are that the organization will provide you with annual leave, sick leave and health insurance also the hours they work are more flexible however, the most popular and more rewarding benefit is the fact that full time workers will get paid more money that part time workers because they are dedicating more time to the business.
3) Draw up a person specification – This is when the employer entails the physical, mental and any other requirement requirements that a candidate needs in order to perform the tasks effectively and successfully such as training and experience e.g. if the business was to be a chauffeur, the person applying for the job would probably need a long driving career which would show that they have a lot of experience and also be able to drive under pressure and quickly.
professional qualifications such as GCSE’s and A-level qualifications such as GCE’s will also be required to show they have a thorough understanding of the job and may make it easier for them to perform the job e.g. an accountant will need a range of different qualifications so the requirements may be that they will need a Degree, preferably in maths, accountancy, business studies, economics or finance. However, it is possible to become an accountant with lower school qualifications. Without A Levels it is possible to acquire the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) qualification, which is fully recognised in the trade. Office juniors can work up to accountant level, but you have to have GCSEs and preferably A Level to begin with. Qualifications show that the candidate has been studying in recent years and are prepared for them job they are going to apply for.
Experience is also required in the person specification as it could be the different to whether a candidate is employed or not. Having a high level of experience in a certain field of work will show that the candidate is well trained and has the acquired skills for the job and also shows that they will require less training e.g. if the job being applied for was a cashier, someone who has already worked in other businesses undertaking the same job role will know what they are doing so they don’t need a very detailed induction and require less training also they may be able to generate a higher income perform their tasks more efficiently. A candidate new to the field of work may find it more difficult to get the job will sufficient experience as they may have never done this job before however they me able to bring new ideas or if they have performed similar jobs then they can use that knowledge to perform the job as a cashier.
Candidates must also have competence which is the ability of a person to perform tasks and take on certain responsible. The more competent a person is, the better they can perform their duties e.g. a business would rather have a more competent employee that can do their job to a high standard by producing quality output results such as high sales or revenue because it would prove more successful in the long run also having a incompetent employee would require the business to waste their time and money training them especially if they are young candidates who have possibly just finished their education or have finished a degree.
The advantages of having a competent employee are that they are reliable for getting their task done efficiently and are resilient to their job. The disadvantage could be that since they may be extremely good at one job but if told to perform a different task they may struggle as it may not play to their strengths e.g. if the job was a reporter, and the employee was very competent in their job but then their manager asks them to illustrate their findings in a more abstract such as creating a presentation, this does not work well for them as they may be so accustomed to writing reports that they don’t have a clue how to create a presentation and this is a disadvantage for competent employees as they don’t offer that versatility.
Essential skills will have to be met in order to get the job such as in a call centre, the person will definitely need fluent communication and also be responsive to customer calls. Essential skills are what an employee should have in order to complete the job and if they don’t have the essential criteria then they may be rejected. They can also have personal or desirable skills such as being able to work a computer effectively so they can type up emails quickly rather than constantly calling or being able to co-operate in a team and possibly even lead a team to successfully complete a task or assignment. They are not absolutely necessary but will help them and make them look like a stronger candidate so they may be a possibility that they are shortlisted and interviewed. The criteria from the person specification are important when shortlisting the candidates as only the best will be put through to the interview stage and then finally accepted.
This is an example of a person specification for film co-ordination and development. It shows what skills are compulsory or essential and what skills are optional or desirable and can help candidates when it comes to shortlisting as they are more likely to be chosen than a different person who has fewer additional skills. Candidates must be versatile and not just resilient for the job. The job shows that in the qualifications category they need a couple of A-level or equivalent qualifications but there are also desirable skills they could have such as GCSE’s in the field of work possibly drama. It shows that the candidate must have a minimum of 2 years’ experience and be able to manage finances and use ICT well however they can also have desirable skills such as being able to manage and supervise staff. Personal aptitude and skills are general skills that a candidate should have or either picked up from past jobs and experience such as communication and teamwork skills. Disposition is something that would be useful to have and would possibly make their job more enjoyable. Any other requirements can be helpful as it would also make them a stronger candidate.
