What legacy is society now leaving to its children? Read the papers, watch television, note the videos, tune in the evening news, listen to the rap music, see the adult examples everywhere around you. Children are glutted on mental and emotional junk food. “If you want to destroy a country,” former British education secretary Sir Keith Joseph said, “you debauch its currency.” And he added: “The way to destroy a society is to debauch the children.” “Debauch,” according to Webster’s, means “to lead away from virtue or excellence.” That is being done with a vengeance today. Much is said about juvenile delinquency.
World reports adhere to the fact that because of many sources of youth depression and lack of hope for a better future, many young people intend to resort to violence as well as drug addiction. As for example, : Drug abuse has taken an enormous toll on human life worldwide. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services says: “Each year, drug abuse kills 14,000 Americans.” But illicit drug users are not the only ones affected by the drug trade. In order to finance their habit, many addicts turn to violence and a life of crime. The Sociology of Juvenile Delinquency says: “Rivalries in crack [cocaine] distribution networks have turned some inner-city communities into urban ‘dead zones,’ where homicide rates are so high that police have written them off as anarchic badlands.”
Most often than not, the target of social down fall is the young generation. How does the human justice system face this challenge? And ho far have they gone in resolving juvenile delinquency cases? This shall be discussed in the study that has been commenced in this paper.
“We will strive to listen in new ways . . . to the injured voices, the anxious voices, the voices that have despaired of being heard. . . . What remains is to give life to what is in the law: to ensure at last that as all are born equal in dignity before God, all are born equal in dignity before man.”—U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon, inaugural address, January 20, 1969.
WHEN kings, presidents, and prime ministers take office, they are wont to talk of justice. Richard Nixon, former president of the United States, was no exception. But his eloquent words lose their luster when viewed in the cold light of history. Although he pledged ‘to give life to the law,’ Nixon was later found guilty of lawbreaking and was forced to relinquish his office. Three decades later, ‘injured, anxious, and despairing voices’ keep clamoring to be heard.
Hearing such voices and addressing their grievances is no easy task, as countless well-intentioned leaders have discovered. ‘Justice for all’ has proved to be an elusive goal.
Nevertheless, many centuries ago, a promise was made that merits our attention—a unique promise concerning justice.
Justice is such an illusive thing for a world much lived in turmoil and despair. This is the main reason why restorative justice has been given birth. In an aim to restore the old ways of dealing with the wrong doings of mankind, instead of simply following the usual laws created by man, restorative justice has been introduced to the human society. What is restorative justice? This is a theory that emphasizes the repairing of the harm done or caused by a criminal behavior. This theory involves several processes that are necessary to create a more livable environment even when dealing with a person who commits a crime. The said processes require cooperation from all the stakeholders of the crime. Hence, the people involved in the issue are then lead to a more ‘peaceful’ state with each other. However, the said processes are not that easy enough to apply. As a fact, many people consider this process a more complex way of solving a crime compared to that or simply incarcerating an offender.
Most likely, the crimes treated in this process of recovery are more of an individual offence. It does not involve crimes against the sate or any government form. It is a way by which problem solving is introduced to a newer, more complex but equally more beneficial approach.
This research is then to show the effectiveness of the said process. It is also designed to measure the negative and the positive factors contributing to the application of the said theory in a real=life situation. Other areas of the topic shall also be measure and examined for additional knowledge purposes.
- Background of the Study
“Britain is now the prison capital of western Europe, with an average incarceration rate of 139 for every 100,000 of population in England and Wales,” states the Guardian Weekly. “The prison population has risen from 42,000 in 1991 to 72,000.” British courts are not only sentencing more people to prison but giving them longer sentences as well. In 1992, 45 percent of convicted adults were sent to prison, compared with 64 percent in 2001. Incarceration levels, however, are much higher in some other countries. In fact, about half the estimated 8.75 million people in prison worldwide are found in just three countries: the United States (1.96 million), China (1.4 million), and Russia (900,000). This fact shows how much incarceration could bring problems to the society as well.
IN A WORLD where political correctness often whitewashes the darker side of reality, we have soft alternatives for the bleak word “prison.” We prefer “penitentiary” or “correctional facility,” where “vocational training” and “social services” are provided. We even favor the term “inmate” over the dehumanizing word “prisoner.” Yet, look under the veneer, and you will find that prisons are facing serious problems today, such as the skyrocketing cost of keeping offenders behind bars and the ever-widening gulf between the aims of incarceration and the actual results.
