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Religion and Belief Systems in Australia Essay Sample

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Religion and Belief Systems in Australia Essay Sample

1. Contemporary Aboriginal Spiritualties
2.1. Discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming: * Kinship
* Refers to the complex relationships of blood and spirit that exists between Aboriginal people; based on familial and totem relations that govern Aboriginal life by determining clan issues. * The Dreaming has determined people’s kinship ties and still pervades through Kinship by: * Assigning responsibilities to transmit knowledge of the dreaming from elders to younger generations * Providing the basis on which aboriginal society is structured on; maintained since the beginning of the Dreaming * Defining spiritual and temporal identity to the aboriginal people * Kinship is also expressed through Totems which identify one’s kinship line and provide the individual with a direct link to sacred matters * Ceremonial Life

* Ceremonial life acknowledges the importance and existence of the Dreaming and maintains the bond between Aboriginal people and their spirituality. The following are common elements of ceremonial life: * Rituals heighten the presence of the Dreamings:

* Link the present world to the Dreamtime
* Re-animates the time Dreamtime for individuals
* Keeps the presence of the Dreaming alive and prevailing * Initiation ceremonies: define young people’s place in community & teaches about law and spiritual beliefs. * Art is used to communicate the dreaming:

* By providing maps of the land; clans, sacred sites, waterholes etc. * Used to pass on sacred knowledge
* Stories describe the Aboriginal law and lifestyle:
* Describe how ancestral beings move through land creating nature * Provide foundation for Aboriginal existence by explaining creation and sharing how dreaming shapes daily life * Used as a form of oral historypassing down Dreaming beliefs from one generation to another * Totems represent individual as they existed in the dreaming: * Believed that human spirits inhabit the air and are ‘dreamt’ into a woman’s body at the order of the totem * Creates transcendent bond between human and totem Links individual and ancestor spirit * Also gives a Dreaming kinship with other individuals bearing same totem. * Form of animal, plant or natural phenomena

* Totems carry ceremonial responsibilities (balance rights) * Ceremonies act as a means of preserving bond with spiritual world and Dreaming, and also and relationships between individuals, determined by kinship or friendship

* Obligations to the land and people
* The Dreaming…
* Is reflected in a special way in the land (sacred sites-ancestor beings dwell in land) * Connects all parts of the land (Dreaming tracks and song lines) * Is always present to the Aborigines in the land

* The Land…
* Is the whole environment
* Is the embodiment of traditional spirituality
* Is indivisibly united with humans through its sacred nature i.e. * Aborigines called to be custodians of the spirituality and physical being of the land * The land is synonymous with identity

* People were created from earth which has existed since the beginning of time therefore the sacred motherland, ‘My Country’ * Dreaming is inextricably connected to the land because: * It is the context of Dreaming storiesspirituality revolves around land * Provides the foundation for Aboriginal beliefs, traditions, rituals and laws 2.2. Discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualties in relation to: Dispossession: * Indigenous forced off landEuropeans claimed land as “Terra Nullius” * Europeans believed indigenous would die out otherwise, must be forced to assimilate * Attempted to breakdown Aboriginal culture with help from Christian missions i.e. orphanages for Stolen Generation * Some missionaries later on assisted in Land rights movements|

* Separation from the land
* Interfered with rituals and ceremonies
* Land contained dwellings of spirit beings & Dreaming tracks * Provided physical connection to Dreaming
* When displaced, ceremonies/dwellings become meaningless & individuals become spiritually and psychologically distressed * Lose stable basis of life as they lose the context for their spirituality * Land is the context of the Dreaming stories

* Spiritual world revolves around this
* Physical presence in the country was important to the people in keeping the lore (stories, songs, dances, art, customs) alive and passing it on. * Lose their identitythe land and Aborigines are inextricably connected * Separation from kinship groups

* Vital as they tie clans and families together, allocating roles and responsibilities within a community. * Separation means they lose structure of community and personal affiliations * Loss of identity due to the breaking up of community and destroying their spiritualityleads to psychological trauma and depression as individuals feel lost and lack identiy. * Lose their sense of culture

* Stolen Generations
* Due to the Commonwealth Aborigines Protection Act of 1907, many Aboriginal children were removed from families between 1910-1970 * Whilst in new homes, they suffered:
* Physical and sexual abuse
* Poor food and living conditions
* Received little education
* Forced to work
* Banned from speaking native language
* Separation from elders: no generation to pass knowledge, language and traditions to. This results in a loss of identity and self-esteem the Aboriginal culture deteriorated * Kinship ties were broken resulting in a loss of identity young indigenous generation lost in-between two opposing cultures in a struggle to find balance * As adults, they struggled to raise own childrenhad no +ve role model * Suffered depression, suicide, abuse of alcohol & drugs * Distrusted and resented govt. as a whole community

* Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (1996):
* Issued the ‘Bringing them home’ report which told of the horrific conditions Aboriginal children were forced to face * Alluded to genocide
Kevin Rudd’s Apology: * Aimed to mend relationships between indigenous community & Australian community, to move on without grief or resentment holding back nation * Acknowledged: * Unjust “…laws and policies of successive parliaments and governments that have inflicted profound grief, suffering and loss on these our fellow Australians.” * “…removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families and their country.” * The government was wrong in undertaking such actions.|

2.3. Outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement: The Land Rights Movement and the Dreaming: * Government
decisions in response to land claims which explored the right of Aboriginal peoples who had maintained continual contact with their traditional lands for hundreds of years before settlement * Both a religious and political movement * Aimed to secure the inherent rights of Aboriginal peoples to their land so that their religious and cultural integrity is preserved.

| What was it about?| What Happened?| Impact
Mabo Case 1992| * Led for Eddie Mabo from Murray Island, TSI, the Meriam people suing for land claims| * June 1992, High Court ruled in favour of Eddie Mabo * Able to prove continuous link to land and continued to practice law and customs with land before colonization.| * Overthrew the notion of Terra Nullius * Set a precedent for future land rights claimsraised awareness about the existence of “Native Tittle Act”| Native Title Act 1993| * The communal or individual rights/interests of Aboriginals in relation to traditional land and water| * Acknowledged Aborigines’ existence before European settlement & them as original custodians of land| Wik Case 1996| * Concerned land that was subject to pastoral leases| * Wik people launched case against QLD claiming land was subject to pastoral lease * Native Title and pastoralist rights could co-exist.| * Native Title could co-exist with the rights of pastoralists. * Caused much concern for pastoralists.| Native Title Amendment Act 1997| * Passed by Howard govt.| * Native Title and leasehold titles could co-exist but when NT conflicted with pastoralist leases, rights of leaseholders would prevail| * NT does not prevent pastoralists from carrying out use of land they wish * Tougher tests for determining NT|

2.4. Analyse the importance of the Dreaming for the Land Rights movement * Crucial in helping Aboriginal people re-establish spiritual links with land, this was lost as a result of Euro. settlement * Land is spiritual medium between individuals and Dreaminga means of communication and living out Dreaming * Aboriginal people need land in order to fulfill rituals, ceremonies and cultureliving out the Dreaming & expressing spirituality * Land Rights is aimed allow the proper expression & empowerment of Dreaming. 2. Religious expression in Australia-1945 to the present

3.5. Outline changing patterns of religious adherence from 1945 to the present using census data * Church
* 1945-2001a decline in the no. of people identifying with 3 largest Christian denominations * National church Life survey 2001church attendance aged 40 and younger and declined but evangelical church attendance by under 40’s has risen * Church goers are more likely to be educated

* Catholicism remains largest Christian denomination
* Other Religions
* Other Religions increased from 0.5% of population in 1947 to 5.6% in 2006
* Large, rapid growth in other mainstream religions
* Buddhism (2.1%)
* Hinduism (0.7%)
* Islam (1.7%)
* Judaism (0.4%)

* No religion
1947| 1971| Currently|
0.3%| 6.7%| 26%|

3.6. Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to: Factor| Effect|
Christianity as the major religious tradition| * Still main religion in Australia (63% of population) due to historical factors * First fleet was primarily Christian i.e. Anglican, Methodist & Presbyterian. Only 10% Catholic * Immigration Restriction Act 1901 allowed only European(British) immigrants, majority brought Christian adherents and remained the same trend for at least 50 yrs * Institutionalization of Christianity has made it the predominant religion: * Early settlers were Christian and enforced laws according to Christian ideals * Christian schools and universities * Magazines, books * Holidays i.e. Easter, Christmas * Charitable organisations ie. St Vinnies, Sisters of St. Joseph * Christianity is declining due to introd. Of other religions * Many are denominational switching to smaller denoms. Ie. Pentecostal and Baptistyounger appeal and less strict| Immigration| * After WWII, immigration opened to other European nations i.e. Greecebrought other religions ie. Greek orthodox, Eastern Orthodox, influx of Judaism * Relaxation of White Australia Policy during 50’s & abolishment in ’73, diverse cultures & faiths have come through i.e.

