Renaissance Humanism Essay Sample
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Renaissance Humanism Essay Sample
Renaissance Humanism was a threat to the Church because it D. emphasized a return to the original sources of Christianity (D) Renaissance Humanism was a threat to the Church because it (D) emphasized a return to the original sources of Christianity—the Bible and the writings of the Fathers of the Church. In that light, humanists tended to ignore or denounce the proceedings of Church councils and pontiffs during the middle Ages. While many Renaissance humanists denounced scholasticism, there was no inherent opposition to it, and many retained support of the late Medieval philosophy. Renaissance Humanism did not espouse atheism, nor did it advance an amoral philosophy; it tended to advance a neo-Platonism through the writings of such individuals as Pico della Mirandola and Marsilio Ficino.
Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam was the author of A. The Praise of Folly A) Erasmus of Rotterdam was the author of (A) The Praise of Folly, which was a criticism of the ambitions of the clergy. The Birth of Venus (B) was a painting by Rafael. More was the author of Utopia (C); Machiavelli wrote (D) The Prince; and Cervantes was the author of Don Quixote.
All of the following are characteristics of Northern Humanism EXCEPT: D. It was very supportive of the Protestant Reformation. D) Few Northern Humanists (exceptions: Melanchthon and Reuchlin) approved of the Reformation: Erasmus criticized laxness in the Catholic Church but refused to join Protestant reformers. Northern or Christian Humanism used studies of ancient languages to make Scriptures available in local languages and to produce good scholarly versions of the writings of the Church Fathers. Northern humanists acknowledged the Church’s use of the Vulgate Latin Bible, mainly with the uneducated, but they themselves tried to study and use only the best Greek and Latin in their translations. During the Reformation, Anabaptism drew its membership mostly from the ranks of the C. peasants (C) Each of the three major Protestant groups—Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anabaptist—relied in major ways on particular social elements.
Although Lutheranism drew support from a broad social spectrum, Luther himself was forced to rely on sympathetic nobles of the Holy Roman Empire in order to defend Lutheranism against the Holy Roman Emperor. Calvinism held special appeal for the new middle class, particularly business elements. Anabaptism drew most of its membership from the peasantry in western Germany and the Low Countries. The Colloquy of Marburg in 1529 C. was a debate between Luther and Zwingli that resulted in a formal split within Protestantism (C) At the Colloquy of Marburg in 1529, Luther and Zwingli failed to concur on the nature of the Eucharist and the concept of predestination; this led to the fragmentation of Protestantism. (A) is incorrect because the Catholic strategy was centered on the establishment of new religious orders and the reforms of the Council of Trent. Luther was declared an outlaw by Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521. Charles V’s attempts to reconcile Luther with the Church were confined to debates that occurred prior to 1521.
Thomas Wolsey’s fall from power as Henry VIII’s adviser was not related to the Colloquy, but stemmed from the divorce crisis. English Puritanism developed during the reign of Elizabeth I C. because of dissatisfaction with the scope and breadth of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement among those influenced by Calvinist views (C) English Puritanism developed during the reign of Elizabeth I because of dissatisfaction with the scope and breadth of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement among exiles and others who were influenced by Calvinist views. Obviously, (A) is incorrect because the Council of Trent advanced Catholic doctrines; Elizabeth I was interested in consolidating, not extending, Protestantism in England (B); the Jesuit Mission (D) occurred in 1580 and was not related to Puritanism; Puritanism (E) opposed the earlier forms of worship, whether Roman Catholic or Henrician. The response of the Catholic Church to the Reformation was delayed because A. the Papacy feared the remnants of the Conciliar Movement (A) The response of the Catholic Church to the Reformation was delayed because the Papacy feared remnants of the Conciliar Movement, which had been evident at the Councils of Constance, Basel, and Florence.
