Responding To the Changing American Workforce Essay Sample
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Introduction of TOPIC
A Study on the Different Aspects of Changes in the American Society’s Population and How it Actually Affects
The Entire Economic System of the Country
Chapter 1: Introduction
Through historical notation that has been presented by American sociologists, it could not be denied that the American society has been changing through the years of economic advancement. One of the effects of these changes is that of the movement of business organizations towards globalization. Today’s business world is totally different form what the business industries were about ten years ago. Indeed, with the introduction of Information Technology to the globe, along came the different innovations for the business activities in the present system of global trade. This is the reason why many traditional organizations take the option in changing the way they approach the business world in attaining their goals of gaining profit. Among the corporations usually changing their systems are publishing business corporations. This is mainly due to the fact, that with the business of information distribution, a larger scale of customers is needed to support the said industry. Surely, with the traditional set up of business industries, a corporation’s aim of reaching the most number of customers may not be that possible.
These changes brought about different aspects of impact on the ways by which human resource management departments are trying to solve the impending issues related to the situation. As for example, the need for having strong health assistance systems in large urban cities in the United States as well as other highly industrialized countries around the world is a challenge to many medical institutions that provide the needed services for such concerns. This is where the role of the Human Resources Management comes in. As known to many, this kind of issue demands a high shift on the human resource systems that a certain company uses. As for medical institutions such as Mt. Carmel and Tucson Medical Center, hiring and retaining employees within the work loading systems of the medical institution was much of a hard challenge for them.
In the paragraphs to follow, the issues along with the responsibility of the Human Resource Management team of both medical institutions shall be discussed. The resolutions made for the said issues would also be tackled afterwards. The Human Resource Management Department or team is a common section that every profit or at times even non-profit organizations have. The reason behind the constant existence of this bisection in every organization is the fact that it has so much control over the staffing systems as well as providing the people within the organization with what they are due as well as with what they need (Clarke, 1998). In this regard, the importance of the presence of this organizational sector is then essential for keeping and motivating employees do their best in their assigned duties. As mentioned earlier, the challenge that has mainly directed HRM teams of both Mount Carmel Medical Institution and Tucson Medical Center to resorting to some revolutionary solutions to be able to meet the said challenges.
Indeed, the responsibility that they have towards the employees that include providing them with what they need while still upholding the objectives of the institution to gain the best possible profit solution for the organization. The balanced view towards these needs have to be addressed thoroughly by the HRM team. By doing so, they are expected to provide the stakeholders of the organization with what they needed at a best possible solution (Keener, 1999). Before, the solution that both company’s HRM team was hiring temporary nurses to fill in the need. However, in due time, temporary nurses were not able to fill much of the needs of the said medical institutions.
With the introduction of new technology and information processing systems through the internet, the revolution of network based staffing remedies hosted by some information programming companies has been the best possible solution for many people support techniques that different organizations in the business industry use today. This fact has also been proven true by the way Mount Carmel and Tucson Medical Center have faced the challenge of effectively using the human resources that they already have and doing away with hiring temporary nurses to fill in the void positions in the hospitals.
At first, the HRM team of both medical institutions has had doubts on how effective the online processes could be for their employees. However, when they saw that the said program would be much beneficial both for the hospital’s objectives as well as with the employees, they took the chance of implementing the said resolution. As a result, this system has provided both institutions with so much ease and best results for the services that they offer to their clients who are hoping for excellent healthcare provisions. Implementing such programs have fully equipped the Human Resource Management teams to rearrange the staffing system in the institutions they work for while also being able to provide the organization with what they expect from their service operations. However, the said implementation also has its own disadvantages as further enlisted by Maureen Minehan in the article “Technology’s increasing impact on the workplace”. The said advantages are as follows:
- Legal issues
- Worker’s compensation and liability scheduling (1997)
The said issues are considered to be among the least yet most important details that must be considered in the implementation of online programs for staffing employees. Minehan further adds that it would not be so much a surprise that because of the implementation f such technological systems, the said techniques that are governed by technological advancement “would eventually change, thus also affecting the activities of the HRM teams of the organizations” (1997).
The existence of the new technological innovations on information sharing is indeed a gift to the social systems, especially organizational systems that exists today. However, like other remedies, the said innovations have their own advantages and disadvantages once they are implied. Hence, this is the main reason why the Human Resources Management teams are further faced with the challenge of whether to apply the said technological innovations in their company’s system or not.
The important thing though is the idea that whether they would implement it or not, the main focus of their job is to provide the company and its employees with the best benefit that could get from the service that they render the clients of the organization. By being focused in the said responsibility, it would be easier to choose on whether to implement the technological programs or not. These problems and the other issues related to the American changes in the society, shall be introduced in the paper that follows which actually shows a better picture on how these changes impact the American society.
Background of the Study
The present situation of the American workforce has been a pattern of changes within its history. IT is indeed obvious that for the past decades, American business entities have been employing pure white Americans and that tradition has been well taken care of by the said society for several years. However, as globalization enters the scene, the situation changed gradually. Now, the American employing situation involves several issues such as higher unemployment rate because of outsourcing, multicultural environments present within the American workforce system, and other problems as well as developments that posts great changes within the American system of employing workforce. Within the paper that follows, the system of changes, their causes and the way they impact the present system of employment within the American region shall be given better explanation through research and actual assessment of the current issues involving the said situation in the American society.
Statement of the Problem
“Change” is something being altered or modified. Change is a constant action taking place every second, minute, hour, day, week, month, and year. Society has changed constantly over time always adapting to current situations and circumstances. People adapt to change in different ways, sometimes good and sometimes bad. Change can be good if the actual change is for the greater good of society. The key to remaining prosperous and in tune with the general public is being able to gear change toward a position that will yield a positive outcome. Change has played a major role in the way the public and private sector has structured their workforce in order to stay in competition with the ever-changing state of affairs in business. It has become a major concern within the workplace. The characteristics of the civilian labor force (CLF) in the United States have changed greatly during the past 50 years and the pace of these changes continues to accelerate.
The media has bombarded us with statistics that reveal the changing American family structure and what this means to the current and future workforce. They have also found a way to factor in the new and improved technology that makes for a new and improved workplace. Both public and private sector employers have begun to take note of the ever-changing population and have started to implement programs that are more family friendly and help public sector employers to retain the best and brightest employees while allowing them to compete with their private sector counterparts.
