Article 1 cited 539 in Web of Science database (as of 25/3/13) Campion, M.A., Medsker, G.I., & Higgs, A.C. (1993). Relations between work group characteristics and effectiveness – implications for designing effective work group, Personnel Psychology, 46(4), 823-850.
This article provides readers with an in depth insight into the relationship between work group characteristics and how they relate to effectiveness. Also, providing readers with the correlation between the measures collected to measure work group design and the work group characteristics related to effectiveness. Such characteristics are: Job Design, Interdependence, Composition, Context and process; and the measures collected to measure these were: Productivity, Employee satisfaction and Manger Judgments of Effectiveness. The article is based on the topic of Personnel Psychology, relating to employees, their selection and position in work groups and other factors relating to their effectiveness.
Recently, work groups are gaining an increasing importance within many organizations and within this bring forth many potential opportunities and risks, so it has become vital for organizations to understand the characteristics that not only relate to work groups, but those that increase effectiveness and further put these into practice. Job Design relates to effectiveness through smaller characteristics that make up the design and bring forth motivation throughout a group setting. Task identity plays a big part in this, as once the group knows what the task is, how significant it is and how much it will vary throughout the group they are able to build up a set idea of how to tackle the work at hand and hence improving effectiveness as a group. Interdependence plays a huge role in all group settings, as it allows the group to delegate and further know where each other is at, thus allowing no one to carry the team or no one to slack off because the team relies on each other. The composition of a group can alter the overall effectiveness of the group, as this is how the group is made up and all of the characteristics that form the foundations of the group and how it is to work.
Context, relating to training and support when appropriately prepared is a huge boost to work group effectiveness; this teamed up with communication will lead to a harmony within the organisation and allow things to flow on smoother. As opposed to being sought as input characteristics (as the previous four are), process is considered to be the one that interprets the internal aspects of a group and how they relate to effectiveness, such as the sharing of the workload throughout the group making it easier to perform and complete, alongside good communication between the group and the belief that the group can be effective.
Personnel Psychology deals with the analysis and performance of employees and further employees interaction within a group and can be seen as essential in the establishment of groups in terms of satisfaction of the group and further all outcomes relating to work group effectiveness. It is essential to understand the diagnostics of a group of workers and to be able to form a bond in which they are able to work most efficiently and effectively. It is essential to keep the balance right within members of a group as it is essential that they find an equilibrium between production and satisfaction so they are able to work to their full potential.
The article studied the implications for designing effective work groups and did this through various studies through which they identified the consistency of the given characteristics throughout their studies and their primary role in the effectiveness of work groups. This data was studied to measure work group design against productivity, employee satisfaction & manager judgments of effectiveness. The results of which showed that work group characteristics correlated with effectiveness criteria alongside job design characteristics that were also very useful in predicting effectiveness. The implications of this data is that it can be used to design more effective work groups through proper analysis, the degree to which management is able to influence such factors. Furthermore, it allows managers to attain a better understanding of the work groups and hence maintain them better. Shows us the main points to workgroup design and raises the awareness of ones responsibility to the work group. Overall, allowing the greatest insight into work group design and the fundamentals in order to make these effective.