This movement, based in Roman Catholic tradition, asserted that authority within the Church resided in the assembly of bishops; it challenged Petrine Supremacy and the authority of the Papacy. Rome (B) had little interest in coordinating its policy with secular leaders, although the early support of Charles V and Henry VIII was well received. By the 1530s, most intelligent Church leaders did not (C) think that Protestantism would self-destruct or that (D) the situation was not serious. The monetary situation of the Church (E) was not relevant to its taking a position against Protestantism. The Catholic Counter-Reformation included all of the following EXCEPT E. a willingness to negotiate nondoctrinal issues with reformers E) The Counter-Reformation did not include (E) a willingness to negotiate nondoctrinal issues with reformers; indeed, the Catholic Church considered all confrontational issues to be doctrinal.
The Council of Trent (B) was convened in three sessions from 1545 to 1563 and reaffirmed traditional Catholic doctrines; new religious orders (D) such as the Jesuits appeared; the Papacy (C) became more assertive through its issuing of the Index of Prohibited Books in 1558–1559. The Petition of Right (1628–1629) C. addressed a range of Parliamentary grievances even as it set the stage for new sources of revenue requested by Charles I C) The Petition of Right addressed perceived constitutional abuses related to the proceedings of the Court of the Star Chamber, a ship tax, and the quartering of British troops in private dwellings; upon its acceptance by Charles I, additional sources of revenue were provided to alleviate the financial crisis caused by unsuccessful wars against Spain and France. (A) is incorrect because it refers to James I, who died in 1625; (B) is false because Parliament did not vote on Buckingham’s execution—he was murdered in l628; (D) Charles I’s religious policies cannot be labeled radical—they were reactionary and led to the charge that Charles I was sympathetic to Catholicism; (E) the Addled Parliament convened in 1614 and was not connected with the Petition of Right.
René Descartes has been credited with all of the following EXCEPT D. holding that the concept of God was unnecessary in his concept of the universe (D) Descartes argued that God was essential as Guarantor of the laws of the universe. Descartes discovered coordinate or analytical geometry, developed the science of optics, used “cogito ergo sum” as his starting place, and believed in a dualism between the physical and spiritual worlds, separate but linked. Henry IV gave Huguenots the right to practice their religion through C. the Edict of Nantes (C) The Edict of Nantes of 1598, issued by Henry IV, allowed French Huguenots to practice their religion and fortify some cities. The Edict of Fontainebleau (B), issued by Louis XIV in 1685, revoked the Edict of Nantes. The Edict of Potsdam (A), issued by Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg-Prussia in 1686, invited French Protestants fleeing France to settle in his lands. The Papacy (D) opposed the Edict of Nantes and all agreements that tolerated Protestant groups in Catholic countries.
The Peace of Amiens (E) was a treaty of 1802 involving Napoleon. Which of these thinkers is identified most closely with the following statement? “Renounce notions, and begin to form an acquaintance with things.” B. Bacon B) Francis Bacon advanced empiricism in the early seventeenth century. (A) While Galileo accomplished much in science, his emphasis was more on math as the new language of science, not a philosophy. Descartes’s Discourse on Method (1637) develops a mathematically oriented type of deduction; Baruch Spinoza’s (D) contributions occurred later, in mathematics and ethics. In addition to formulating his law on gas and temperature, Robert Boyle (E) was a chemist who did much to discredit alchemy during the second half of the seventeenth century. For several decades during the late seventeenth century, Austria fought on two fronts against which two countries?
C. France and Ottoman Turkey (C) France and Ottoman Turkey. Austria was attacked twice, between 1660 and 1685, by the Ottoman Turks and confronted during the same time by wars with France. (A) and (E) are incorrect because Italy did not exist at that time. (B) is incorrect because England was allied with Austria, and Russia was undergoing political crises not resolved until Peter the Great seized power and reformed the government. (D) is incorrect because Prussia did not oppose Austria until 1740. The Fronde was directed primarily against B. the authority of the absolute monarchy (B) Beginning with terminology (Fronde), this question asks for an analysis of these periodic revolts by the nobility of France. A phenomenon of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, they were regarded as threats to royal authority by monarchical ministers Mazarin and Richelieu, who suppressed them ruthlessly. Most revolts ended when Louis XIV involved the most powerful members of the old nobility in sterile and useless ceremonial lives at his palace of Versailles.