In order for personnel to be responsive to the size and distribution of the American public service and overall changing demographics of the United States workforce, employers and employees must be able to identify the trends of the changing American family, possible solutions to combat the dramatic changes, and implement more family friendly benefits and working arrangements. Employers and employees must be able to meet together in order to brainstorm ideas that will work well and benefit both employer and employee. Consequently, if these issues are not addressed in a timely fashion with satisfactory results, then the public sector may lose much of its best talent to the private sector.
Main Research Question and Sub-questions
The above referenced statement of the problem yields to the main research question of the study: What are the problems, issues, and factors facing the public and private sector in adapting to the ever changing American Workforce? To address this questions, the following four subquestions will need to be addressed in this study:
1) How has the structure of the American Public Service changed the American Workforce?
2) What are some of the barriers that the workforce faces that go against the grain of the historical background of working America?
3) What are the risks and liabilities associated with ignoring the tide of change when it comes to the workforce?
4) What are some resources or programs that the public and private sector could implement to keep the talent pool of the workforce in tact?
Significance of the Study
Capitalism is alive and well and is the foundation of the economy of the world. The world will need to adapt to the changing population’s needs in order to effectively maximize their output and remain in tune with the publics needs. This study is a comprehensive analysis of the American workforce in transition and how that transition affects the worker and the workplace. Despite different studies showing that a more “worker friendly” environment will increase productivity and boost morale, both the public and private sectors have yet to completely overhaul it’s current benefit structure to address these growing needs. Nonetheless, there is a proliferation of different kinds of workers from different backgrounds with different ideas who are leading the way into the change that is inevitable.
First, this study will examine the historical trends in the workplace, most notably the laws and rules that governed these places. Secondly, this study gives rise to the role that unions and the government played in making the workplace a “better” entity. Thirdly, the study focuses on the current trends in innovative technology and the role that companies and the government is taking in providing programs to meet the needs of the current workforce. And lastly, this study will look into the different groups of individuals that these changes have affected over the past decades and how those changes have affected the economy. This analysis will attempt to provide an informed and detailed look into the changing workforce.
Chapter 2: Review of Literature
The American working culture has taken several developments during the several years passed history. But behind all these developments were the hard times spent by American workers during the years 1959 and several years more onwards. This is why many historians took endeavor in writing the events that happened during those years with the working class of the American society. Many of these historians post real events regarding working realities. Why do people work hard? “The success of a company’s sales relative to its competitors is a source of immense pride and self-satisfaction. Hard work that contributes to this end is its own reward,” explains Cohen. Allegiance to their company becomes a reason that employees work hard, and work becomes the only way for them to express their worth. Not to be overlooked, too, is the urge to climb the corporate ladder. The possibility of someday reaching the top remains a strong incentive for hard work.
Aside from this, the historians in different books point out that there is something more behind the past records regarding the history of the working world in America. Writers such as Boris and Lichtenstein, Leikin, Liz Cohen, Murolo and Chitty as well as Cheri Register have discussed vital history concerning the working culture of the past American employees. The author of the book the Packinghouse Daughter is Cheri Register. She is the daughter of an employee from the Wilson & Company millwright that has strongly influenced her way of viewing life and the working culture of the early American society. Her book is mainly a compilation of her own experiences as a daughter and later on an employee herself in Wilson & Company. As she relates, she has seen and known the working arena as a source of social diversity in her hometown of Alberta Lea, Minnesota. With the use of her memories, she carefully jotted down in papers all the experiences she and her family have seen through history.
She mentioned several experiences concerning the issues on the struggles of several American workers for more work-related satisfaction they wish to have basing from the events that happened with the packinghouse employers. She also made clear pictures of the exact events regarding employment discrimination that happened so much during the earlier working era after the war years. Another feature of Register’s book is the way she made vivid visualization of history through her own life experiences. The author managed to merge the idea of approaching history through a more biographical style, making the book more clearly understandable for readers. Being the daughter of an employer who is an active member of the labor union in the packinghouse business of Wilson &Company, the author displayed a strong sense of conviction. The author used effective writing style through relating the major effects of tension in the working world with employees belonging to the lower level of employment in a company.
Aside from this, Register has also placed a strong point in making the oppressed employer’s side become clearer to the readers of the present generation. It is more often than not that the author makes the way the book was written with such personal touch, which makes it more feasible for readers to easily understand. It has also been the ideal theme of the entire book to show the political agendas that occurred during the 1950’s. Aside from that, the easy dismissing of propaganda also has a strong impact on the way the author jotted down the events in the book “Packinghouse Daughter.”
Yes, many writers attest to the issues on poverty, violence and racism during the 1950’s to the 1960’s. In connection to this, the book written by Leikin entitled “The Practical Utopians” says that during those years, the society has been filled with people who closely examine the working experiences of both men and women. Along with this observation comes building of cooperatives and reconciliation of the meaning of the market place in connection with the democratic participation of everyone. All these idealism pointed to one single goal of ending the issues of work-culture in the American society.
Today, a lot of things in the American working culture have already changed. Women are already allowed to take any job they qualify for, as well as the situation for immigrants from other countries have also changed. Now they can already acquire any job they want provided that they have the capability of completing their tasks. Indeed, from the 50’s and 60’s, compared to the present times, the face of the working world has already developed for good. But because a few more industries in America are still under the plagues of the unfit and unwanted work culture, many employees could still relate to the written accounts by Cheri Register, which would help them realize the importance of employee cooperation to attain great big changes in their own working industry.
Aside from Register’s own historical account, there are also other studies and writings that primarily support the idea of the changing workforce culture in the United States. Among the studies include that of Chapman’s “Changing dimensions” (2004). This paper investigates the response of a workforce policy to the social and demographic trends. There is a growing need for transparency in the filed of global services. By transparency it is meant that the policies, terms and conditions are explained along with a strategically placed thinking process with an aim of solving the problems at the very grass root level. A quality model of workforce is being adopted to enable the employer to formulate strategy for the efficient workforce environment. The former system of management referred to as a command based system should be replaced by a quality workplace model .This necessitates the integration of command and staff structure in to the same realms.
The worker and his employer should work together as a close knit team. It has become eminent within the present society that it is no longer acceptable for an employer to stay aloof of the requirements of his workforce. With a large number of employment opportunities available, skilled workers are a very valuable asset and keeping them in an organization requires much attention to be paid on their needs and requirements. The principles highlighted are based upon his view that the projects should be organizationally focused with an emphasis on tailed learning. Hence, the manager is also responsible for training his team and to get the best out of his men. The total outcome of a service industry depends upon the skills of their leader and the teamwork they undertake (Chapman, 2004).
