Research Protocols on Different Medical Issues Essay Sample

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  1. Life Experience of People Caring for Alzheimer’s Disease in the Family

Introduction

            Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can be considered as one of the incapacitating diseases that is given attention on the basis of the increasing frequency and continuously affecting the life and interactions of the family members.  The said disease can be associated to age and projected to continuously rise on the basis of the aging majority of the population (Ward, 2007).

            There are different issues that can be related to cases of AD, one of the most important of which is the aspect of the interaction with the family.  AD can be considered as an ailment that presents a great challenge to the whole family.  This can be attributed to the fact that the totality of the behaviour and intellect of the person can change gradually or spontaneously leaving the patient as a different person to the family what knows them.  These can be translated as challenges that can be superficially observe.

            To be able to determine a view on the reactions, challenges and issues being faced by the people who care for Alzheimer’s Disease in the family, the proposed study is undertaken.  The said issue can be considered important on the basis of different aspects, one of which to be able to understand the people on the road to giving the patients better care.  Thus, when the issues related to AD at different aspects can be known, better ways of treating the patients and appropriate interventions can be given.

Research Design and Justification

            To be able to determine the life, experiences and challenges being faced by the people that are around the patient specifically the relative that are in the same household, a surveys study was undertaken.  Aside from the survey descriptive research that shall be undertaken, a review of related published reports is also essential and thus needed to be accomplished.

            Basically, the results of the said study are important on the basis that the view of the people that are around AD can be determined.  This serves as another essential aspect since the AD patients are in need of dependence, understanding and support

Aims and Objectives

Aim:  The proposed study is aimed on the determination of the issues and experiences of the people that are in the same household as a person with AD.

Objectives:

  1. To determine the positive experiences and outlook of the people towards AD.
  2. To determine the negative experiences and possible ways of improvement in relation to the disease.

Methods

            The objectives of the study shall be achieved through the application of the principles of qualitative research.  Specifically, the descriptive survey research is the main method of research that is applied.  The said method is chosen due to the fact that it is effective in cases wherein the determination of the views and opinions of a particular group in the society are needed to be measured and ascertained.

            The research design is a cross-sectional study that focuses on taking samples of the opinions of the specific population based on the issue under study is undertaken.  Randomized sampling on a predetermined population is used since only the people that are living with AD-inflicted persons are included in the study.

Sample Population

            The population is composed of people that are specifically living with AD patients and those that have experiences being in the same household with the patients with AD even in some past time.  This can be attributed to the fact that this type of population can define the effects of living with the said ailment intervening with the relationship of the family.

The target population includes people aged 16 – 60 that have had experiences living with AD patients.  The said age bracket can be considered important in terms of the consciousness to the interactions and interrelationships in the family.  The study is aimed to tackle a descriptive view of the relatives and the people of close interaction of people with AD.  For that matter, the opinions and views that are gathered are considered essential regardless of the stage of AD that is involved (Aggarwal, et al., 2003)

Sampling Method

            In terms of the method of sampling in the research to be conducted, simple random sampling was used.  This is important on the basis that there is a prerequisite in terms of the fact that inclusion criterion of having an interaction with AD patient as the most important condition in the study.  The inclusion criterion was known on the basis of the data gathered from treatment institutions and hospitals.

            There are 200 relatives of AD patients that are chosen from then 500 recorded patients.  Choice was achieved through the application of simple random sampling.

Measurement methods

            Due to the fact that the study is mainly descriptive in nature, questionnaire that is composed of structured questions that are based on preliminary research undertaken on the possible effects of AD in the family.  The independent variables include the issues and parameters that are considered as the possible grounds for the effects of the interaction with the patients such as the emotional, social and attitude factors.  The dependent variables are the positive or the negative outcomes of the independent variables.

            Questionnaire:

  1. Personal Information:

Age ______                Relationship to the Patient:

Sex ______

  1. Are you aware of the preliminary indication of Alzheimer’s Disease? Yes/No
  2. Do you think it is important to consult the specialist immediately even if the indications that are shown are not yet well defined? Yes/No
  3. Do you consider the effects of AD as largely destructive to the relationship in the household? Yes/No
  4. Do you think early consultation and diagnosis can lessen the negative effects of the AD in the family? Yes/No
  5. Do you prefer medical treatments and intervention to be performed at home? Yes/No

Procedure for Data Collection

            The data regarding AD patients will be gathered in the hospitals randomly chosen in the locality.  These patients were recent patient of the hospitals.  This can be an important prerequisite to be able to be sure on the fact that experiences of the relatives can still be remembered well.  Of the records 500 patients will initially be taken.  Out of these patients 200 will be chosen through random sampling.