4) Advertise the Vacancy – This is when the vacancy is publicised and the business try to get unemployed people to apply for the job. One way to advertise the job is to put it on a local newspaper as they are read by many business men and women so the business can receive a few applicants that are in need of a job and have scanned through a newspaper and found one.
The advantages of this are that it will be read by a variety of people and hopefully attract more candidates. The job advertisement is written by the personnel department similarly when marketing a product. The presentation of the advertisement is important as the candidates will receive their first impressions from it and will judge whether it is good or not and also whether they would like to work for the business. On the advertisement it should include the description of the job and mention the main requirements, where the job is going to be located so the candidates know where they will work, how much salary they are expected to receive however it may not be the exact amount on the advertisement as it may vary, address and contact numbers if necessary and the company logo. The more detail that is put into the advertisement the better and more informative it will be however making the advertisement too long can make it look unprofessional.
This is an example of a job advert for royal mail and as a job advert should, it includes all the important details such as the job title, company name, contact details and their salary. However it may not look very appealing. This advert is just to make sure that the general public is aware of the job and if anyone is interested and they meet the requirements then they may apply and possibly get shortlisted for an interview.
5) Shortlist the applicants – when short listing, the applications that were most appealing and may be considered for the job are listed by the human resources department. It is drawn up by using criteria from the person specification such as qualifications and experience that the candidate has to see if it is enough for them to be able to handle the new job they are applying for also any other skills and attributes they have acquired through other job would be helpful for the candidates. The selection process will begin and the employer will be looking to fill the vacancy with the best candidate amongst the applications. They will then all be individually contacted so an interview can be arranged. The candidates can be informed in many different ways such as ‘letters of initiation’ in which a brief document is sent to notify the candidates about whether they will be called up for an interview.
The suitable candidates will be those who meet the exact criteria of the job description so for example if the job was to be a IT technician and the job description required them to have 5 years experience working in a ICT related firm and also the business may ask for certain qualifications such as a degree in computing and A-Level’s in Maths and IT to a grade B standard. Those who meet these requirements will be shortlisted as suitable candidates because they meet the exact requirements or are slightly above these requirements however they are not guaranteed to get the job but have a good chance.
There is then possible candidates which may meet some of the requirements such as they may have the qualifications but not enough experience which could then mean if they are employed, they will have to go thorough a comprehensive induction programme and be well trained by a more experienced technician and this could cost the business a lot of money but on the other hand they may have some characteristics that other candidates don’t have such as they may be more able to speak multiple languages which could be helpful because the business may communicate with other countries on a regular basis with suppliers an customers. Finally those candidates who do not meet the requirements will be rejected and can no longer continue in the recruitment process. This can be down to a number of reasons with the most obvious being that they do not meet the requirements or they have provided false details. The job description and person specification must be used as the basis for short-listing.
6) Interview the applicants – The interviewer must also be prepared when interviewing the candidates that have been shortlisted. They will need to come up with a set of questions to ask the candidates and this can either be done themselves or they can get a panel of from the human resources department to do interview. The questions that are set must be asked to all candidates in the same manner as it states in the equal opportunities requirements policy. Since this will be the first time that the employer and candidate meet face-to-face, they will need to make a good impression by greeting them with a warm welcome and shaking hands is a good way to start a mutual relationship with the employer since the interview may be appointed the vacancy.
The interviewer or panel will have a list of criteria to see how the candidate compares to the requirements for the job. It is essential that the interviewers carry copies of the candidate’s application forms, curriculum vitae and to support this, a covering letter will be required. To get the best out the candidates being interviewed, they must be relaxed and be able to answer questions calmly and correctly so the interview knows everything they need to know about the candidate and their personality. Questions in the interview should be have a mixture of open and closed questions and will be predetermined and should be all-round such as asking about previous jobs or company such as:
1) What do you think of the last company you worked for?