Another research carried out at the Boston College in 2007 has concluded that almost one fourth of all US entrepreneurs have failed to plan for the effects of the aging American workforce. In spite of the fact that the US is facing a shortage of workers and within a few years time a large number of skilled workers , belonging to the baby boom era will be retired, no plans are being formulated by the companies to make up for the lost workforce. The study further goes on to state that the companies who are not appropriately planning for the loss of the work force are going to experience severe staff shortages especially in the present scenario where there is s relatively small pool of new workers and there would be cut throat competition between companies to hire the most suitable of all workers.
The whole study was based upon interviews of 578 organizations across the United States. It was monitored that 37% percent of the workers had accepted strategies to reassure late-night career employers to remain past the traditional departure age, even with the fact that late-night career workers got high level of skills and powerful qualified and consumer networks, a powerful work principle, low income and are devoted and trustworthy.60% percent of the workers recommended that hiring capable job candidate is actually a very big test. 40% percent admitted to the need of management skills in their companies,
Even though only 33% percent informed that their companies made predictions about retirement rats of their employers to a moderate to a huge amount. The research recommended that employers and organizations which have not formulated their policies regarding recruiting new workers should consider the facts about the scarcity of professionals and plan accordingly. (Harminka, 2007)
TO be able to answer the need of regulating the systems of employment as a process of providing ample employment to the changing culture of the work force in the country, William H. Graves a senior president for Academic strategy at Sun Guard Higher education is of the view that all races should be regarded as equal and equal educational opportunities should be available to all in order to provide for a balanced workforce for the US market. Education should concentrate more on the practical aspects rather then focusing on the theoretical part. Education, according to him, should focus on the job market, the needs of the job market need to be kept into consideration while allowing admissions into specific programs. Higher education must be made affordable and should provide a basis for innovation, economic development and overall global economy.
He argues that the public revenues allocated to higher education are following an altogether different approach. Private sector is investing more in the education and as a result higher education may become expensive and would lead to cutting down in the promotion of skilled and educated professionals for the American workforce. Public revenues allocated to higher education are on a different trajectory, however reforms need to be put into place .Education should be made inexpensive and available to all. It’s high time that the legislators learn the role of technology in today’s corporate world. Making changes and formulations in the educational policy will directly affect the workforce He concludes that an educated and technologically sound team of professionals is the requirement of the hour for America. For American economy to prosper it is imperative that the changes be directed internally and voluntarily keeping in view the role of technology which should be embraced as well?
“This is the time for a voluntary counter reformation to take place within the higher education”. He further adds that certain organizations have felt the pulse of the situation and more should follow (Graves, 2004).
Several implications on the personal differences of the people making up the workforce have also been observed by other researchers. An article which was published in the Career Development international journal in 2005, Ann Feyerhrm has studied the gender related gaps in today’s workforce and has observed the transition of women from a back place employee to attaining full fledged status of a fellow worker in today’s work force. According to the author, today’s women is fast paced and well oriented. She has a clear concept of a working professional career and is well versed with her status in the society.
The study has specifically observed the relationship of Generation X women i.e. the women born between the 1965-80 who are now contributing towards the major female workforce within the high technology industry and their relationship with their bosses, peers, subordinates and the job environment. It was found that the Generation X women rated personal fulfillment with their professional success. They wanted their companies to support them in terms of guidance and should recognize their efforts. There was also a concern for the women to expect a kind of flexibility from their employers so that they could carry on their dual role more efficiently.
This role calls for the employees to have a stock of the situation which makes it mandatory for females to have better work environment. The research was only based upon the technological sector, for it to be a broad based one all sectors of the corporate world needed to be included. The need for the women to have flexibility may have implications on the training, developmental and promotional aspects of the job environment. It was further impressed that if the companies can provide an environment to support attainment of professional success and personal fulfillment it may provide a link to longer term employment, reduced employee turnover and improve the overall performance of the corporate sector. This is due to the fact that with the evolving society women need to fulfill their domestic responsibilities as well (Feyerherm, 2005).
Steven camarota’s study on the other hand discusses the impact of immigrants in the economic system of the country. His study pertains to the fact that immigrant population contributes to the US economy and is actively involved in the jobs around the US. Steven viewed that immigration policies can have a profound impact on a nation’s economy. A large number of immigrant populations can have a significant impact on the cultural, political and economic situation in the United States. The excellent development opportunities in the developed world in the last decades or so have resulted in the immigration of a large population of immigrants into the developed world .In the US almost 25 million people have immigrated since the last few decades. The illegal immigrants amount to around 400, 000 -500,000 and continues to grow with every passing year. This influx of immigrants has always been a cause of concern for the policy makers.
The effect of the immigrant population on the American economy is the focal point of all the discussion on the immigration policies. The impact is huge in terms of the American workers who are less skilled. These immigrant workers tend to do the work at lower wages and so the average American is affected and faces a stiff competition as regards to the job market. The concept of globalization has breathed a new air into the business industry. It has affected almost all the nooks and corners of the business world and stocks are no exception. With greater prospects in the developing world, financers are turning their head towards the developed world for a fair deal. This has a marked effect on the economies of countries as a whole. It’s not just about a single entrepreneur using his money and directing it to a foreign land but a host of companies are setting up business around the globe (Camarota, 2005).
Furthermore, in her book The Elephant and The Dragon, Robyn Meridith examines the giant shift that has been brought out by the rise of China and India. Jean Pierre Lehman, professor of international political economy at IMD, Lausanne, Switzerland on the issue of globalization has said, “My concern is that the US is too over dependent on China, not just for goods but also for finance” (Robyn Meidith, 2007). These immigrant workers tend to do the work at lower wages and so the average American is affected and faces a stiff competition as regards to the job market. A lot of companies in the U.S are being bought over by the Asians and a lot of workforce from over seas is being employed through the internet. Call centers in U.S are an attractive business for foreign investors. A lot of American companies have their call centers set up in India, Pakistan or China.
The reason is the low salary that is sought by the people working for these call centers. For costumers it doesn’t really matter if their tax preparer, loan processor or telephone operator works and operates from Delhi .This might result in a loss of jobs in the developed countries. This might affect jobs which are more of a flexible nature. As described the private entrepreneurs in the developed world are making a lot of money from their projects abroad.