The Peace of Utrecht C. terminated the Wars of Louis XIV and restored peace to Europe (C) The Peace of Utrecht terminated the wars of Louis XIV, restoring peace to Europe. (A) and (B) are incorrect because France, though defeated, was still the most powerful nation in Europe. (D) is incorrect because Canada was not transferred to England until the Treaty of Paris in 1763. (E) is incorrect because the Peace of Utrecht was unrelated to the unification of Germany, which occurred in 1871. A moderate proposal that called on France to adopt a political system similar to Great Britain was an element espoused by Montesquieu in B. The Spirit of the Laws (B) A moderate proposal that called on France to adopt a political system similar to that of Great Britain was an element espoused by Montesquieu in (B) The Spirit of the Laws. The Social Contract (A) was written by Jean Jacques Rousseau; The Encyclopedia (C) was by Denis Diderot; The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (D) was produced by the National Assembly in August 1789; and John Locke wrote Two Treatises on Civil Government. John Calvin’s theology can be considered most similar to the political philosophy of which of the following? C. Hobbes (C) Hobbes’s warlike state of nature accords well with Calvin’s theology of sinfulness.
Calvin’s Institutes has a political agenda, namely a belief in establishing a “City of God” on earth; and the strict rules of Geneva prove this. Rousseau (A) and Locke (E) are more sanguine about human nature; Condorcet (B) was the apostle of progress, and likewise optimistic. Montesquieu (D) was firmly against absolutist government as practiced by Calvin and theorized by Hobbes; likewise, Locke’s ideal of constitutional monarchy is not consonant with Hobbes’s absolutism. An economic philosophy identified with “bullionism” and the need to maintain a favorable balance of trade was E. Mercantilism (E) Mercantilism was an economic philosophy identified with “bullionism” and the need to maintain a favorable balance of trade. Utopian Socialism (A) was an early nineteenth-century philosophy that emphasized the need for a more equitable distribution of wealth; (B) Marxism and (D) Syndicalism were leftist approaches to economics and politics. (C) Capitalism was the developing condition in which Mercantilism operated.
The liberum veto C. restricted the national and political development of Poland (C) The liberum veto (C) restricted the national and political development of Poland. Under this peculiar law, any member of the Polish Diet could dissolve the assembly by using his veto; this provision led to a highly decentralized Poland that was exploited by Austria, Russia, and Prussia during the eighteenth century. The liberum veto had nothing to do with (A) Britain, (B) France, (D) Peter the Great’s Westernization of Russia, or (E) Mazzini’s Roman Republic. “…there is no place for industry… no arts; no letters; no society; and which is the worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” This quotation from Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan (1651) describes the concept known as B. state of nature (B) Hobbes’s Leviathan described early human society (the “state of nature”) as an anarchic “war of all against all.” For self-protection, citizens agreed to form the first government, an agreement termed by Hobbes the “social contract.”
It is important to read the quotation carefully, since two of the answers (B) and (C) are from the Leviathan; you may be misled into choosing (C) because you have studied it in a class, and “social contract” sounds familiar. The concept of natural rights, incorporated into the French Declaration of the Rights of Man, was summarized by John Locke as the idea that human beings are born “free, equal, and independent.” “Reason of state” was the justification used by French statesmen such as Cardinal Richelieu to defend measures to create a centralized absolute monarchy in France. Answer (E), nationalism, is not only incorrect but also irrelevant to this question. In Emile, Rousseau B. called for a “natural” education free of the artificial encumbrances imposed by institutions such as the Church (B) In Emile Rousseau (B) called for a “natural” education free of the artificial encumbrances imposed by institutions such as the Church.