2) Why did you join your previous company?
3) Did they live up to your expectations?
4) Why are you leaving now?
5) What did you earn in your last job?
Also asking questions relating to the new job / company such as:
1) Why do you want this job?
2) What qualities do you think will be required for this job?
3) What can you contribute?
4) What interests you about our product (or service)?
5) What can we (the new company)
A list of questions could be asked relating to the candidate such as:
1) How do you handle criticism?
2) How would you describe yourself?
3) How would others describe you?
4) Do you consider yourself successful?
5) What was your greatest success?
Body language and posture is also important during an interview as candidates are not just judged on their communication skills. The interviewer and the candidate want it run as smoothly as possible and both should sit in the correct way such as having their feet firmly on the floor and using gestures with hands if necessary For it portrays that you’ve difficulties controlling your anxiety about the interview process if the candidate is not seated comfortably. Making good eye contact with the candidate being interviewed is very crucial. The feeling of not getting the interviewee’s attention can be frustrating and will give the wrong impression to the interviewer. When asked a question that the candidate finds difficult and requires time to think, it is not good to frown. Facing the question with a smile proves that you’re composed at stressful situations.
When closing the interview, the candidate should possibly raise any questions they have for the job role or about the business they will be working for however, there shouldn’t be a long time spent asking questions as can get tedious. The interviewer should then politely thank the candidate for appearing and answering the questions they have been asked and hope they have a safe journey home.
7) Select and Appoint the Best Candidate – this is the final stage of the recruitment process were candidates have been interviewed everything is taken into account and the interview is then evaluated. The employer will select the candidate that has been exceptional throughout the process and has been rated highly in all areas.
The candidate will be contacted via a telephone call to notify them that they have got the job and then it is up to the candidate on whether they would like to fill the vacancy and if they accept, they will have to make a formal offer and if it goes according to plan, the candidate and the employer will meet formally to finalise the process of recruitment and formally agree on the job however, the employer will want references before the candidate takes on the job. This is known as the appointment stage. Once they have been contacted and recruited into the business, They are expected to start their new job however, if the chosen candidate should refuse the job then the business will require the second best candidate to step forward and they will be contacted immediately to inform them of what has happened and why the decision has changed. For the unfortunate candidates that have not got the job and have been rejected, the will be provided with feedback on why they have not been employed and how well their interview went.
Letters of Application
An application form is used by a candidate to apply for the job they want by giving personal details such as name, date of birth and address also giving employment details such as previous work and years of experience. It should also include the candidates education and qualifications they have achieved such as GCSE’s, A levels and possibly a degree in a selected subject e.g. applying to be a doctor will require a degree in medicine and exceptional GCSE and A-level grades were most candidates will possibly have A* – B and a large amount of work experience will have to be accumulated to show they can carry out the job role and the tasks it has effectively. There is then a letter of application in which more information about a candidate is given in which they state why they should be chosen above all the other candidates.
When the employer compares the job letters of application, they are looking for a high profile and a unique candidate and to find out more about each candidate, they are interviewed individually. Some candidates may have more interviews than others and this is not necessarily a good or bad thing as it is used to evaluate the candidates and get more insight into their education and background as employers want to recruit someone that is resilient and determined to work hard and achieve success for the business also they want a charismatic and academic.
The letter should be written formally and structured with a sophisticated introduction by referring to them as sir/ madam, an informative main body on why they should be chosen and their reason for applying for the job and finally a solid ending to conclude on the candidate’s skills and experiences.
The letter should support the Curriculum Vitae and application form which contains their references. There should be minimal if any, spelling, grammar and punctuation mistakes, it should be word-processed on a computer and written in the candidates own words as copying can the candidate sound unintelligent and it is rather pointless. The candidate should also keep a backup copy of the application should it become stolen or lost.