This is also due to the fact that these companies get the job done at half the price of that being asked by their competitors in the West. This has created a break neck competition in the corporate world, where there is a constant struggle going on between the developed and developing nations. Another reason behind his may be the rate of turnover that has been showed by investors in the developing countries, who are orienting themselves in a faster way then their competitors in the West.
Several other changes include that of the study presented by Fred Wish is that studying the changes and especially the change that will take place in the labor industry by 2014result to researchers that argue on the possibility that the number of potential job seekers would increase. In the middle of 1994-2004 the labor force grew by 14.4 million, so it is projected that the workers may increase in the same manner and by 20014 the supply of workers is expected to reach 162.3 million. The change will be in the diversification of the workforce, it will be more racially split and more women would be taking up jobs so the gender gap would narrow down as well. Along with that an older population may also contribute towards the workforce.
The constant shift in the workers creates a vacancy in the job market. Jobs predicted to decline may show an increase in the vacancies. There would be shift in job placement from employment growth to replacement needs due to the changing attitude of the job world and more reliance on technology. Workforce by 2014, would be required to be more educated and diversified .It is expected that the requirement of bachelor holder’s would increase and probably so the lower skilled group as well. In the middle of 2004 and 20014, 35.7 percent of the new positions that appear are likely to have a requirement of a professional college degree or even higher, 27.7% percent are predictable to have a requirement a High School Diploma or less. On the other hand since the jobs requirement of less education or degree will have a much higher revenue rate than those which require a higher education degree, many more jobs positions are going to be available in that area (24.5 Million) than in the area where a high level of professional degree is required that is (16 Million). In the time 2004 to 2014 the economy will keep on providing jobs for candidates in all the groups.
“The trend for workers to work has expanded to new horizons, in yester years it was the salary that matters the most, but today the workers may list other reasons for working. Working to gain experience , learning new skills and benefits such as health insurance , flexible working schedules , retirement provisions have cropped up as the ways that necessitate the present day worker to join the job market” .This has been expressed by Fred Wish in one of his articles reviewing the concept of fringe benefits.
The concept of fringe benefits dates back to the World War 2 when in the face of federal wage controls to curb inflation, employees began to offer benefits to attract potential employees. After some time this concept of fringe benefits became an expected and valuable part of a complete employment plan. The new workforce is on the look out for these benefits besides the normal salary that is being offered. This is explained further in this study. Fringe benefits are like the bonuses that employees used to get in the yester years. These small tokens or bonuses, act as supplements for the worker and his family. These small tokens may make all the difference between acceptable and unacceptable work environment.
The hike in the me
dical expenditures has made these incentives really attractive for the employee. The project of life
The large unemployment rates especially in 2004, when the unemployment rate was 6.4 % and the health costs, which have risen in the passing years. In 2004 the national health expenditure rose to 7.9 % which is almost three times the rate of inflation. These warrant changes, which have been negotiated, based upon a concern for the growing inflation and the risks involved. This economic condition has forced employers to institute changes as increasing medical premiums and eliminating no essential benefits. At the end of the day, all employers may face the challenge of juggling economic viability with policies aimed at the betterment of the lives of their workers (Fred, 2003).
The researches that have been reviewed in this chapter certainly adheres to the explanation of the different changes within the American society through the years. With the agents of change such as immigration and social stratification of individuals, the economic progress procedures could be noted to have taken different phases of changes through the years. Moreover, the numerous changes lead to even bigger implication of both economic challenges and opportunities for the American system of government.
So as to add to the already existing theories about the role of human resource management section of businesses in facing certain situations and changes within the American society, Mark Williams is a known columnist on the business and economic sections of several school journals. The enthusiasm he has upon examining the different developments within the world economy, specifically pertaining to globalization has made him one of the most read authors when it comes to dealing with issues in business. His expertise in employee relation issues and the trend on multicultural environment among multinational organizations today certainly adheres to the fact that he is able to balance out both the advantages and the disadvantages brought about by the said economic advancement in the global view. This is the reason why he was enthusiastic enough to release his written book entitled: “The 10 Lenses: Your Guide to Living & Working in a Multicultural World (Capital Ideas for Business & Personal Development)”. This particular reading material aims to empower the business industries in becoming successful despite the fact that handling employees of different races is not that easy to deal with.
The Book of Mark William primarily attracts the fact that the strength of organizational structures depend upon the fact that the management teams are expected to be capable of handling the different employee-relations disputes that may arise along the way. Employing several people form different races has caused problems to some multinational companies, making them less successful in their chosen field. Hence, as a support to the said needs of growing multinational organizations, Williams wrote about the ten lenses of successful human resources management in terms of controlling a multicultural population in a certain business organization.
Williams acknowledges the fact that this particular situation has been primarily caused by the continuous pursuance of globalization towards the different parts of the world. Making the ends of the earth meet through the existence of economic brotherhood has been enticed by economists as one of the key factors that would make globalization a revolutionary agent in terms of global economic success.
However, the challenges that are to be met in this particular situation are not that easy to deal with. Since the issues involve human individuals, the management teams of different business organizations around the world certainly faces the challenge of helping the employees make amends on the differences that they have against each other. As hard as it is motivating same-race employees in a certain organization, it is even harder to make the ends of the world meet through the use of policing procedures. The massive work on researching and reintegrating cultural considerations with the procedures of company management are only among the major reasons why it is necessary to understand the key factors that contribute to the success of multinational companies. These factors are the vey main content of the Book of Mark Williams.
The book “Ten Lenses” helps the entrepreneurs of the modern business industries have a sneak peak on the situations that they would meet on their way to success in the filed of global trade and exchange. The rules of each country that they have to deal with along with the cultural perceptions of different races with regards business functions has been discussed as one of the primary factors needed to be addressed by business entrepreneurs.
From this point, the book outlines the ten lenses of success that are mainly focused upon the different cultural perceptions and comprehension of the races of the world with regards their capabilities in business as well as with their position in the global industry. According to Williams, it is through the effective utilization and observation of the ten lenses in business that entrepreneurs would be able to take notice of the major possibilities of becoming highly successful in dealing with the global trade systems.