* Asian immigrationBuddhism and Taoism, Hinduism (VN War) * Middle east i.e. Turkey & LebanonIslam (due to civil wars, Iraq war) * Further increase in Roman Catholicism * Many westerners found the lifestyle of Buddhists & Hindus appealing i.e. their concern for environment, value of lifedisillusioned with Western Religion hence, another factor for the change in religious landscape| Denominational Switching| * The exchange of church members between different Christian denominations * Past two decades has seen dramatic swing away from liberal churches to the more conservative * Pentecostal Church grew by 42% from 1986-1991 * Pentecostal Church grew by 25% from 1996-2006 * Only a small percentage of those numbers were from people with no church background * Pentecostal Church has grown in popularity because: * People switching here to relive older and more traditional religions * Pentecost allows for bored devotees to become excited about religion again

* People are seeking a stronger Christian faith and a closer relationship to God. * Seeking to feel part of a closely-bonded community and a more outward expression of faith i.e. Evangelists. * Seeking more flexibility from religion to suit their lifestyle i.e. * Some denominations have more lenient laws on divorce, abortion, contraception| Rise of New Age religions| * Spiritualties that focus on the body, mysticism, objects and rituals * Reasons for increase: * Ie. After VN war, individuals saw that failure of the government & other authoritarian bodies such as the Christian Church, in their role of providing spiritual and ethical guidance

* Media releases of clergymen involved in sexual abuse * Individualistic lifestylesneed to satisfy self-needs rather than involve self in community * Importance of mainstream religion is lessenedtolerant, multicultural and multifaith society * People are seeking to satisfy their questions in lifehence, the turn to mysticism, pyschics and palm reading for insight into future and answering questions of life & universe| Secularism| * Stating no religious affiliation; it is free from religion and spirituality and based on science, reason and fact * Reasons: * Influenced by the many wars throughout history which have been caused by the basis of religionperceive religion as the basis of war * Lesser need to conform to society * Freedom of religion/non-religion * Many perceive church processes as unfulfilling/bad experience * Disagreement with church doctrine and ethics|

3.7. Describe the impact of Christian ecumenical movements in Australia: Ecumenical Movement| About| Work| Impact|
National Council of Churches (NCCA)1970’s| * Began from Aus. Committee for WCC * Originally between Anglican and Protestant churches * Now, there are 15 members| * Bring together Aus. Churches in dialogue and practical cooperation * Work together to combat social justice issues i.e. racism * Discussion about faith-based issues * Work through commissions, networks and programs ie. Christian World Services (CWS) international programs i.e. Make Poverty History and the National Program on Refugees and Displaced People (NPRDP) * ATSI rights, reconciliation and living conditions| * Mutual understanding between denominationsless conflict & more unity * 2004, “Australian Churches; Covenanting together”churches come to a mutual agreement on such things as commitment to prayer, common beliefs, common goal of social justice, commitment to the sacraments.

* Such acceptance between Protestants, Catholics and Orthodox would not have been evident 30 yrs ago * Working together towards better causes & making the world a better place together * Through NPRDP, the churches have helped protect and resettle 100’s of refugees from Afghanistant, Iraq, East Timor i.e. free accommodation, English classes * NCCA have also est. the Australian National Dialogue of Christians, Muslims and Jews * Impact on political decisions i.e. ’66 resolution calling for change to White Australia Policyinspired movements against racism & encouraging multiculturalism| NSW Ecumenical Council1946| * Affiliated with NCCA * 15 member churches, incl. Roman Catholic| * Sponsors charitable events and initiatives, overlapping with NCCA * Seek to address issues of justice & equity for ATSI * Churches community housing * NCCA “House of Welcom”|

* Address issues of justice and equity for all people, adhering to belief that all people are equal and created in God’s image * A means for churches to build co-operation and understand for common mission of social justice, preaching the Gospel * Work towards building a strong network of churches united * Encouraged tolerance of individuals’ beliefs| Uniting Church| * Formed in 1977 * Union of 3 churches: Presbyterian, Congregat. Methodist, * Conregat. Union of Aus.| * Social justice * Making faith more accessible to minorities * Women’s rights * Work against discrimination and racism incl. ATSI and homosexual community| * Set precedent for Ecumenism * An example of the success of Ecumenism| 3.8. Evaluate the importance of interfaith dialogue in multi-faith Australia Australia is a multicultural society and whilst this is positive, it can lead to many misunderstandings and clashes in belief, particularly throughout religious faiths| * Clashes in belief have been the result of much blood shed, war and violence throughout history * Interfaith Dialogue aims to:

* Encourage greater unity and co-operation between various faiths * Promoting understanding , esp. in multcult. Society
* Not to debate/persuade but to create an understanding
* Alleviate any religious tensions that may accumulate to violence and conflict * Examples:
* The Australian National Dialogue of Christians, Muslims and Jews in 2003 by the NCCA: * Encourage dialogue between faiths in order to build understanding and harmony, whilst clarifying issues * Inter-faith dialogue is also on an international levelDecember, 2004, initiated by Aus. Foreign minister Alexander Downer, 14 countries with ten interfaith delegates met in Indonesia for the purpose of friendly dialogue. * He stated: “religion may well be the key to ‘cracking the global tensions problem’” * Archbishop George Pell : “interfaith dialogue is something that needs to be done now while peaceful relationships are still possible before there is a clash” * Impact:

* Promote peace and understanding
* Lessens the likelihood of religious conflictmutual understanding and mutual goals unite people * Society becomes more tolerant as religious groups learn to accept each other’s beliefs and differences * Issues such as racism and discrimination will no longer exist 3.9. Examine the relationship between Aboriginal spiritualties and religious traditions in the process of Reconciliation Reconciliation refers to the acknowledgement by various groups in Australia, of the injustices and dispossession inflicted upon Indigenous Australians, and also the commitment to rectify these wrongs.| * Reconciliation hence, includes Land Rights, Native Title and initiatives to help with ATSI psychological and spiritual healing * Most churches have helped facilitate reconciliation:

Church| Initiative |
Catholic Church| * 1998, joined with other churches to issue a statement called ‘Towards Reconciliation in Australian Society- Reconciliation and Aboriginal Australians’ which argued for the settlement of differences between ATSI and non-ATSI people * Catholic Bishops Conference Australia established a commission concerned with relations between the church and Aboriginal Communities * National Reconciliation Week sees a week of Catholic Initiatives promoting reconciliation particularly regarding Aboriginal health | Anglican Church| * Provides funding to National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Ecumenical Commission (NATSIEC), giving a voice to ATSI people and helping rebuild ATSI communities * Anglicare Australia and the Anglican Board of Missionaries formed the Anglican Reconciliation Working Group which provides accommodation, health care, family support for ATSI communities * National trust fund for ATSI Bishops has been established| Uniting Church and Reconciliation|

* Uniting Church National Assembly made formal apology to ATSI people to policies of the past and made a pledge for a better future * Uniting Aboriginal and Islander Christian Congress, Townsville works with ATSI people to promote healing and reparation of past wrongs| NCCA| * Acknowledge that many members of its church played a part in the stolen generation * Issued a public statement on the ‘Bringing Them Home’ report making recommendations in support of Reconciliation| Christianity as a whole| * Incorporating Aboriginal cultural practices into Church ceremonies * Many Aboriginal clergy incorporate symbols, rituals to express Christian concepts: * Coconut milk & damper/yam instead of wine and bread * Red ochre instead of ashes * Prayers in indigenous language| Judaism

1. Significant people and ideas
2.1. Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Judaism of Moses Maimonides * Born in Cordova, Spain in 1135 to a Jewish family
* Educated by his father, a rabbi and judge
* Moved to Egypt after persecution of Jews where Maimonides became a physician * One of the most influential and most important Jewish philosopher of the Middle Ages Work| What was it?| Contribution|

Commentary on the Mishneh-1186| * Incl. 13 fundamental beliefs of Judaims (13 Articles of Faith) * Summarised the principle beliefs of Judaism| * 13 Articles of faith considered cornerstone of Jewish faith * Widely quoted ie. “I believe with a full heart in the coming of the Messiah and even though he may tarry, I will still wait for him”last words that many Jews quoted before going to gas chambers in Holocaust * Explained the meaning of each Mishneh in a simple, systematic waymore accessible faith * Explained the link between studying Torah and putting into practicehow to live out faith * Provided the basis for Skulkhan Aruch by Joseph Karo, a code of law developed in C16th which Rabbis based their decision making on till this day. | Guide for the perplexed-1190| * Philosophical writings where he attempted to bring together Aristotle’s philosophy and Jewish theology| * Dealt with difficult theological questions provided Jews with a sense of direction and guidance * Reasoned the mitzvothhelped people to understand the reason for some unreasonable mitzvot * Influenced other Jewish philosophers also ie.

Leo Strauss * Showed that faith and reason were compatible and encouraged Jews to base faith on reason * Work was also used by Christian philosopher Thomas Aquinas. He was able to draw together the ideas of the Graeco-Roman world, the Muslim and Arab worlds and the Jewish and Western worlds. * At the time, it was controversial, dividing Judaism, but has had a profound influence on the medieval world and on Judaism since. * | Mishneh Torah-1185| * Summary of entire code of Jewish Law| * Instructed Jews how to behave in all situations without laboriously searching through the Talmud * Became standard guide for Jewish practice to this day * Made law succinct and precise, did not include discussion, debate, minority opinion etch that is found in Talmud * Detailed Jewish ritual and lawstouched on sexual ethics| Oath of Maimonides | * Personal code of behaviour in which he incorporated his Jewish beliefs into medical practices| * An example of how to live out one’s faith * “May I never see in the patient anything but a fellow creature in pain.”Shows how MM puts faith into practice, ignoring prejudice and differences and treating everyone as equalsThe Jewish Mission of social justice and working for the good of others.|