This is an example of a job application form for a job at Leicester county council. This is only the first 2 pages of the application however as there were another 6 pages that are also part of the application and it had sections that needed to be filled in which included personal and additional details (such as work experience, skills, qualifications and health conditions). It may take employers a while to process the applications because usually there will be more than 1 candidate applying for them job. Once the applications have been seen to and carefully noted, a shortlist is drawn for the applicants that the employer will want to interview. It is important to give correct details and make sure all compulsory sections have been filled such as the personal details and the job they candidate will apply for.
A covering letter is sent along with other documents (such as the CV and the application letter) to provide additional information about the candidate. Since it may be hard to structure, many candidates try to receive help in writing this letter to make sure it is elegantly written. While a cover letter may be the last piece of an application, it is one of the most important elements of the finished whole, since it goes straight to the employer and can be the difference in whether someone is employed or not. For a covering letter to be well written and structured, it needs to be planned and drafted beforehand before a final version can be made and sent off to the employer. Research is highly recommended so that the candidate can reference the company’s recent activities or accomplishments. In addition, the cover letter usually addresses the specifics of the job opening with a line which briefly indicates that the writer is perfectly suited to the position. To write a covering letter takes patience and specific content has to be included in the letter.
Firstly, the candidate should explain in detail why they should be chosen and how they more distinctive than other candidates e.g. if the job applied for was a commercial banker, the candidate would need to have a reputation for making profit for the business also they must be able to promote the businesses image and services in an appealing way so the employer will be looking for someone who has this aptitude and experience.
The candidate must then explain how they can benefit the employer if they are chosen for an interview as if they don’t have any raw talents and business acumen then it would be meaningless in the employer using up the businesses funds to have the candidate work for them. The candidate should not be too on-going as to make it very long and boring also the letter should be written on a one side of a standard size A4 paper with clear structure and presentational styles such as headings and readable font style and the size should not be too small otherwise it could irritate the employer as they would have trouble reading the letter. The letter should be concluded with an authorised signature which is clear and distinct. If the candidate however has some form of disability then they may feel that it does not affect their ability to do the job, but that the employer may not view them objectively if the disability is declared. Disclosure before interview is not a legal requirement, so you can make your own decision on this, but remember that there is a good chance that disclosure could highlight your personal skills and qualities to the employer.
A Curriculum vitae is a summary of the candidate’s academic and work history at present. A CV also may include details about teaching, experience, publications (books, articles, research papers, unpublished manuscripts, or book chapters), and Academic honours and awards. A CV can be used for teaching or research opportunities, applying for fellowships or for further academic training. Some research positions in industry may also prefer a CV rather than a resume however they are both very similar.
In a CV, there should be certain stages a candidate should follow. Firstly, the candidate should assemble everything they know or can find about themselves such as their academic profile ranging from candidates GCSE’s, A -levels and if they have done a Degree in a particular field e.g. engineering or medicine then it definitely should be mentioned as it may be in the job description as one of the requirements of the job. If the candidate has worked before either part-time, full-time or temporarily then this information could be important so it should be gathered for when writing up the CV. Candidate can also put down leisure and sporting activities they do such as if they play for a sports club or go to the gym.
The second stage is writing up a draft CV once all the information has been accumulated. The draft should be a high standard as the better it is the less refinement and corrections will have to be made to it. The draft can be reviewed by family and friends to receive feedback on how well it has been structured and if the content that has been written inside is suitable. A list of references will have to be made for the employer to contact to make sure that none of the information provided is false also they are able to find out additional information about the candidate as the references will have been someone the candidate has known for a long time e.g. the head teacher or tutor is a good reference put down if the candidate has had an academic life as a student of a school because the relationship between the student and the teacher would have been for many years. Once the draft has been made and reviewed it can be edited as many times necessary until the candidate is satisfied with the result and has proof read it for Spelling and grammar mistakes. To make the CV look appealing and professional, it should always be typed up on a computer with word processing software such as Microsoft word which is part of the Office Package software. The CV can be divided into several different sections or headings.