Some people question the effectiveness of prisons. They note that while the number of prisoners worldwide has soared to over eight million, the crime rate in many lands has not significantly diminished. Moreover, while a large number of those in prison are there for crimes involving drugs, the availability of drugs on the street is still a grave concern.
Nevertheless, many consider imprisonment to be the punishment of choice. They feel that when the offender is jailed, justice is served. One journalist describes the zeal to put criminals behind bars as “lock-’em-up fever.” There are four principal reasons why lawbreakers are put in prison: (1) to punish the offenders, (2) to protect society, (3) to prevent future crimes, and (4) to rehabilitate criminals, teaching them to be law-abiding and productive after their release. Let us see if prisons are accomplishing these objectives.
Yes, there are several ways by which the society faces the challenges of dealing with
delinquent crime offenders. Among the said ways is incarceration of the offenders. Depending on how grave the offence may be, the authorities concerned in giving the punishment for such acts of disobedience to the law shall be implemented for the sake of the victims of the offenders.
From the years that passed up until the present era, this process is still used and at times abused by the authorities in charged of its implication. This is the reason behind the formulation of restorative justice. Consequently, not everyone agrees to the benefits or the promised results of the said process. To many, the theory of restorative justice is simply too idealistic that at times, the results that the theory expects is almost impossible for many people to believe in.
Hence, this study is commenced to be able to show that the theory and its application could indeed help in the reduction of incarceration rates not only in developed countries but also in underdeveloped units of the society. By doing so, the author of this paper could be able to show the importance of the alternative way of dealing with wrong doers, which could bring better results than that of simply incarcerating the offenders.
- Problem Statement
To serve as guidelines for the author of this research as to how the details with regards
to the topic is supposed to be gathered, the following questions shall be addressed in this study:
- What is restorative justice, who is eligible and how does the program benefit the society?
- What are some statistical informations on the history and the future of restorative justice theory?
- What are the juvenile programs that have instituted restorative justice as an alternative concerning dealing with crime offenders?
- What is the summary of the facts that pertain to juvenile and restorative justice?
Along with this, here are some added research questions that could help out in the completion of the paper:
- Do restorative justice programs really work?
- Can this type of system be used effectively to reduce the number of juveniles incarcerated?
With the use of these questions, the researcher would be able to answer the
necessary factors contributing to the successful application of the restorative justice theory in the justice systems of the human society.
- Purpose and Objectives of the Study
As mentioned earlier, the main reason why this research has been commenced is to be able to have a deeper understanding of the facts behind restorative theory. The fact that this is quite an introductory alternative for dealing with crime offenders in the society, one of the main reasons for this study is to prove the effectiveness of the said process of reconstructing the broken social ties brought about by crime.
The following is a breakdown f the main objectives of this research:
- To define restorative justice and the five principles that goes along with it
- To describe the past versus the present approaches to restorative justice
- To look at the juvenile rate of incarceration with regards to restorative justice and re-entry in an institution
- To make final determinations on whether restorative justice programs are effective of ineffective
- To develop a plan that can increase the success of restorative justice
With these rundown of the main objectives of this research, it is indeed clear that
the main idea behind this research is the fact that there is a need for alternative ways by which the society could deal with wrong doers. Aside from incarceration, the author of this paper would try to develop further on the programs that are already utilized in restorative justice today.
- Rationale of the Study
There are some factors that should be considered along with the completion of this
paper. This factors are directly connected to restorative justice theory and are chosen by the author to be able identify the track of the issues that are to be tackled in this study.
The said factors are as follows:
- The need for an alternative
As said earlier, the rate of incarcerated criminals around the world keeps on growing. At times, some of these incarcerated inmates are also victims of wring judgments. Regardless of whether the inmates are truly convicted or just a victim of misjudgment, the fact behind the growth of the human population behind bars and the supporting problems involved with it should be given solution.
- The need for repentance and change
Not all inmates are able to reflect on the wrong things they have done. More often than not, inmates are driven to do even worse than what they have incurred before. This is manly because of the environment that they have to live with in the prison homes. Hence, there is indeed a need for a program hat is designed for an offender to incur repentance and personal change to be able to really realize the fact that what they have done is wrong.
- The need for social development
As justice progresses, the society too develops. By way of changing the old systems of implying punishment, justice could become more effective an practical for both the victims and the offenders in many ways.