* Rabbi Shlomo Pines: ‘most influential Jewish thinker of the middle ages, quite possibly of all time’ 2.2. Analyse the impact of Moses Maimonides on Judaism * Simplified Jewish teachings and exemplified Jewish beliefs * Mishneh Torah

* Oath of Maimonides
* Him as a physician
* Influenced Non-Jews as well as Jews due to his status as philosopher
* Guide for the Perplexed
* Thomas Aquinas
* Leo Strauss
* His works are respected by jews and Muslims alikewrote much of his work in Arabic
* Influenced Judaism centuries later, even to this day
* Joseph Karo
* 13 Articles of Faith as a creed in Judaism
* His works are often quoted (i.E. Jews in Holocaust)
* His work spurred much criticism and divisions in Judaism, thus, highlighting the extent of his influence
* His ideas were initially criticised, sparked outrage within Judaism and secular society
* Conservative Jews feared that his work would deter people from studying the Torah.
* Believed Maimonides was endangering to role of oral tradition and rabbis
* He was also criticized by some who misinterpreted his works for not believing in the resurrection of the dead.
* Believed he drew too much on Greco-Roman philosophy which went against tradition
* In his Guide to the Perplexed, he was able to show that philosophy helped Jews to better understand their faith through philosophical concepts, thus countering the scepticism that philosophy and faith didn’t mix. 2. Ethics

3.3. Describe and explain Jewish ethical teaching on sexual ethics WHAT ARE ETHICS?
Ethics are the motivation based on the ideas of right and wrong. It is the explicit, philosophical and/or religious reflection on moral beliefs and practices to clarify what is right and wrong and what human beings should freely do or refrain from doing. SOURCES OF ETHICS

* The Halachah, which has the Torah/Hebrew Scriptures at its centre. The Ten Commandments are found in the Torah and is where Jews derive teachings on sexual ethics: * Exodus 5:3
* Deuteronomy 5:7
* Mishneh- Rabbinic text, also known as the Ethics of our Father * Aggadah- Talmudic literature, often poetic or wise sayings * Aristotle interpretation-Maimonides’ works incorporated Aristotle’s ethical influence. * Talmud

* Rabbinical teachings and advice
IMPORTANCE OF SEXUAL RELATIONS IN JUDAISM:
* Sex involves heart and mind, as well as body
* Sacred, a divine decree that man and woman become “one flesh” (Genesis 2:24) * Viewed as healthy and good within the sanctity of marriage (Orthodox) * Reinforces bond of love and attachment

* Progressive Jews accept sex in any relationship under covenant, one that is marked by faithfulness and justice * Important for procreationEvery Jewish family should have at least two childrena child per person to replace their presence on Earth after their death Issue| Ethical teaching|

Sexual relations outside of marriage| Rape * Unacceptable, This disrespects the individual’s rights and additionally is a breach of the lawAdultery and Incest * To commit adultery is a rejection of the 7th commandment “Do not commit adultery” & the commandment not to lie * According to the laws of Torah, adultery is worthy of the death penalty * Also forbids incest which is, according to Leviticus 18:6-23, is any relationship between brother and sister, father and daughter, mother and son and other people related by family or marriageHomosexuality‘You shall not lie down with a man the same way that you would lie down with a woman; it is an abomination’ (Leviticus 18:22) * In Jewish thinking, a man feeling attracted to another man is no different to a man feeling attracted to another’s wife thus, it is unacceptable. * Lesbianism is not mentioned, but Talmud disapproves * Reform and Liberal Movements are more accepting of homosexuality but Orthodox are unmoved * Reform Judaism believes homosexuality today was not understood when the Bible was written. Thus, the Biblical prohibition of homosexual acts can and should be adapted to fit today’s world.

* Most Jews believe it is wrong to turn their backs of homosexual JewsJudaism does not permit persecution of these members| Contraception (fertility, birth control, masturbation)| Birth control: * “Be fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 1:28) * Contraception can be practiced if pregnancy were to endanger mother what is considered a medical risk is different amongst Conservative, Reform and Orthodox Jews * The pill or any method that does not block or destroy the passage of sperm is acceptable thus, condoms disallowedMasturbation: * Law against spilling semen extends to masturbationdoes not apply to female masturbation but it is frowned on * Talmud: “…in the case of a man, the hand that reaches below the navel should be chopped off” * Reform Judaism doesn’t accept binding authority of the halakah thus, it is up to the individualInfertility: * Permitted artificial insemination, as long as it is not donor sperm but husband’s sperm * Some Rabbis have accepted IVF * All reject surrogacyit could lead to all sorts of abuses such as using pregnancy as a profitable business, having children without being pregnantdestroys the sanctity of marriage and childbirth

* Morally wrong to freeze husband’s semen to use after his death as this deliberately brings orphans into the world * Only sanctioned if husband is under treatment that would kill his sperm (i.e. cancer) and he is expected to be alive afterwards to raise the child| Abortion| * is regarded as murder and is forbidden * For Orthodox Jews, when considering abortion, must only be in consultation with rabinnic authority. * Only accepted when mother’s life is in danger ie. If pregnancy is to be dangerous for mother or psychologically trauma her * Mishnah: “If a woman is in difficult labour (to the point that her life may be in danger), her child must be cut up while it is still in her womb, since the life of the woman is more important than the life of the foetus.