A personal profile should be included in the CV which includes the full name of the candidate, date of birth, Address and contact numbers such as telephone or mobile number. Then the candidate mention their aims and objectives or goals or goals however, any negative remarks or information should conceivably be left out.
Along with education where the candidate may have received various qualifications in their school life, if they have had any additional achievements or skills then it would also be helpful for them if they are included in the CV such as if they went to any first aid classes and learnt how to deal with injuries and accidents then it would help them because in the workplace this can happen very often and one of the most common cases is slip trips in which an employee could be carrying something heavy and then slip over from a puddle of water and it could land on their arm or their leg and severely injure them so if a candidate was trained in first aid then they would be able to deal with this situation with coolness and ease.
If the job being applied for was IT related then a candidate with these skills such as being able to use specialist software and able to world-process documents swiftly and would have an advantage in getting accepted and shortlisted. Being multi-lingual can help in jobs like being an air host or a translator for a celebrity. Another skill that many people have in the modern society is being able to drive a car and this also has its benefits in the jobs that involve driving a vehicle and the more experience a person has, the more likely they are going to be chosen as they will be better at the job.
It isn’t enough just to apply with qualifications but candidates will also require relevant work experience depending on what they are applying for such as being a doctor will possibly require work in a pharmacy or the NHS perhaps and similarly with being a mechanic will require a knowledge of cars and how they work also they should have some experience in handling the machinery and internal mechanisms of a car. Candidates can also have worked previously part time or full time and employers will be interested to see what they have learnt and how it has helped them throughout their career also how it will help them carry out the new job. Using words such as accomplished and established in their CV’s shows that the candidate is fully trained in a certain job role.
If candidates have been put in situations where they have to be in control and responsible such as captain of the school football team or becoming class president/school council then it shows they have leadership skills and this would help them in the workplace as they will be able to lead a team effectively and also put an end to any disputes and conflict between employees. These traits are a great asset to have and increase the chances of getting employed.
This is an example of a candidate’s curriculum vitae and it shows the essential areas that have to be filled out such as the candidate’s education, work experience, personal and skills and experience. In the key skills section she discussed how she is able to work as a team also her degree in fashion shows she has a high level of knowledge in clothing and she has been self-employed at some time in her career, her education shows she has a little number of GCSE’s and BTEC qualifications. She has had work experience for the years 2000 – 2002 in three different jobs. She has also given a summary of her personal statement. This is not a perfect CV but can be used as a basis to create a better one. There are some important elements missing such as references.
The Induction process
The induction process is when a new employee begins their first days of work and therefore need to be shows the working environment and other employees which they may be working with e.g. if a marketing researcher was employed, they will need to first meet the marketing director and get to know them well as they will be working in the same department and on a daily basis also the marketing researcher will have to follow the orders and responsibilities given by the marketing director. There will also be others within the department that work under the marketing director such as advertising and design specialists. The benefits of having an induction are that the successful applicant will know how the business works and also will learn more about their job role and if there are employees working around them, they can also build long-term relationships with them. The drawbacks are only to the employer in which it wastes time as they could be doing other important work for the business.
The induction is only given to a successful applicant that has been recruited into the business through the recruitment and selection process. The induction will have to be prepared by the human resources department as they manage all the employees so new employees are no exception and they will require more assistance since it is there introduction to the business and they will get more familiar with their job, the employees and the workplace. The induction programme must include certain features.