Having these guidelines in mind, the researcher could well develop this study in a more effective way of implying the systems of restorative justice into good use for the social judiciary systems.
- Definition of Terms
The following are the lists of some words found in this paper, which may have some
technical definitions pertaining to the topic being discussed herein:
The way by which a group of people meets at a certain place, at a certain time having a general agenda for discussion
Refers to an act that is not in accordance with the law;
Usually an act that is done in disobedience of a general law or rule implemented within an organization or a certain community
Refers to a collection of groups subdivided into different smaller groups depending on what they do, on what they talk about or what they want to act upon; this is usually applicable with counseling methods that are done in groups.
Could be an act that pertains to a decision done by a judge [a person who handles a legal case], which has a strong impact on the lives of the victims and the crime offenders as well.
The act of mediating; serving as a link between two people or two organizations, which may not be joined because of distance or because of on gong disputes.
Mediation serves as an act of connecting the ‘ties’ of broken bonds of relationship in the society.
An offender is the person that has incurred doing a crime against his fellowman or against a group of people; came from the word ‘offend’; refers to the person who errs against others whether intentionally or by accident.
the tendency to relapse into a previous undesirable type of behavior, especially crime; the capability of a crime offender to repeat the offences he once did.
The return of something to its rightful owner;
The return of something to the condition it was in before it was changed ;
The ideal way by which a crime offender is restored back to is old life
before he was able to commit a crime against his fellowman.
The one offended; a person or a group of people who receives the offence from a crime offender.
These terms or words have some other meanings when being tackled with other topics, the definition of the said terms which is shown in this part of the first chapter shall help the readers understand the subject deeper and clearer.
- Limitations of the Study
Since time and availability hinders the researcher from performing any deeper research
Than interview and questionnaire system, some parts of the restorative justice may not be handled well in this paper. However, the factor that pertains to the effectiveness of the said theory is the main scope of this study.
Other topics which are related to the restorative justice programs, which the researcher thinks, may not be that helpful for this study would not be included to avoid confusion of data and topic discussion.
The statistical data that are t be shown in the following chapters are proven valid and accurate although the measure of this study wit regards to actual practicality may not be that strong since the statistics are sourced out from other journals discussing the same issue on human judicial systems.
- Theoretical Framework
Justice enthusiasts Johnson and other authors of the article “Religious Programs, Institutional adjustment, and recidivism among former inmates in Prison Fellowship Programs”, they correctly observed that “rehabilitation and reformation are two different things. We can measure rehabilitation but we cannot measure reformation. However, we can observe that some inmates unquestionably may have changed in positive ways, there is no way of observing whether they have “repented”. The former inmate may still be a “very bad” person “on the inside”, but as long as they do not commit illegal acts when they leave prison, they become “rehabilitated” (Internet1).
Certainly, this theory of the Johnson along with his colleagues, show that repentance and reformation usually go together, however both factors are completely different from each other. Hence, this means that prison houses does not have ample measures of whether the inmates that are kept bound in them are able to repent or not. Hence, this means that a more personal connection with crime offenders is needed than simply keeping them away form the society to ensure their reformation.
- Research Hypotheses
Based from the objectives of this study, the author preempts that the outcome from the
research processes that are to be one would be much sided to the pro-restorative justice program implications. This means that the author foresees that the specific purpose of this study regarding the proving of the restorative justice to be an effective way of reforming crime offenders would be fulfilled.
This is simply because of the fact that the sources chosen by the author of this study is highly proven accurate and does support the programs hosted through the implication of restorative justice in dealing with crime offenders.
- Summary of Remaining Chapters
The chapters to follow herein shall discuss the necessary factors of restorative justice and how they all affect the individual’s being with regards to repentance and personal reformation. Chapter two shall be an introduction to the literature sources of this study which are all authenticated by the authors as well as the universities to provide fine details with regards to justice issues.
The thirds chapter shall highlight the methodologies used by the researcher of this study to be able to come up with the results, which would be shown in Chapter four. Chapter five would be the closing finale of the study where the summary of the study as well as the final gathered data and results shall be shown for better clarifications an explanations as well.