The author further points out that the importance of researching with regards the cultural preferences of the employees who are employed in certain business organizations could be utilized by several managers in creating possible motivational procedures that would help the entrepreneurs and management administrations as well to assist their employees in targeting the right goal for the organization’s progress. This particular reading material is indeed a fine read especially for novice entrepreneurs who are planning to establish companies that are to employ people form different races. Through the motivational suggestions of this book, the new entrepreneurs would understand the importance of giving the employees what they need and what they expect from the organization. Certainly, by the way the entrepreneurs along with the management administration face the challenge of meeting the needs of a widely diverse workforce, the progress of the organization could be determined.
Most likely, the presentation of Williams with the most important factors that brings about the efficiency of the book could be noted as excellent enough making the novice business personnels more capable of facing the foreseen situation that they have to met in their journey towards the success of their organization.
The book of Mark Williams certainly helps the new entrepreneurs predict on what is going to happen to their businesses in the future. This reading material is then helpful in making decisions for those who are still planning in entering the global trade industries. The importance of giving the novice business personnels the knowledge that they need in carrying their business through would indeed help them create the most positive plans designed for future successful applications. In this regard, the author of this review highly recommends the book especially for young learners who are still discovering the different wonders of global business enterprises.
Chapter 3: How has the structure of the American Public Service changed the American Workforce?
Globalization has actually opened the doors of international job employment procedures held by the developed countries. This is the process called “outsourcing”. What is this particular term referring to and how does it actually affect the economic status of a certain country such as the United States of America? This shall be further discussed within the context of this paper. Outsourcing began during the entrance of the 1980’s. It could be noted that the economic procedures of several developing countries have been strongly progressive through the so-called “helping cross cultural neighbors” movement, which involved employing people from the less developed countries.
The said movement actually posts a certain inviting way with which the developed areas of the world are to assist the less-developed areas of the world through employing them in several business organizations that have been particularly outsourced in their area. To understand better, the advantages and disadvantages of the procedure shall be discussed further within the paragraphs that follow. This especially involves the IT industries. Paying local population who are to work for IT positions is indeed expensive. However, outsourcing would result to better performance yet lower expenses on the part of the employers.
Both ways, there are different advantageous and disadvantageous effects of outsourcing procedures on the part of the employer and the employees as well. On the part of the employer, of course, the advantages are huge. Most likely, outsourcing would cost them lesser amount of employee payment provisions; this is primarily because of the fact that people they are employing are requiring lesser payment because the dollar pay-out in their areas amount to higher sum compared to the American society. Hence, they are less demanding of higher pay although they are forced by the company to do numerous tasks. However, it is also disadvantageous on the part of the employer to employ such employees in terms of personal management matters. The idea is that the people are much more able to adjust to their situation when they are assisted fully by the head administration. Communication procedures are then one of the major hindrances on the application of personal management procedures.
On the part of the employees who are outsourced for IT positions, they are then given the chances of working for outside companies at the comfort of their own countries. Hence, they feel more than blessed to have the said jobs without actually thinking that they are being overworked and underpaid by the original companies. Employees from the host country however feel the disadvantage of not being able to work for the company that they think they deserve. The idea is that the more the companies would welcome outsourced companies, the more chances that the employees [native of the country, such as America] would have lesser chances of gaining the employment that they need, simply because the employers give more importance to the employees from underdeveloped countries such as the Philippines, India, and Pakistan. People from these areas could be trained well to be able to bring fourth better results for the companies in America.
From the picture being shown in this paper, it could not be denied that the effect of global connections with the American business society could be both beneficial as well as detrimental in different ways. The aim of the companies in the US in regulating the amount of expenses that they spend for employee hiring and retention while retaining the quality of the job that they are performing is not a hard decision to make, it is not even considered a bad inclusion on the part of the business owners themselves. Seeing the situation on their part, is not that hard to understand for one to agree on how outsourcing really affects the business industry [especially that of the IT field] in the American Society. The benefits could be well clarified by the present implication of the different situations present within the said business industry.
However, noting the situation of the employees and the states where outsourcing is presently implemented, the situation could be considered detrimental in different aspects of the current issues with regards outsourcing. Although the process of employing individuals from outside the country extends the capabilities of the country in handling globalization in their IT fields of industries, the results are still out of balance when it comes to the rising unemployment rate among the native[s] of the land, especially those who have garnered ample knowledge on the field.
Most often than not, the qualification of the native[s] professionals who are to be admitted within the company systems are required to have higher degrees since they are the ones who are to serve as supervisors, they are to take higher positions than those who are outsourced from other countries. Hence, what happens to the average level employees in IT who cannot afford to go further for extra studies in higher level of education? Without outsourcing, they could still at least land rank and file positions within IT companies. However, because of the rising number of outsourced employees in the land, the chances become dimmer. As for a fact, only those who have garnered higher education are able to pass for employment in different IT companies within the United States.
On the part of the government taxes, outsourcing makes it easier for the companies of the IT industries to considerably declare only the number of employees that are present in their facilities, thus freeing them from several taxing responsibilities for the continuous existence of their business. Most likely, those who are employing native[s] of the country would have the idea of alternating the system that they use with outsourcing because of this particular [unseen] benefit brought about by the said employment process. As the report of McDougal further explains:
“What’s driving some of these companies to send IT work to rural America rather than India is a combination of cost savings and convenience. Rural Sourcing bills about $38 to $45 an hour for programming work. That’s considerably less than the $80 an hour that an experienced programmer in a hub like San Francisco could command, but somewhat more than what a company would pay for developers in India, where a good Java coder in a major city gets $23 an hour, according to White and Tim Boehm, president of Cibersites, a new division of systems integrator Ciber Inc., focused on opening application-development centers in smaller cities around the country.” (McDougal, 2005, Internet)
Certainly, the IT companies who have most often than not gained employees from the country who are low-leveled in skills have decided to solve the issue through outsourcing their employees. Hence, the competition for the native dwellers of the country who have ample skills on the field becomes tougher. The chances left to them is that they acquire better skills as well as higher education to better their chances of landing in a good positional job within the IT industries of the country.