> An awareness of the workings and objectives of a business
> An awareness of health and safety issues
> Requirements when absent, ill or late
> Introduction to management and workmates
> Identification of any immediate training needs
The induction programme needs to be able to help the new employee perform his tasks efficiently and also support the needs his job role e.g. an induction containing ICT tasks will not be required for a sales assistant because they may not be using computers often and sales is a separate function to the ICT department. Different businesses have different methods of carrying out an induction e.g. some induction may take a full working day while others may only take a further two or three days as they may have a larger job role and more tasks and responsibilities included in the job e.g. director of the business has one of the largest responsibilities and therefore their tasks are more important and therefore they will have more tasks listed on their job description. An induction package will need to be creating a comprehensive induction package for the successful applicant that will need to include:
> The objectives of the induction so the business needs outline what they what to achieve from performing the induction for the employee so some outcome objectives could be set such as ” I want the employee to understand the working procedures” or ” I want the employee to know what employees they will be working with and communicating on a daily basis”. These are things that employee did not know at the start and cannot be picked up as it would not be mentioned on the job description or the advert.
> A business must think about how long the induction will take and come up with a suitable time table that will cover all the areas of the induction and then once the induction is complete, how can the employee begin their first couple of tasks in the business to get them started. This will all have to be planned beforehand. The employee also should be prepared and have all the required resources they need with them.
> The main induction activities will also need to be listed as the new employee will be involved in these activities such as the health and safety training which is important for any injuries or cuts and also there could be team building activities to improve co-operation and communication between employees which the successful applicant can learn and build on as there will be times where strong teamwork is required in the business e.g. when launching a new product out on the market, all department must be fully committed to their job.
Businesses often motivate their employees if they want them to stay productive or become more productive which results in being more competitive. Businesses use different methods to motivate their employees some of these would be Financial incentives such as giving bonuses, increasing salaries and wages of employees depending on the amount of output, profit sharing and share options. Businesses can also motivate with non-financial incentives such as goal setting, perks and status symbols, appraisals and meeting training requirements. A pay should: Be effective in recruiting the right quantity and quality of labour this means that the employee has to output a good amount of work and output services or products at standard quality.
Keep labour cost low which means that they should keep the cost of the labour low so they can stay competitive and so they increase profit otherwise they will lose a lot of money because repeated advertising for new workers and paying for their training will cost them a lot of money. Help motivate and encourage staff members and encourage staff to put more effort into their work so they produce more quality and quantity. Businesses could also give additional rewards such as bonuses increased wages for a period when they do extra hours e.g. a cashier might get paid extra if he or she covers for an absent member of staff and works over time. Most employees receive other benefits other than their basic wage this could be either financial or non-financial benefits. An example of a non-financial benefit would be giving the employee flexible hours e.g. the employee can replace 2-5 hours a week with another time. Businesses use different methods to calculate pay.
Flat rate is a set of rate of weekly or monthly pay, based on the amount of hours an employee has worked. For example a bus driver could get paid on flat rate. Time rate is when employees get paid per hour and they can work extra hours but this will be considered as overtime rate. For example private tutors can get paid on an hourly rate and could possibly do extra hours to get paid additional fees.
Another method is that is used by businesses is “piece rate” this is when employees get paid per product/service they give/produce. For example some factory work force get paid for producing each piece of clothing or when people produce footballs they often get paid per football or piece of clothing they produce. This counts only when products meet quality standards. This has an advantage which is this can motivate employees to produce more products so they get paid more and since they get paid per product they could get paid more a day.
Businesses also give bonuses to encourage for their effort and output. This could be paid due to additional profit made by employers due to extra profit made because of the employee’s extra effort and output. Businesses could pay this to encourage employees to do this again as a reward they will pay them a bonus. Commission is also a form of payment this is made as a percentage the salesperson has made. A good example of a job that gets paid a percentage of sales would be car dealers; they often get paid a percentage of the total cost of the cars they sold.
Output related pay schemes is when an employer pays his employees by the amount of output produced. Manual workers can get paid in this form. This form of payment includes time rate payments and an additional bonus or another incentive. For this payment many businesses have different standards. A standard allowable time is set according to the two stages. The worker’s pay is then determined according to the success of the last stage.