Review of Related Literature
The literatures used in this study are a collection of books and journals as well as electronic articles that are pertaining to the issues concerning restorative justice. According to the ‘Little Book of Restorative Justice’ by Howard Zehr, Restorative Justice is a “theory in criminal justice that focuses on crime acts that are incurred by an offender against another individual” (14). This is why mediation between the victim and the offender is rather easy since it simply involves the offender and the one offended without other people joined in the process anymore. The reconciliation of the broken bond between the two parties would only be hindered by both parties and not by other influences. This helps the mediator with regards to his connection with both people to be more ease and free of any other outside issues.
This theory on justice and the implication of punishment against offenders has five basic principles:
- crime is an offense against people, and it creates an obligation to make things right;
This means that the offense has been done against one person only,
thus, mediation is possible. An agreement between the offender and the one
offended shall determine the possibility of any restorative justice program
- victims and communities should help decide how
to repair the harm caused by crime;
Restorative justice programs should directly involve the
communities that are involved in the crime that has been incurred. The
people around the community shall be the key factors on the pursuing
process of the programs aimed out for reconciliation and reformation of
both the victim and the offender.
- offenders have a personal responsibility to
victims and communities for their crimes;
The realization of the offender of the seriousness of what he has done is an important factor for repentance. Before any program is commenced, it is necessary that it is clear to the offender why he opted to take the privilege of being treated under the restorative justice reformation practices.
- communities are responsible for the well-being of
victims and offenders;
It is very important to gain support from the society where the
offenders and the victims are joined with. As it is know, a person’s growth is usually dependent upon the society he lives in, thus, this means that the involvement of the society in this reformation process is a must.
RESTORATIVE JUSTICE page 16
- results are best measured by the extent to which
harm was repaired, not by the severity of the
punishment that was imposed.
The outcome of the process is usually seen basing from how much
repair to the damage done by the crime as been resolved. This way,
the reformation process is given a higher rate of importance than
that of the punishment implied on the offender.
(Source: Senator Carol A. Roessler. (2004). Restorative Justice Programs. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:ZqTxLvUCXg0J:www.legis.state.wi.us/LaB/reports/046full.pdf+statistical+data+on+restorative+Justice+developments&hl=tl&gl=ph&ct=clnk&cd=9. (November 3, 2006).)
2.1 The Practices of the Restorative Justice Theory
According to the book authored by Daniel W. Van Ness entitled: “Restoring Justice: An Introduction to Restorative Justice”, there are necessary practices that are involved in the application of the restorative justice programs. They are as follows:
- identifying and taking steps to repair harm,
- involving all stakeholders,
- transforming the traditional relationship between communities and their
governments in responding to crime.
(Source: Van Ness, 15,16)
These processes are much related to the ones mentioned by senator Rossier concerning the role of the restorative justice to the community. True, the application of the major practices and principles of the said justice theory indeed involves the whole community as the key factors of reformation. Thus, the said practices are aimed on creating a more livable community for both the victim and the offender. Allan Macrae adds with regards to this that there are several programs involved in the application of restorative justice practices which are listed herein:
- Victim offender mediation- this refers to the process by which the offenders and victims are joined together for reconciliation.
- Conferencing- this process involves the whole community as a key factor for rejoining the ties of both the offender and the victim.
- Circles- involves several groups by which both the offender and the victims are assisted to take reformation processes.
- Victim assistance-as the stakeholder of the crime, a council or a group in the community shall be appointed to assist them through their journey to recovery from the crime that has just been incurred against them .
- Ex-offender assistance- the offender has the greatest need to change. To be able to do so, assistance from the community may me needed. Hence, the reformation process may come a ;pt easier.
- Restitution- This is the way by which the offender is transformed back to his individuality before he s able to incur the crime he has committed.
- Community service- This is the way by which the offender is encouraged to reform himself by doing some community service.
In this regard, it should also be considered that not all criminal cases could be
handled through restorative justice programs. According to the book “The Little Book of Restorative Discipline for Schools: Teaching Responsibility; Creating Caring Climates” written by Lorraine Stutzman, “cases wherein the offender does not realize the grave effects of his sin against the one he offended, or in some ways, an offender who refuses to accept the fact that he has done something wrong is not suitable for receiving any restorative justice processes” (12,13).
It should be understood that before the process of reformation takes place, the stakeholders, or the people involved in the situation must realize the fact that they are both affecting each other in many ways. Hence, they should also understand the need for them to change their ways and their views towards life.