Data Analysis

            The responses of the sample population will be gathered, organized and analyzed through the use of one of the common statistical tool, ANOVA.

Ethical Consideration

            In terms of descriptive research, there are important ethical considerations.  One is the consent of the subject to be interviewed and included in the study even under the terms of confidentiality.  Respondents that had been chosen have every right to refuse participation in the study.  Agreements and requests of the respondents are also important to the ethical aspect of the research.

Timetable

Jan-Feb                                   Preliminary Research

March-April                            Random sampling medical institutions

May-June                                Choosing 500 preliminary patients

July-August                              Random choice of 200 patients and contacting them

September-October                 Interview and Data Gathering

November-December              Data Analysis and Write-up

Expenditures

  • A list of expenditures

Travelling                                            1000.00

Recording Information               500.00

Postage                                                 300.00

Communication (internet, telephone)      500.00

References:

Aggarwal, N., Vass, A. A., Minardi, H. A., Ward, R., Garfield, C. and Cybyk, B. (2003) People with dementia and their relatives: personal experiences of Alzheimer’s and of the provision of care.  J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2003 Apr, 10(2), 187-97.

Grant, W. B., Campbell, A., Itzhaki, R. F. and Savory, J. (2002) The significance of environmental factors in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease.  J Alzheimers Dis. 2002 Jun, 4(3), 179-89.

Iliffe, S. (2007) The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and drug treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. CNS Drugs. 2007, 21(3), 177-84.

Ismail, M. S., Dagerman, K., Tariot, P. N., Abbott, S., Kavanagh, S. and Schneider, L. S. (2007) National Institute of Mental Health Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness- Alzheimer’s Disease (CATIE-AD): baseline characteristics.  Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007 Jul, 4(3), 325-35.

Ward, M. (2007)   Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease.  Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2007 Sep, 7(5), 635-46.

  1. Testing a Drug Projected to Increase White Blood Cell in Immune Compromised Patients

In the medical field, one of the main aims of the specialist is to save the patients by treating them through the provision of agents and drugs that can help the immune system protect the body in different ways.  For that matter, one of the greatest challenges in treating a patient of any types of ailment is the strengthening of the immune system.

Due to the importance that can be viewed in relation to the role of the immune system, the main target of the study is the cases that tackle the problems related to the immune system.  One of the most chronic and acute condition related to the status of the immune systems is the cases of immune compromised patients.

The condition of being immune compromised can be perceived when the immune system lacks the ability to protect the body on the basis of different attacks that cannot be beaten off by the body (Periti and Mazzei, 1985).  Due to the said case, it is important to focus on the treatment techniques and interventions that can be undertaken to be able to counteract the problem.

Being immune compromised can leave the body susceptible to all types of infection and ailments.  One of the most common solutions to the condition is through the intake of drugs.  In relation to the need for medications and treatments of the patients, the main focus of the study to be conducted is the determination of the drugs that had been developed by a large pharmaceutical company that is aimed to increase the white blood cell count in immune compromised patients within a time span of four weeks.  Included in the research is the determination of the effectiveness of the drug as well as the establishment of the said effects within the claimed period.

The study can be considered essential in the medical field on the basis that possible proving of the efficiency and the potency of the drug can be considered as an important addition to the treatment choices that can be used by the patients in need.

The main aim of the study to be undertaken then is to be able to verify the claims of the producer pharmaceutical company on the effectiveness and potency of the drug that had been recently developed.  The verification of the potency of the drug can be undertaken through the application of the experimental process of research.

The experimental research process can be considered as required on the basis that the effectiveness and potency of application is the main issue under study.  This is important to be able to achieve a view on the action of the drug under study.  On the basis of the objective of the study, the quasi experimental research designs that determines the most effective choice in the setups undertaken.  It can be considered essential specifically in terms of the issues that are related to real scenarios and concerns (Davis, 1997).

Aims and Objectives

Aim:  The proposed study is aimed to verify the effectiveness and potency of the newly developed drug predicted to take effect in the span of four weeks.

Objectives:

  1. To establish set-ups through the use of quasi system that can be considered adaptable to the real situations.
  2. To measure the potency of the drug under study
  3. To determine the time of action of the medicine.