Performance related pay is now used by many organisations and businesses. Performance is counted as achieving company goals and aims. Managerial jobs are often affected by this type of payment. Going up to 75% percent of all employers use this type of payment method in some sort of form. Giving a bonus wherever achievement has been made can be a reward. Profit sharing involves giving profit related pay to employees or giving them a bonus because of the amount of profit made. This method gives the employee a clear insight in that whenever the business is successful it will bring him or her personal rewards. Share options is when a employee can take up optional shares in the company and this could encourage the employee into working harder and when he does work harder his share value will increase and will lead to personal success. Dividends get paid roughly twice per annum. Other than financial payments fringe benefits could provide the following: Sports, leisure and social facilities, time off work, private health and dental care, discount on company services and products, cheaper telephone costs, assistance when relocating, holiday entitlement, educational courses, cheaper meals or canteen services.
Other than financial payment businesses use non-financial payments to motivate their employees which could better the performance of the employee or increase output from the businesses or simply to create a stable and good long term relationship with the organisation. Some of these motivational aspects could be goal setting, appraises, work conditions and internal promotion.
Conditions of work, when someone starts a job he or she should be given a good working condition this increases motivation to keep the job and possibly get an even better working condition. In a workplace e.g. an office it should be safe, the working environment is bright clean and has fresh air e.g. a window or an air-conditioning and the office should not be too hot or too cold. These were physical conditions within a working environment. The working condition should have to be cultured in business this means that the work ethics should be positive and friendly to all sorts of characters, it should be positive as this increases motivation, no one would like to go to a place every day that they don’t like. A positive culture encourages people to increase work and it makes employees feel valued.
Internal promotion can also lead businesses to recruit new staff because if the internal employees gain promotion then the business will need other staff to fill in their posts. Internal promotion takes place because mainly companies encourage their staff to take on more challenging and better-paid posts within the business. When existing staff gain promotion then this means that the business will need new employees to replace those moved up the ranking.
Goal setting is a very common method used in businesses; goals can be set either for the whole organisation, departments, teams or individuals e.g. a business could aim to open up a new store in another part of the city. The employees get a sense of achievement when they achieve a goal and it can give them a feeling of personal fulfilment. Reaching goals and making achievements as an individual can increase to being promoted.
Another form of a motivational tool is perks and status symbols. Perks are given when an employee has done an excellent job or has done an extra task and is given a non-financial reward in return for example if a bus driver drives the bus for an extra rouï¿½ him and his family might be given free travel for the rest of the month. Giving status symbols might give employees the feeling that they are special and could motivate them into working hard for it or retaining it. Status symbols are usually physical rewards of working conditions for example receiving a better printer that prints silent and quick. Status symbols are often responded to very positive by employees.
Staff appraisals or staff development scheme is another method used to motivate employees to work harder by evaluating each employee’s performance and setting goals. They are conducted by a line manager or someone who has a similar status within a business and they will be known as (the appraisor) because they are going to be individually discussing with the employee which are called (the appraisee) because they are being appraised. Both individuals will sit down and discuss with the employee about previous performances and create targets so they are able to improve and become a more hard-working employee. The targets will not just be just set for employees alone but for the whole organisation.
There are several stages of staff appraisals:
1) The employee meets with the line manager so they can set targets and review on the performance of the employee and required job behaviours such as attributes, skills and attitudes.
2) The outcome of the meeting is recorded and usually signed by both parties.
3) The job-holder performs the job for a period of six months or a year.
4) At the end of the period, the job-holder and line manager or team leader meet again to review and discuss progress made. They draw up new action plans to deal with identified problems and agree targets and standards for the next period.
The legal dimension
Businesses must follow several laws and regulations that have been set by the government for when recruiting employees to work for the business. Setting these laws prevent discrimination between employers and applicants for when selecting who to work for the business and therefore the European union equal treatment directive made it against the law to discriminate on race, gender and religion. Age discrimination was also made unlawful from 2006.