2.2 The Treatment for Juvenile Delinquents
One of the featured reformation offerings promised by the utilization of the restorative justice programs is the fact that the juvenile crime offenders are to be reformed for them to be able to live their lives well despite of incurring sins during the earlier years of their lives. Juvenile delinquents are young crime offenders, who in many ways have incurred the crime they have done due to some accidents or at times uncontrolled emotions as young people.
This fact makes them possible clients that are supposed to be treated not s prisoners of the human law but as citizens who once erred and should be given a chance to change for a better being in the society. Hence, this mainly points out the need for a young crime offender to adhere to the programs that the restorative justice processes offers him with regards to being able to change in becoming a better individual. As known to many, being exposed to crime, whether as a victim or the offender, a person is traumatized and this may have great effects in his development as an individual.
With regards to this, there are certain programs which helps in the pursuance of recidivism among juvenile offenders that could help them regain their ‘young and innocent’ views towards life and thus help them in their progress to a better adulthood.
The said programs are as follows:
This refers to the work or damage compensation for at least 20 hours on the
part of the crime offender. This program aims to help the young offender realize the grave effect of his committed crime, and the fact that he needs to pay for it.
Community Service Program
The work in this product is designed to appeal to the offender’s sense of responsibility in connection with the offence, which he has been able to commit.
The main aim of this approach of reformation is to change the social behavior of the young individual into becoming a more responsible person for his actions as he grows.
Work to Compensate for Damages Involved
This program is designed to help the offender learn of the connection of his acts towards the consequences of the said crime he has committed. Through the help of older mentors, the young offender is taught how to face life in a more positive and fare outlook.
This provides the offender a practical way of adjusting and allowing
himself to grow in a socially connected manner.
This learning scheme involves three basic branches:
- Focus on victim learning
Focuses on how the young offender could be able to have reconciliation with the victim thus refurnishing the relationship.
- Sexual Education Learning Project
This helps the offender, especially those who committed crime with regards to sexual issues, to learn the importance of respect and the dignity of treating people of the opposite sex.
- Social Skills Learning Project
This aims to improve the social connection of the offender to the environment he lives in. This helps him understand his need to become a part of the society he lives with.
These programs were suggested by Daniel W. Van Ness in his authored book: “Restoring Justice: An Introduction to Restorative Justice”. According to him, the importance of helping a young offender or a juvenile delinquent at that is the fact that as an offender’s life changes, he could also be able to assist others change their ways basing from his own experience. His realization f the crime he has committed helps him grow as a person. (12-15)
Having this understanding regarding the system of restorative justice through the literatures reviewed in this chapter, this study is now ready to proceeded with the process of collecting the evidences that would prove the theme of this study as well as answer the questions raised with regards to the topic in the first chapter.
Through the use of the journals and the books referred to in chapter two, the data found in this chapter were gathered by the author of this study. Aside from the written materials provided by other authors, the researcher also conducted a survey among police officers who were involved in rehabilitating the inmates in their own prison stations.
3.1 Setting of the Study
The journals chosen by the author of this paper as a basis of some of the details on the progress of restorative justice has its study based in the Milwaukee and Outagamie Counties. The journals, which were chosen by the author of this paper, are indeed considered accurate as they are dated at the latest possible time.
Hence, the setting where the journals were done would be carried on by the author of this paper as the setting of this study as well. In this regard, the journals are to be utilized to the best possible way to be able to gain the needed results for this study.
3.2 Description of the Instruments
As mentioned, the instruments to be used are the journals and the books that were reviewed in chapter two. These instruments are indeed examined by the author to be accurate and authenticated. Hence, the author assures the readers of this paper to be certainly fit for the topic being discussed herein.
3.4 Description of the Research Method
The journals found in the Internet were searched by the author of this paper. Upon seeing that the journals have a strong impact with regards to the necessary data needed for the completion of this study, the author has not thought twice and took the opportunity to use the said journals as a basis of the results shown in this study.
The data that were collected by the other researchers are also utilized by the author of this paper as a source of the results to be shown in this study. Indeed, the existence of the said data helped the researcher to find out the necessity of the informations needed to prove the topic claims in this paper.
The first data to be presented is the data collected from the journals used by the author as a source f certain informations with regards to the present status of restorative justice in the present judicial society.
Number of Participants in Milwaukee County’s
Community Conferencing Program
(Source: Senator Carol A. Roessler. (2004). Restorative Justice Programs. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:ZqTxLvUCXg0J:www.legis.state.wi.us/LaB/reports/046full.pdf+statistical+data+on+restorative+Justice+developments&hl=tl&gl=ph&ct=clnk&cd=9. (November 3, 2006).)