As an answer to the problem that could be considered detrimental on the part of the employees, the report of McDougal points out a fact that pertains to one particular company’s move to regulate the issue. It could be quoted as follows:
“Rural Sourcing’s business plan seems to make sense; it offers customers low-cost benefits similar to offshore outsourcing while keeping the work onshore. But some analysts are skeptical about the company’s chances of making a big impact on the market. The prospects for outsourcing to Middle America are limited by the fact that there simply aren’t enough skilled IT workers in small communities to take on comprehensive outsourcing engagements, says Frances Karamouzis, an analyst at market-research company Gartner. “They could get work on a project-by-project basis, but I think they would have a hard time getting beyond that,” says Karamouzis, who concedes that Rural Sourcing’s “Buy America” ethos could catch on with some customers.” (McDougal, 2005, Internet)
Certainly, this could decrease the unemployment rates among the ethnic groups of the country. However, the situation for other employees still needs ample attention to become regulated with the issue of outsourced employees. True, underdeveloped countries are overwhelmed with the fact that the American business society welcomes their employee’s skills and are even willing to pay large amounts [as per measured through the local monetary exchange rate of the said countries] just to be able to expand their job and employment as well as business operations in other countries. However, this process of globalizing the employment system on the part of American business industries impact the social system of America negatively as the unemployment rate in the country continuously increases as the employers appreciate outsourced employees better than that of the native ones.
Helping the underdeveloped countries to recover with the effects of globalization to their economic system is not a bad move on the part of the business entrepreneurs of developing countries such as America itself. However, the effect on the native employees and the economic situation of the country itself would be much devastating [as observed earlier] if this process is to continue. Hence, helping others is not to be condemned as long as it does not jeopardize the progress of the host country.
Chapter 4: The Historical Perspective of the American Workforce
As mentioned earlier, the American workforce and its culture has been undergoing different changes through the ages. As for a fact, several studies have been commenced to particularly address to this particular issue as it heightens the possibility of understanding the different phases of change that is evident within the American history of industrial and commercial development. To mention a few of the studies presented through reports, some of the results and findings of the researches shall be posted in this section of the study.
In 2005, a study was conducted by James T Bond and his team .The research was funded by Alfred Solan Foundation. The research was part of the NSE projects which conducts researches on the study of practices, policies and programs of the different employers and compares the results with that obtained during different time periods. As a whole these projects subsequently guide the teams in formulating policies for the work environment. .Researches conducted by the group focuses on the work environment in the US and the effects of the policies upon the worker community.
The research was conducted upon 1,092 employers with 50 or more employees and it was observed for three main parameters viz, Prevalence, differences between small and large employers, the difference in trends from a time period of 1998 to 2005 was also studied. The conclusion came out to be that in the last seven years time period the job market has changed considerably. Providing work life assistance may have been increased but it was observed that workers being provided all the amenities and cared for by their employers. The reason which came out in the study was that in the present day scenario it is imperative to provide incentives such as these in order to attract potential employees and a good work environment would ensure the persistence of work. (Bond, 2005).
Another research carried out in 2004 by Denis which has reviewed the changing trend of hiring specific subgroups of population. The report concludes that there is a shortage of skilled workers and as such the employers are bound to recruit more and more professionals among the work force. Thus there will be a dramatic decrease in the proportion of older skilled workers as time goes by and this decrease in the presence of the old skilled professional workers will impact upon the workforce in the years to come. In this case it is really important to promote technical education. Learning should be initiated from the grass root level. Schools should not only impart academic education but should adopt the teaching of technical aspects as well. Crafts should be taught and basic craftsmanship should be made part of the curriculum. It is only by investing hugely in his infrastructure related to technical subjects that a qualified workforce may be produced for the years to come. The generation that is passing through this process should engage in imparting training to the next generation, otherwise there would be an immense shortage of well trained staff for technical jobs.
In a report Donald Clark has talked about the implications of changing demographics in the American workforce during the 90s, Clark has devised that in order for American economy to develop it is necessary to make collaborative actions in the form of action agenda. This included improving the curriculum, induction of special people into the main stream and the introduction of the protocol procedures for the physically handicapped, creation of more effective transition programs and emphasis on basic academic competence. The physically disabled are usually forgotten when it comes to the point of development of economy. At the present moment the true potential of special people is not being utilized. They are not considered part of the working class at the moment. This attitude needs to be changed and an air of confidence should be built around these very special citizens.
With some mild adjustments, job situation or environment can be altered a bit for the physically or mentally handicapped people. This would in the long run make the physically challenged people to develop into responsible citizens and would help them in standing on their own feet. In this way there would be no added burden of supporting these people and instead they would start contributing towards the financial situation. This situation would affect the entire social and financial setup .No longer would these people be considered an added burden by their families and this would live them the will to strive, the will to reach the heights of whatever field they enter into. This would empower the special people and would contribute in the development of American economy (Doverspike, 2004).
In the book “Reshaping the American Workforce” the authors Harry J. Holzer and Demetra Nightingale Smith has expressed their concern that the job market for the workers is rapidly changing. Employers are finding it hard to retain skilled workers while the unskilled workers are finding it hard to maintain their place in the setup.
This is due to the widening gulf that is developing between the two communities. This is all due to the need for a skilled workforce in today’s technological corporate world. There is a growth in the inequality in the job market. There is a growing concern over education and training. As was observed in the previous research cited before, this gap in the skilled and unskilled worker in the years to come may decide the process of recruiting suitable candidates for the jobs. Today the world is changing shape very rapidly and managing this change is of crucial value. The future belongs to the one who is technically sounder. This skill might make all the difference. The need for policies to be formulated need to be assessed so much so that the required skilled personnel are produced to keep the economy flourishing in the fast paced technological job market of today (Holzer, 2005).
From the views of the different writers of American business development cited in this part of the study, it could be observed that the American workforce have been taking different phases of change as thee years come. Because of the impending rising rate of immigration among the ethnic and multicultural population, the workforce in the American industries have been taking increased chances of employing people from different cultures from all over the world. True, these changes could be noted through studying the various issues that could be engaged with the growing immigration rates of other cultural nations to the US and how this situation particularly affect not only the economic systems of the country, but also its lifestyle and cultural standing.
Chapter 5: What are the risks associated with ignoring the tide of change when it comes to the workforce?
The current economic status of the world and the movements that are proposed to support the growing need for economic expansion primarily lead to the application of the globalization of systems including the lives of the people within the human society. One of the results of such advancement is the existence of immigration. All over the world, there are many countries that become host to several immigrants from neighboring areas. Australia as an example holds at least 52% of its population that came from immigrating nationalities within the said country.
Among the countries which become a common host for immigrants is the American Region. Although the immigration rules are not that easy to pursue, it could not be denied that since the said region of the world holds so much promise for the people, as they see the Americas as the land of their dreams, there is certainly nothing that could keep them away from reaching their goals, even tight immigration procedures could not stop them. Through illegal entrance within the boarder of the country, they are able to create possibilities with regards living within the American regions.