But if the greater part of the child has already emerged, it may not be damaged.” based on the belief that the fetus only becomes human once most of its body emerges from the birth canal (its forehead). * If child is to be born retarded, rabbis may permit abortion as child will never be able to function as a human * Unacceptable for other reasons i.e. holiday, career| Niddah| * Designed to keep sexual relationship between husband and wife pure and sacred * Forbids man having intercourse or touching a niddah or menstruating woman * Separation begins from onset of blood and ends 7th day sunset after it has ended * At the end of the period, woman must immerse self in ritual bath (mikveh) * Highly valued by orthodox, Reform and Conservative Jews are more lenient|

3. Significant practices in the life of adherents
4.4. Describe one significant practice within Judaism drawn from Marriage Jews believe that marriage serves 3 main purposes: companionship, love and procreation

Ufruf:| * On Shabbat before the wedding (in Orthodox), groom is called to read the Torah. In Conservative and Reform, bride and groom do this. The Torah is seen to be a guide for the couple in the years ahead.| Mikvah:| * Orthodox women immerse in a ritual bath in running water to purify and cleanse themselves. Conservative and reform have the option of doing this, and will celebrate with female friends and family.| Fast:| * Prior to marriage, the couple prepare by fasting. The pray part of the Yom Kippur prayer| Shtar | * Betrothal is contracted by money (shtar)/contract containing betrothal declaration. In modern society, the ring is the monetary value | Kiddushin| * Betrothal process (Kiddushin), where woman accepts monetary value and terms of marriage| Ketubah| * A prenuptial agreement (Ketubah) is publically read and signed by couple. Lists the obligations of the husband to wife during their marriage, incase of his death or if they were to divorce. A man is expected to provide food, clothing and sexual relations to a woman.

It is the woman’s right to sexual relations, thus, there is no concept of the husband’s right to sex. * Reform Jews don’t have a Ketubah but a marriage certificate instead * Conservative Jews consider their religious law above all civil laws| Nissuin| * Ceremony where bride is led under canopy * The couple is joined under the chuppah, a canopy representing the home that the couple will build together| 7 Blessings (Brahkot) | * The officiant recites seven blessings for the couple in the presence of two witnesses.| Breaking of the Glass| * The bride and groom drink together and empty the glass to break it (represent the destruction of the temple of Jerusalem or the brokenness of the world that the couple has the responsibility to try to repair.

* Jewish law allows divorce; the divorce document is a get. In the divorce ceremony, the husband gives the get to the woman in a rabbinical court or the woman is to ask for a get from her husband. In the case where the man refuses to give the get or the woman refuses to receive it, the individual cannot remarry in a religious ceremony. 4.5. Demonstrate how this practice expresses the beliefs of Judaism * Divinely ordained state symbolising the sacred union of those created in God’s image. God’s covenant with Israel is believed to be linked to genesis 2:24: ‘a man will leave his father and mother and the two shall become one flesh’. * Marriage serves to remind adherents of the covenant with God and their own covenantal relationship with Him. It is a metaphorical concept emulating God’s relationship with Israel. marriage contract and ring * Genesis 2:18: it is not good for a man to be alone

* Genesis 1:28: ‘be fruitful and multiply’ refers to what God intends for the couple in marriage. It’s thus seen as a commandment from God. * The Brahkot reminds of God’s blessings, of God the creator who created them and brought them together and will continue to bless them throughout their lives 4.6. Analyse the significance of this practice for both the individual and the Jewish community

* Structures the lives of the couple and assigns clear roles to each partner. * Brings two people together in the love and grace of Godgives companionship and love

* The ceremony reaffirms the beliefs and rituals to the entire Jewish community.