His view on the Social Contract (A) was advanced separately; Rousseau did not (C) denounce Voltaire for his lifestyle; nor did Rousseau in Emile identify with (D) Montesquieu’s sympathy for the English constitutional monarchy. Since the concept of God was essential to Rousseau’s thought, he did not advance a case for atheism (E). “Men are born, and always continue free and equal in respect of their rights. Civil distinctions, therefore, can be founded only on public utility.” In 1789 these statements were part of C. the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (C) In 1789 these statements were part of (C) the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen passed by the National Assembly in France. The English Bill of Rights (1689) was a consequence of the Glorious Revolution when William and Mary came to power. The Constitution of the Year III (1795) established the Directory in France; it was a government that was advised by experts or intellectuals. In What Is the Third Estate? (1788) the Abbé Sieyès maintained that the Third Estate of the Estates-General was in fact a “National Assembly” and representative of the national sovereign power.
The drawing above represents D. Lavoisier’s Apparatus for the Decomposition of Air (D) The drawing represents (D) Lavoisier’s Apparatus for the Decomposition of Air. The Leyden Jar (A) was a means of storing electricity and was used by Benjamin Franklin (E) in his kite experiment. While Stephen Gray did make contributions to the science of electricity (B) and the erroneous Phlogiston theory (C) was toppled during this period, they were not related to the illustration. The picture above is of B. the spinning jenny invented by Hargreaves English Utilitarianism was identified with the phrase D. the greatest good for the greatest number (D) English Utilitarianism was identified with the phrase (D) “the greatest good for the greatest number.” Jeremy Bentham, James Mill, and John Stuart Mill were prominent Utilitarians. “All power to the people” and “From each according to his labor, to each according to his need” (B) were elements in Lenin’s rhetoric. “Universal reason” (C) is identified with Georg Wilhelm Hegel; and “collectivist nationalism” is associated with Johann Fichte. “Do you not hear them repeating unceasingly that all that is above them is incapable and unworthy of governing them; that the present distribution of good throughout the world is unjust; that property rests on a foundation which is not an equitable foundation? … I believe that we are at this moment sleeping on a volcano.’’
Alexis de Tocqueville made these remarks to B. the French Chamber of Deputies in 1848 (B) In January 1848—only weeks prior to the outbreak of the February revolution in Paris—Alexis de Tocqueville addressed the Chamber of Deputies. In the remarks quoted, Tocqueville addressed the concerns of French liberals—the need to open the political system to the people and the urgency of the economic crisis caused by a misdistribution of wealth. Tocqueville did not (A) address the United States Senate in 1838, (C) the court of Napoleon III in 1870, (D) the Peers of the Third Republic in 1875, or (E) the court-martial of Dreyfus in 1894. The achievements of the Jacobins included all of the following EXCEPT E. the redistribution of all land among the peasants (E) Among the achievements (some short-lived) of the Jacobins were (A) abolishing slavery, (B) giving the franchise to all adult males, (C) adopting the metric system, and (D) decreeing the law of the maximum, which fixed prices on essentials and raised wages.
The Jacobins did not succeed in the (E) distribution of all land among the peasants. The drawing shown above by Karl Arnold appeared in Simplicissimus (July, 1924) and was entitled Neue Typen: Der Rassemensch—New Types: The Racial Man or The Man of Breeding. It was a critical comment on B. the anti-Semites who supported Hitler and the emerging Nazi Party (B) The drawing Neue Typen: Der Rassemensch by Karl Arnold (July 1924) was a critical commentary on (B) the anti-Semites, who supported Hitler and the emerging Nazi Party. Obviously, (A), (C), (D), and (E) are incorrect responses. the notion that “civilization was not the product of an artificial, international elite…but the genuine culture of the common people, the Volk” was advanced by E. Johann Gottfried Herder in Ideas for a Philosophy of Human History