Target Population:  The effectiveness of the drug targets immune compromised patients.

Methods

            The objectives of the study shall be achieved through the principles of experimental research.  The quasi research is the specific method that is needed to be used.  This can be attributed to the fact that a comparative analysis of the effect of the drug under study is needed to be conducted to be able to determine the potency and effectiveness.

            The set-ups that include varying concentration of the drug as well as a control set up.  Random sampling cannot be used due to the fact that patients’ only similarity is being immune compromised.  This us done on a predetermined population is used on people with acute infection and similar conditions.  Upon application the level of white blood cells was monitored.

Sample Population

            The sample population is composed of the patients that are considered as immune compromised on the basis of different serious infections and ailments in the body.  The inclusion criteria include presently admitted on the study period on the basis that the intervention can be directly measure on the basis of quasi theoretical establishment of hypotheses.

The target population must fall within 20-40 age range.  The said age bracket can be considered important in terms of the ability to have comparatively more resistance than marginal age ranges.

Quasi Conditions

            Two hundred patients are studied and assigned to 4 set ups.  One of which is control and three setups of increasing dosage of the drug.  Through a period of 5 weeks the condition of the patients are determined.  Mortality and morbidity are also considered as important factors that are needed to be considered.

Measurement methods

            The totality of the person including the different parameters and the vital signs of the patient are monitored.  The most important factor in the observation of the status of the immune system is the blood.  Thus the changes in the white blood cell count are continuously monitored.

Procedure for Data Collection

            Data collection is considered as a continuous and regular process due to the need for monitoring the changes in the body of the patient, specifically the blood chemistry.  The continuous recording and organization of data is essential to the data analysis.

Data Analysis

            The analysis will be done through ANOVA.  The responses of the sample population will be gathered, organized and analyzed through the use of the said tool due to the fact that it is one of the common statistical tools in data analysis.

Ethical Consideration

            In terms experimental data, there are different ethical considerations that are needed to be given importance and attention.  One is the consent of the patient in participating with the experiment.  Members of the sample population have every right to disagree to the research.

Timetable

Jan-Feb                                   Preliminary research

March-April                            Screening and search for sample population

May-June                                Choosing 500 preliminary patients

July-August                             Random choice of 200 patients and contacting them

September-October                Data Gathering and Observation

November-December              Data Analysis and Write-up

Expenditures

  • A list of expenditures

Travelling                                            1000.00

Recording Information               500.00

Postage                                                 300.00

Communication (internet, telephone)      500.00

Misc.                                                    200.00

References

Davis, J. (1997) Experimental Research Methods.  Retrieved November 8, 2007 from http://clem.mscd.edu/~davisj/prm2/exper4.html.

Jones, R. N. (1996) Impact of changing pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in the treatment of serious infections in hospitalized patients.  Am J Med. 1996 Jun 24, 100(6A), 3S-12S.

Periti, P. and Mazzei, T. (1985) Infections in immune compromised patients. II. Established therapy and its limitations.  Clin Ther. 1985, 8(1), 100-17.

  • Long Term Effects of the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit Experiences on Parents and Family Adaptation

Introduction

            There are different responses of the body on terms of accidents and elements.  On cases wherein the body gets seriously beaten up, there are different effects.  It can affect different aspects of a person’s well being and experience.  One example is the physical and the psychological trauma being experienced by patients with prolonged stay in the Intensive Care Unit (Winston, et al., 2002).

            Aside from the patient themselves, the family are also affected.  The effect can be considered as more evident specifically among younger patients.  Paediatric cases of ICU experiences can be a serious challenge to the patient and the parents and relatives.

            To be able to determine a view on the experiences and problems being faced by the people who experienced the admission of the younger members of the family in ICU for prolonged period, the proposed study is undertaken.  The said issue can be considered important on the basis of different aspects, one of which to be able to understand the people on the road to understanding the social and emotional issues and views surrounding the patients.  Thus, when the issues related to serious cases that require prolonged ICU admission, social attention can be helpful to the relatives thus being able to properly provide the patients with the support they need.

Research Design and Justification

            To be able to determine the life, experiences and challenges being faced by the people that are around the patient specifically the relative that are in prolonged stay in the ICU, a surveys study was undertaken.  In addition review of related published reports and literature is also essential and thus needed to be accomplished.

            Basically, the results of the said study are important on the basis that the view of the people that are around the patient can be determined.  This serves as another essential aspect since the patients are in need of emotional support

Aims and Objectives

Aim:  The proposed study is aimed on the determination of the possible long term effects of ICU stay on the patients’ parents, family and relatives.