Christianity
1. Significant People and Ideas
2.1. Explain the contribution to the development and expression of Christianity of Paul of Tarsus Intro| * Born Saul, circa 3-10 AD, Tarsus, Asia Minor * Devout Jew, and later persecutor of Christians described in Phillppians 3.4-6 “…following the law of the Pharisees, in my zeal a persecutor of the church.” * Became faithful follower of Christ, often known as 13th apostle & apostle to the gentiles after conversion on the journey to Damascus, described in Acts 9:1-20 (Martyn, 2008)| Body 1-Move away from Jewish roots| * Paul of Tarsus was responsible for Christianity’s move away from being just a minority sect in Judaism to an established religious tradition. (Hayward et.al., 2003, p.179) * Jesus was Jew & early Christians retained practices * Paul explained “For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision avails anything, but faith working through love” (Gal. 5:6). * Faith in Christ more important than Law of Moses * Gentiles incl. in church & Christianity spread even more| Body 2-Missionary Journeys| * Paul’s missionary journeys were also facilitators of the spread of Christianity. * 44 CE, 48 CE and 55 CE * Recorded in Romans 15: 24-28Paul wanted to go far as Spain * Preached & evangelised, est. churches within Greco-Roman world * Brought Gospel to Gentiles beyond Jerusalem ie.

Antioch, Cyprus, Galatia * Persecuted ie. Stoned in Lystra * Without missions, Christianity wouldn’t have spread extensively | Body 3- Writings| * Prolific writer, 13 letters, 9 acceptedmake up a quarter of New Testament * Basis of theology on Judgement Day, trinity, salvation, Christ’ death & resurrection * Epistles instrumental is spreading Christianity & sustaining communities in struggle against faith & persecution i.e. letters to Corinthians, Ephesians & Timothy (Clark, 2007, p.81). * Influence extended to 16th Century Reformation through Luther, leader of Reformation. * “For the justice of God is revealed from faith to faith in that it is written, for the just shall live by faith.” (Romans 1:17)Paul’s emphasis on faith alone for salvation as basis for Sola fide (Sola fide, 2011). * Influence present todayUsed in Sunday Mass during liturgy of word| Main teachings | * The historical facts of Jesus’ life, death and resurrection * Purpose of Jesus’ death was to take punishment for people’s sins * God is sovereign, created the world and sustains it * Jesus is the Messiah, he fulfilled the Old Testament prophets’ prediction of the coming of the Messiah| Body 4- Ethics|

* Moreover, Paul was responsible for formulating the basis of Christian ethics, predominantly through his Epistles. * Agapeselfless love Corinthians 13, “Love is patient and kind…Love is eternal”. (Clark, 2007, p.80) * Became the basis of Christian understanding of nature and importance of love * He himself demonstrated the concept of agape through selfless love for Jesus Paul wrote in 2 Timothy 4:6, “For I am already on the point of being sacrificed;..”. –> died as martyr 62-67 CE (Hayward et.al., 2003, p.179) for his faith and Jesus, exemplifying his teaching * Sanctity of physical self “…your bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God…You are not your own;” (1 Corinthians 6:19).

Christian sexual ethics practiced by adherents today (Class work, 2011)| Body 5- Rituals| * Paul is also attributed to having formulated the present day practice of the Communal Meal and also establishing the Christian understanding of baptism. * 1 Corinthians 11:20-34, the Last Supper described as communal meal with blessing over bread and wine, early Christians participating together * Led to modern instigation of Eucharist as communal meal at masssharing Eucharist & remembering Jesus’ sacrifice (Agape Feast, 2011) * Est. Christian understanding of baptism necessary for salvation & new life in Christ Romans 6: 3-4, where he writes “We were indeed buried with him through baptism into death so that just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the father we too might live in the newness of life.”. * Unity in baptism through Christ: Ephesians 4:5 “one Lord, one faith, one baptism”|

2.2. Analyse the impact of Paul of Tarsus on Christianity * Christianity would still be a Jewish sect if it wasn’t for Paulgave Christianity an individual identity * Writings are still influential today, used at Mass

* He formulated Christian ritual of the “Communal meal” and explained the significance of Baptism * Spread Christianity throughout the Roman Empire
* Established the Christian understanding of love and contributed to the formulation of Christian ethics * He sustained the Christian communities during a time of persecution and petty squabbles amongst themselves thus, kept the Christian faith alive 2. Ethics

3.3. Describe and explain Christian ethical teachings on bioethics Issue| Christian Teaching|
Euthanasia| * Catholics & conservative Protestants, also Orthodox & Jehovah’s witnesses oppose * Pope John Paul II: “True ‘compassion’ leads to sharing another’s pain; it does not kill the person whose suffering we cannot bear.” [The Gospel of Life, n.66] * Violates a sense of respect and value of life * Corruption of the role of doctors and medicine & abandonment of duty to care * Human life and death are in God’s hands * Suffering, especially in the last stages of life is a sharing in Christ’s passion and union in the redeeming sacrifice. * Lutherans object intentional killing of patient, even if it is their wish. But if burdensome treatment becomes ineffective, then it may be morally responsible to withhold these treatments and let death occur naturally. * Liberal Protestants support the act, perceiving it as an act of love for person in pain | Transplants and Organ Donation| * Supported if organ was true gift without a reciprocal arrangement. If donor was forced or coerced, then the organ has been stolen and thus, violates the commandment “Thou shall not steal”