There are several nationalities that have dominated the American region already since the year when the First and Second World War ended. At some point, this procedure of transferring from country to country has been causing both advantages and disadvantages for the country. As William H. Frey (1999) commented:
“Clearly, Asian and Hispanic immigrants are spilling over into regions of the United States with which they are not normally easily associated. Even more important, however, is the fact that they will likely continue to remain minorities in communities that are predominantly white. These ethnic “pioneers” are taking advantage of new opportunities but are also bearing the brunt of new challenges, similar to those borne by earlier immigrants to the United States. In years past, other pioneering groups migrated to the suburbs of New York, Chicago and San Francisco. Today’s migration will carry the new minorities into labor markets in communities such as Salt Lake City, Minneapolis, Oklahoma City and Colorado Springs. As a result, these changes of direction within our “multiple melting pots,” these new immigrant destinations, no doubt will shape the nature of both local and national race relations in the decades ahead.” (http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itsv/0699/ijse/frey.htm).
From this point, it could be noted that the immigration rate in America indeed affect their social living as well as the American society’s cultural heritage. Reports pertain to pointing the highest immigration rates to Hispanics or Latinos who prefer to stay within the American boarders rather than in their own country. Knowing that these people are the ones who are primarily invading the country’s cultural and social connections, it could be observed that they too are the ones who are having overall domination in several sates of the country. How are these claims proven and how do the reports on Hispanic immigration affect the American way of living? This is what is going to be tackled within the paragraphs that shall follow.
The massive immigration rate of Latinos towards the Americas even dates way back the exploration period of the Spanish empire. The Spaniards were able to unveil the beautiful land of America and were thus able to create possible communities before. However, they did not prefer to stay as much when they saw the different riches of the lands over the pacific islands of Asia.
However, just during the later decades, the Mexican society gained freedom away form the Spanish rule, hence giving them larger chances of living their lives the way they want to and finally finding their own way in supporting their own community. The autonomy however lead to a more complicated move. They did not prefer to simply stay within their countries because of the system of governance that was implemented then and because of the country itself. Hence, when they saw that the American regions best suited their needs, they began to transfer to the said country.
Since then, every year, the immigration rate increases. As it has been noted through historical reports:
“In 1900, the total Mexican-American population was estimated to be between 380,000 and 560,000. The early 1900’s saw a sharp increase in the number of Mexican immigrants as economic conditions in Mexico worsened. In 1910, the Mexican Revolution broke out. This conflict plummeted Mexico into years of political and economic chaos. The revolution also sparked a tremendous wave of immigration that continued until the 1930’s.” (World Book and the Globe, 2005, HIHAI, Internet)
Yes, the chaotic situation in Mexico forced the people to leave their own land and proceed with their lives in other countries. America was the primary target of the said minority. Miami, particularly attracted them because of the climate of the state and the Mexico-like ambiance in the said American territory.
During the late 1990’s, the immigration rate of Hispanics coming in the American territories tripled and began to invade the American society in large numbers. As the said report continues:
“From the 1970’s to the early 1990’s, large numbers of Hispanic immigrants came from war-torn countries in Central America, including El Salvador and Nicaragua. Many of these immigrants were children and teen-agers whose parents had been killed or had disappeared. Some U.S. citizens felt that Central Americans fleeing military conflict should be granted political asylum in the United States. However, the U.S. government maintained that most of these immigrants had been motivated by economic, not political, concerns. Therefore, they were not entitled to the special treatment given political refugees under U.S. immigration law. Many of the immigrants from Central America were placed in large detention camps until they could be relocated or returned to their homelands.” (World Book and the Globe, 2005, HIHAI, Internet)
Now, the realization of both the advantages and the disadvantages of the situation is currently seen. It could be noted that movements of social change are being created so as to cater to both the cultures of the Hispanic groups of supposed “minorities” and the interest of those who are natives of the land. However, because of the ration of the number of the said immigrants, the balance of the systematic movements are feared to fail in their own way as the application of the said changes becomes much impossible as the strength of the Latino influence within the American society increases as well.
It could not be denied that as the population grows the system of the society of the American region changes as well. Sadly, the immigration’s strong influence within the said society has primarily made a radical change within the lives of the American natives. With the population rate of the Hispanic immigrants in the country, it could be observed that their voice becomes even louder than the natives. The fear of the American is that there is a possibility that one time, they would be more confident and thus they make take over the American region as well. Immigrants are supposed to be treated as primary minorities of the host country. However, because of the growing number of the Hispanics, they are now considered majority of the American population. Statistics prove this particular claim:
Diagram 1: Population Statistics in America
Between the 1960’s towards the year 2000
(Source: Samuel P. Huntington. 2004, the Hispanic Challenge)
Diagram Analysis: From the figures shown above, it could be observed that the population growth of immigrants in the United States in 2000 primarily results to population boost within the Mexican group. According to reports, at least 35% of the said growth is sourced out from birthing and the rest comes from massive entry of the Mexican immigrants that continues up until the present time.
These figures certainly prove the fact that the claims of the dominance of Mexican immigrants within the American society are all true. As for a fact, especially within the territories of Miami, the Mexican immigrants there already managed to create their own communities called pueblos, whereas they have their own local government. It is as if they are creating a small replica of Mexico within the territories of the American region. Because of the numerous treaties that the American government have signed and unsigned and signed again before, the possibility of keeping situations like this from happening seems quite impossible to happen. Hence, the Americans are forced to live with the changes brought about by the said immigration. What are these changes?
Because of the radical movements pursued by the Mexican community living within the boarders of America, several adjustments have been made within the educational system of the said country. More likely, because of being minors in the society, in terms of original birth place, only a few among the Mexican community could afford bringing their children to the private institutions of education. As a result, the public schools become filled with the population that is primarily dominated by the minorities.
With this scene in sight, it could be concluded that the educational procedures of the said public institutions would be forced to adjust to what the students need. Particularly, not all of them speak the native language, English. Now, as it could be observed, Spanish-English classes are pursued so as to cater to the Mexican immigrants’ children. The uncontrolled development of the Spanglish language is also obviously seen as part of the said change.