Objectives:

  1. To determine the positive experiences and outlook of the family.
  2. To determine the negative experiences and possible ways coping to the situation.

Methods

            The accomplishment of the objectives of the study shall be undertaken through the application of the principles of qualitative research specifically through the descriptive survey research which is the main method of research that is applied.  The said method is effective in cases wherein the determination of the views and opinions of a particular group of population are required to be measured and ascertained.

            A cross-sectional study research design can be considered important in the achievement of the objectives of the research.  The said method focuses on taking samples of the opinions of the specific population based on the issue under study is undertaken.  Randomized sampling on a predetermined population is used since only the people that have had experiences in having relatives in the paediatric ICU are included in the study.

Sample Population

            The population is composed of people that have had experiences in having relatives in the paediatric ICU.  This can be attributed to the fact that this type of population can define the effects of the said experiences can have long term effects to the people and their interaction and even the reaction to such cases.

            The target population includes people aged 16 – 60 which can be considered ideal in terms of data gathering.  The inclusion criteria involved being able to observe relatives in the ICU.  The consciousness to the interactions and interrelationships in the family can be considered important in the said age bracket.  The study is aimed to present a descriptive view of the people of close interaction with ICU patients.  For that matter, the opinions and views that are gathered are considered essential even despite of the ICU case or element.

Sampling Method

            Simple random sampling was used in achieving the results of the study.  This is important on the basis that there is a prerequisite in terms of the fact that inclusion criterion of having experiences in the ICU specifically the paediatric section.  The preliminary data are gathered from hospitals and medical institutions.

            There are 250 members of the sample population that shall be included in the study that are chosen from the preliminary determined patients approximately 500 in number.  Simple random sampling is used in the stages of choosing sample population at every phase of the study undertaken.

Measurement methods

            The main tool used in the measurement and achievement of the results of the study is an established questionnaire composed of exploratory questions related to the issue.  The said method is one of the most common techniques in the cases of descriptive type of research.

            Questionnaire:

  1. Personal Information:

Age ______                Relationship to the Patient:

Sex ______

  1. Reason for the patient’s admission to ICU ________________
  2. Illness                     b.  Accident
  3. How long was the stay? ______________________
  4. How did the event affect the family? Yes/No
  5. Do you view any positive effect of such event? Yes/No

      If yes, specify: _____________________________________

  1. Do you consider it as a traumatic experience? Yes/No

Data Analysis

            The responses of the sample population will be gathered, organized and analyzed through the use of one of the common statistical tool, ANOVA.

Ethical Consideration

            In terms of descriptive research, there are important ethical considerations.  One is the consent of the subject to be interviewed and included in the study even under the terms of confidentiality.  Respondents that had been chosen have every right to refuse participation in the study.  Agreements and requests of the respondents are also important to the ethical aspect of the research.

Timetable

Jan-Feb                                   Preliminary Research

March-April                            Random sampling medical institutions

May-June                                Choosing 500 preliminary patients

July-August                             Random choice of 250 patients and contacting them

September-October                Interview and Data Gathering

November-December              Data Analysis and Write-up

Expenditures

  • A list of expenditures

Travelling                                            1000.00

Recording Information               500.00

Postage                                                 300.00

Communication (internet, telephone)      500.00

References:

Classen, C., Koopman, C., Hales, R. and Spiegel D. (1998) Acute stress disorder as a predictor of posttraumatic stress symptoms.  Am J Psychiatry.1998, 155, 620 –624.

Winston, F. K., Kassam-Adams, N., Vivarelli-O’Neill, C., Ford, J., Newman, E., Baxt, C., Stafford, P. and Cnaan, A. (2002) Acute Stress Disorder Symptoms in Children and Their Parents After Pediatric Traffic Injury.  Pediatrics, 6 June 2002, 109 (6), 90.

  1. Type I Diabetes Investigation

Introduction

            Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) can be described as an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas resulting in the insulin deficiency (Haller, Gottlieb and Schatz, 2007).  The said ailment can be considered as one of the most complicated ailment in terms of aetiology and pathophysiology.