* An act of sacrifice, following Jesus’ example * All mainstream Protestant denominations & Roman Catholics support * Also Eastern Orthodox, most Pentecostal and evangelical churches * “With the advent of organ transplantation, which began with blood transfusion, man has found a way to give of himself, of his blood and of his body, so that others may continue to live.” (Pope John Paul II)| Stem Cell Research | * Catholics & Greek Orthodox oppose stem cell researchkilling of a potential life & homocide. Only support adult stem cell research. Believe that life starts at the moment of conception * Any use of the embryo in such way that is not for the good of the embryo is immoral and wrong. * If obtained from adults or umbilical cord, then it must be done so with consent * Protestants don’t have a strong stance, it is a personal decision| Animal Experimentation| * Christianity in history had been cruel to animalsGod gave Adam dominion over animals * Modern Christianity however is sympathetic to animals * Noah was instructed to save animals from the flood (Genesis 6:18-21) and, afterward God made the same “Rainbow Covenant” with animals as He did with people. (Genesis 9:12-17)

* Anglican view from the 1998 Lambeth Conference of the Anglican Church “the divine Spirit is sacramentally present in creation, which is therefore to be treated with reverence, respect and gratitude” * Roman Catholic View: According to the Papal Encyclical Evangelium Vitae, animals have both an intrinsic value and a place in God’s kingdom. Christians are to avoid anything that brings unnecessary suffering or death to animals| Capital Punishment| * In history, capital punishment has been supported by Christians as it is in the Bible ie. “Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed” (Genesis 9:6)

* In the modern day, it is regarded as going against the Christian teachings based on forgiveness and compassion * Thus, Pope John Paul II, Gospel of Life: “by rendering one who has committed an offence incapable of doing harm–without definitively taking away from him the possibility of redeeming himself–the cases in which the execution of the offender is an absolute necessity are rare, if not practically non-existent.” * Considered as murder and revenge thus, it is wrong| Abortion| * Considered as murder and goes against “Thou shall not kill”, however, depends on reasoning behind it * The Didache, a Second Century writing of the teaching of the Twelve Apostles— “you shall not murder a child by abortion nor kill that which is born.”| Cloning | * Must not result in the suffering of the individual, otherwise, it would not be supported * Unsupported by some as it is seen as playing God|

3. Significant practices in the life of adherents
4.4. Describe one significant practice within Christianity drawn from Baptism 4.5. Demonstrate how the chosen practice expresses the beliefs of Christianity * Remits all sins and their temporal punishments.

* Imprints a permanent mark on the soul of the baptized, which marks him as God’s. * Infuses sanctifying grace, supernatural gifts, and virtues making us true adopted children of god” * Welcoming rite, Priest speaks about significance of Baptism * Sponsors accept responsibility for person about to be baptised * Sign of Cross, liturgy of the word

Anointing with oil| * When anointed, individual takes on Christ * Reminded that the Christian’s task is to walk in Christ’s footsteps * Symbolises anointing with Holy Spirit and declaration of faith and rejection of sin| Baptism with water| * Rebirth in Christ * Death to sinimmersion in water symbolises dying with Jesus * Coming out of water symbolises rising with Christ in new life * Purification or cleansing * “…having been buried with him in baptism in which you were also raised with him through your faith in the working of God who raised him from the dead.” (Colossians 2:11-13)| White garment| * Symbolises putting on Christ & new life * Purity and cleanliness after being baptised | Candle/Fire| * Fire is lit from Paschal candle, symbolising risen Christ * Symbolises enlightenment by Christ * It is also the flame of faith in which parents and godparents are instructed to keep “burning brightly”|

4.6. Analyse the significance of this practice for both the individual and the Christian community Significance to individual:
* affirmation of forgiveness of sins and cleansing of sin; * spiritual rebirth in the body of Christ;
* entrance into the Kingdom of God & acceptance into Christian faith * new support and guidance network;
* live the values and beliefs of Christianity;
* receives the gift of the Holy Spirit;
Significance to community: brings community and family together; strengthens and builds worshipping community; continuity of practices and beliefs; promises to support and pray for newly baptized; social outlooks Quotes

– John 3:5: Unless a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he can’t enter into the kingdom of God – Matthew 28:19: going therefore, teach ye all nations: baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit (The Great Commission). Mark 16:16: whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned – Ephesians: 4:4-5: All who are baptized become the body of Christ; one spirit is the Holy Spirit breathing through them.

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