Table 1: The Mexican Original-based Educational Background
(Source: Samuel P. Huntington. 2004, the Hispanic Challenge)
With the digits shown above, it is obvious that most of the Mexicans are able to incur lower than average education from their own country. As a result, it could be expected that the challenge in assisting them with their studies, considering that most of them are not accustomed to speaking in English, the pressures are placed upon the shoulders of the American educators. Adjusting to the needs of the minorities actually aggravates the already chaotic situation within the educational system of American Public Schools.
- Culture and Family
Remarriage and cultural influence among the American nationals becomes a strong impact on the American society from the Mexican communities in the country. From reports, the following data have been derived:
Table 2: Hispanic and Asian Remarriage in America
(Source: Samuel P. Huntington. 2004, the Hispanic Challenge)
The impact of remarriage among old-Americans is noted to be rather influential in terms of their living. Most of the said old-aged American men and women are moved to adapt to the system of cultural procedures and activities of the ones that they have been remarried to.
Most likely, these figures would show the instance that the influence of the Mexicans among the Americans’ lives is directly affecting them traditionally and culturally. The adaptation to the culture helps them become more Hispanic than becoming the Americans that they really are.
(c) On Work and Employment
Before, only rank and file positions could be taken by minorities within organizational arrangements in the United States. However, today the figure of the surveys suggests otherwise:
Diagram 2: Profession and Employment Statistics
(Source: Samuel P. Huntington. 2004, the Hispanic Challenge)
From the diagrams and figures shown herein, it could be observed that the increasing number of Mexican or Latino immigrants within the territories of the United States primarily worsens the situation in the American society. The growth rate of their population even threatens the stability of the American community. Hence, radical changes should really be implemented with regards this particular issue.
Immigration cannot be prevented especially within the systems of economic progress that the present human civilization adapts itself to. Unfortunately, immigration, as hoped by the enthusiasts of globalization, does not return the expected results of cultural diversity within the different communities in the world. The study presented in this paper primarily shows the negative side of massive immigration within a certain country. Strongly, the result of the immigration procedures brings drastic changes to the lifestyle, the culture, the systems and the institutions and the economic as well as the employment procedures done within the systems of the host country.
It could be considered then that the empowered immigrants, particularly the Latinos, who are currently residing –in America could endanger the cultural heritage of the country. The invasion that the Mexican make within the American society brings so much impact on how the new generation of America sees their own country’s culture and traditions.
Certainly, if the American government does not act with regards this issue right now, it is not impossible that one day, America would be an exact replica of what Mexico. As Samuel Hunnington further adds in the conclusion of his study:
“Such a transformation would not only revolutionize the United States, but it would also have serious consequences for Hispanics, who will be in the United States but not of it. Sosa ends his book, The Americano Dream, with encouragement for aspiring Hispanic entrepreneurs. “The Americano dream?” he asks. “It exists, it is realistic, and it is there for all of us to share.” Sosa is wrong. There is no Americano dream. There is only the American dream created by an Anglo-Protestant society. Mexican Americans will share in that dream and in that society only if they dream in English.” (Source: Samuel P. Huntington. 2004, the Hispanic Challenge)
Yes, indeed, radical changes will certainly happen.
Chapter 6: What are some resources or programs that the public and private sector could implement to keep the talent pool of the workforce in tact?
True, many businessmen around the world today are open to the idea of sharing their business programs with people from other races. Because of the advancement of technology, the said business systems have been made possible to exist between business enthusiasts who belong to different respective cultures. To others, this step in modern business is usually referred to as one of the most prevalent risks taken by business companies today. Although, to those who have been able to succeed in a highly culturally diverse business environment, the system of involving different races within an organization system had brought them so much challenge to improve and thus further develop their company’s competency within the business world. True, the challenges in making certain business systems possible is really not that easy to face. Both the risks of dealing with different people having different individualities as well as diverse cultural preferences are real challenges that must be considered carefully by any business founder. Yet, taking the necessary steps and adjustments in attaining success from the said business system is indeed most rewarding in the end.
Cultural diversity has usually been pointed as one reason why many companies around the world fall down. The fact that the differences include diverse preferences as well as individual personalities, the companies involved in such situations are naturally subjected to challenges of keeping the peace and unity within the community existent. The said five spheres of culture are mainly referred to as the region, industry, Company, Function and Profession. These five major factors making up the cultural diverse effects of having people from around the world work within a single company, usually identifies the importance of intercultural connection existing within the organization. One of the key factors in making this happen is the presence of open mindedness within each member of the company (Budhwar 2004). Indeed, with the existence of wide cooperation, within the company helps so much in attaining the most wanted success from the existence of a culturally diverse environment in business.
“Putting up any business is taking on a big risk”, indeed, controlling a business organization as well as the people making it up is a big challenge for anyone trying to enter the business industries. Although there is the information technology to help out in the process of business expansion, meeting people’s needs from different countries and cultures is always an issue in putting up any business which is expected to become known worldwide. Indeed, it is no joke to take such a kid of challenge. But with the use of rightful reasoning and open-mindedness, the challenge of meeting people’s needs amidst their differences could be taken by anyone who is determined in making it to the business world. True, it does take so much effort, time and even research to really be able to become successful in this kind of business venture. But the ability to adjust one’s self for others as well as for the organization’s sake is considered a key reason why many who strongly believe in this system of diverse business environment survive the challenges.
Chapter 7: Summary and Conclusions
The study that has been further presented herein notes that there are indeed several factors that drive the possibilities by which the American workforce has taken several phases of change throughout the years of social change in the country. Moreover, through the researches and the studies that had been further reviewed in this paper, the investigative results pertain to one particular conclusion that adheres to the fact that there are indeed different aspects of change that are involved within the present American economic system. These changes include five major aspects:
- Immigration Rate
- Outsourcing Procedure
- Mortality Rate of Hispanics and other cultural groups in the country
- Social Stratification on Gender
- Furthering Education among locals and foreigners in the country
The five aspects of change have been further elaborated within the context of the research, whereas, it has been learned that all five aspects of change impacts the American community in different ways. Moreover, the largest influence that the said aspects contribute to the American society is the impact that it makes upon the work force of US. Dealing with these issues then could be noted to require certain amount of skills in regulating the situation. Government agencies concerned with public employment should certainly give attention to this particular fact. Doing so would allow local business organizations to regulate the systems that they themselves are adapting as an organization in the business industries. Aside from this, this process of regulating the systems could well equip the country’s economy of being highly adjusted to different other changes that still need to be met in the future of the American trade and business industries.
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