            The main method in intervention and survival through the said disease is through the maintenance of different types of maintenance which includes blood glucose monitoring, diet, and exercise, injection of insulin and glycaemia control (Ellis, et al., 2007)

            One of the most important concerns is the query on the level of need for maintenance of the said methods that are recommended use for patients with Type 1 Diabetes due to the fact that they have no capability to produce insulin at all.  The proposed study is based on the query on the possibility of survival of a type 1 diabetic in the absence of the maintained medications and interventions.  To be able to present a view a descriptive library based research and review is to be undertaken.  The results will present the evidences that can determine the importance of the medications and the level of need of type 1 patients for medication.

Aims and Objectives

Aim: To present the importance of the maintaining interventions in T1D.

Objectives:

  1. Explore the physiological deficiencies of T1D.
  2. Determine the specific action and role of each type of medication.
  3. Determine the level of need of each intervention.

Methods and Research Design

The method to be applied is qualitative descriptive research.  The research is composed of different phases.  The first stage of the research process is preliminary research.  This is the gathering of data pertinent to the onset of the study.  Planning for the course of study is one of the important phases in the said stage.  Also during the said stage the decision is made regarding the specific area that will be explored in the study.

Primarily, the study is composed of gathering of the information that is made available through prior work of contemporary authors.  The research will be conducted through the integration of the different published references and other available sources.  In the commencement of the objectives of the study, it is important to take into consideration that in the technique of research used, the results of analysis of data is more important than the presentation of the quantitative information gathered.  Due to the fact that the study will be undertaken on the basis of the results of the different studies and published references, the integrity of the data gathered is imperative.

Subjects

The subjects that are covered are T1D patients and the studies and research works presented related to their medication and physiological needs.  The results of the different studies conducted by different authors shall be integrated in the study and in the analysis of data.

The use of the articles and studies related to the issue involves a process of inclusion and exclusion based on certain criteria.  Included in the study to be conducted are references that present the results of exploration of medications and conditions of the patients.  On the other hand, to be able to narrow the coverage of the study, the exclusion of articles and studies that are published on foreign non-English language are made.

Data Collection

            The collection of data shall be undertaken in libraries, the internet and facilities that are involved in the field of tourism.  The choice of the data gathered is based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria.  Included in the collection of data is the determination of the variables used, the methods undertaken and the materials for the research.

Data Organization and Analysis

            Subsequent to the collection of data in the study conducted is the organization of gathered information.  The data are pooled and the concepts that are gathered are classified, grouped and organized.  This phase will enable the achievement of a structured, methodical and logical analysis of the data gathered.

            Upon the organization of the gathered information, both qualitative and quantitative in nature, the analysis of the primary hypothesis will be undertaken.  The results of the study gathered can prove or disprove the assumption regarding the topic.  The basis of the assumptions is mainly the background information that shall be gathered in the course of the study.

Ethical Consideration

            In terms of a library-based research, one of the most important considerations if the proper recognition of the authors of the ideas and concepts studied that will be the basis of the drawing of conclusion and the analysis of the data.  It is then important to cite the authors correctly.  Other important ethical considerations are the validity of the results presented and the reliability of the data gathered.

Timetable

Jan                                          Preliminary Research

Feb                                         Coursework Planning

March                                     Study of Related Literature

April-May                               Commencement of Research

Library References

Internet References

June                                        Organization of Data

July-August                             Data Analysis

September                               Completion of Research

Oct-December                        Manuscript Draft 1

Revisions

Manuscript Draft 2

Presentation of Results

Final Manuscript

References:

Ellis, D. A., Naar-King, S., Templin, T., Frey, M. A. and Cunningham, P. B. (2007) Improving health outcomes among youth with poorly controlled type I diabetes: the role of treatment fidelity in a randomized clinical trial of multisystemic therapy.  J Fam Psychol. 2007 Sep, 21(3), 363-71.

George, J. T., Valdovinos, A. P., Thow, J. C., Russell, I., Dromgoole, P., Lomax, S., Torgerson, D. J. and Wells, T. (2007) Brief Intervention in Type 1 diabetes – Education for Self-efficacy (BITES): Protocol for a randomised control trial to assess biophysical and psychological effectiveness.  BMC Endocr Disord. 2007 Sep 14, 7:6.

Haller, M. J., Gottlieb, P. A. and Schatz, D. A. (2007) Type 1 diabetes intervention trials 2007: where are we and where are we going? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2007 Aug, 14(4), 283-7.

Scheidegger, U., Allemann, S., Scheidegger, K. and Diem P. (2007) Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy: effects on quality of life. Swiss Med Wkly. 2007 Aug 25, 137(33-34), 476-82.

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