The Sex discrimination Act was a legislation created in 1975 and enhanced in 1986 and it makes it illegal to disrespect people because of their gender so when this law was placed, all people must be treated equally. This legislation applies to men and women and during 1986 it was improved by adding additional situations such as employment so if a male and female candidate applied for a job and a male employer was comparing their person specifications and curriculum vitae’s then the male candidate cannot be chosen because he is of the same sex as the employer as that is discriminating the female candidate which is against the law.
Advertising or providing goods so employers cannot advertise for a certain gender to be employed as it is discrimination, facilities so in the workplace the employer must have male and female toilets for both to use and finally services and premises so a business cannot sell a car for just males and a car wash cannot be made just for females. Sex Discrimination can be direct and indirect. Direct sex discrimination means to be treated less favourably than someone of the opposite sex in similar circumstances so in employment, a business may have a females to work on the till. Indirect sex discrimination is when both are discriminated in the same situations but normally is targeted at one sex e.g. an employer requiring all their employees to work full-time. A lot more women have caring responsibilities for young children or dependant adults so they would find it much more difficult than men to work full-time.
The Race relations Act (1976 and 2000) is an act created by the government in which it provides protection from race discrimination in the fields of employment, education, training, housing, and the delivery of goods, facilities and services. it is unlawful to treat a person less favourably than others on the grounds of ‘race’, colour, nationality (including citizenship), and national or ethnic origin. The Act has both direct and indirect forms of discrimination to the race relations act. Direct discrimination is when a person is discriminated racially than another in a similar circumstance e.g. an employer treats a Black worker differently by removing him from the premises due to fear of customer dissatisfaction or external pressure from local community. Indirect discrimination is when the employer treats all workers the same way, whatever their race etc. but the result of the treatment is that workers of a particular racial group are disadvantaged e.g. Refusing to give someone a job or promote him or her because of stereotyped ideas about his or her abilities or conduct, based on his or her race. Another example could be or refusing to give someone a job or promotion on the grounds that customers will not like being served by a person of that race.
The disability discrimination Act (1995 and 2004) is for those are disabled. A disabled person is someone who is mentally or physically crippled and is unable to carry out day-to-day task and activities efficiently and therefore require special treatment. There are different forms of disabilities. Firstly it could be a substantial injury in which is only temporary e.g. if a employee has dislocated their arm or leg then they will be unable to work for a short period of time however once the limb has healed they will be able to work again as it is only a minor injury. There is then a long term disability in which it can last for 12 months or a life time e.g. a amputated arm or leg cannot be healed and therefore they will never have that part of their body again so this is classed as a life time impairment.
Another example of lifetime disability is when a part of their body is paralyzed so the nerves while never work and they are unable to move that side of their body. In the workplace, a disabled employee must be provided with special treatment by providing facilities such as ramps and lifts because they may be unable to walk and therefore they are seated on a wheelchair. Being in a wheelchair still allows the use of arms so they cannot be discriminated during recruitment in a job that only requires someone’s hands to be fully moveable e.g. a disabled candidate can still work as a cashier because they only needs their hands to scan the goods and work the counter also store the goods in a bag and exchange cash in return for goods with the customer.
The Employment Equality Regulations 2006 Act makes it unlawful for employers unreasonably discriminating against employee’s on grounds of age. This means that employers are not allowed to discriminate and not employ someone because of their age. This either could be young or old employees. The reason for this is because everyone must have the same rights of treatments. This can be in anyway either being in working environment or elsewhere. Furthermore, this act protects people from being treated differently from someone older or younger. For example: for a program specialist job, a senior male applicant and a young female candidate aged 23 have applied for it but the senior man did not get the job because of his age and the employer may have though he would not be able to handle the job and is too old. This is discrimination and this act protects the older man from being discriminated and therefore the employer will have to choose which candidate he would like based on the skills and other factors related to the field of work.