As seen in the diagram, the number of participants increased after a year of implementing the restorative justice programs in Milwaukee counties. This merely points out the fact that the effectiveness of the said reformation process is already accepted by many victims and crime offenders as a way by which they are able to change their ways and become morally inclined to values again.
The following diagram is the result gathered from the survey report from the policemen who were given questionnaires by the researcher. The responses show these results:
The effective measure of restorative justice program versus Incarceration processes
Obviously, the results put much favor on the restorative justice programs. Justice experts point out the importance of the cooperation of the police officers with the rehabilitation processes that have to be taken into consideration once young crime offenders are incarcerated within the prison homes. (Stutzman Amztuts, 15)
When it comes to young offenders, the police officers agree that in many ways, the act of reforming the young one’s view in life through different restorative justice programs help the young ‘wrong doers’ to change their ways and thus have lesser chances of going back to their old ways of committing other grave crimes. (Sullivan, 14)
Yes, many police officers are convinced that the aim of completely rehabilitating the juvenile offenders could only be fulfilled by ways of directly communicating and dealing with the personal issues that the said offenders are involved with. This then is obviously not a factor that incarcerating offenders could provide. Instead, this is what restorative justice could provide.
Studies show that the process of anti-recidivism among young offenders help change the attitude of the juveniles towards the supposed wasteful life they have incurred because of the crime they have committed. Instead of seeing things as the terminal point of their life, they are able to regain hope in changing their ways (Sullivan, 45). Hence, they are more encouraged to do away with the crimes that once placed their hopes of having a better life into a turning point.
Yes, with the help of restorative justice programs and the anti-recidivism processes helps in the reduction of the number of returning inmates, especially juveniles to becoming more aggravated with the crimes they once have committed. Their conviction with regards to the grave effects of what they once have incurred helps them realize the importance of their lives and the strong need of changing their ways for the better not only for themselves but for their loved ones as well.
Discussion Conclusion and Recommendations
Basing from the research materials used by the author in this study as well as with the materials utilized such as the questionnaires, it has been proven that restorative justice programs are more reliable compared to that of incarceration when it comes to rehabilitating the offenders of crime.
A VITAL key to real reform among prisoners centers on education and a change in values and outlook. Without a doubt, there are sincere individuals who are making efforts to educate and help prisoners. The fine and altruistic work of such people is indeed appreciated by many prisoners.
Some people will argue that the prison system as a whole is beyond reform and that it is barely possible for prisoners to change in such an environment. While it may be true that incarceration alone does not instill new values, Bible instruction has helped some to change their lives. This illustrates that reform is possible on an individual basis.
Today, with help from the Bible, some inmates are making the changes that produce right thinking and conduct. How? By heeding the Bible counsel: “Quit being fashioned after this system of things, but be transformed by making your mind over, that you may prove to yourselves the good and acceptable and perfect will of God.” (Romans 12:2)
Yes, reformation is better when it is accompanied by care, by love and compassion as it is done through restorative justice.
It is then rightful to say that the purpose of the penal system is, not to rehabilitate, but to keep criminals away from the rest of society. That’s the core of the problem—the mind-set of the prison system toward these men. The prison system is unable to change the offenders’ hearts. Most of these people are going to repeat their crimes when they get out.
America,” says Newsweek magazine. “Guns, including paramilitary assault weapons, seem to be everywhere—even in the hands of children.” Murders hit a new record last year. An estimated 23,200 people were killed, 60 percent of them by use of firearms. “During every 100 hours on our streets we lose three times more young men than were killed in 100 hours of ground war in the Persian Gulf,” laments Health and Human Services Secretary Louis Sullivan. This is so despite the fact that the United States has the world’s highest incarceration rate at 426 inmates per 100,000 population. Murder is now the leading cause of death for black males between the ages of 15 and 24. Why has crime escalated so? According to experts, “crime rates rise when social controls—the family, the church, the neighborhood, and all the invisible bonds of a coherent community—break down,” states Newsweek. This is the reason why there is a need for a new alternative way of reforming crime offenders and that is through the use of restorative justice programs.
Indeed, this study has proven that rehabilitation and reformation of an individual who committed a crime is an essential factor of social growth. With this, this study too shows how much restorative justice programs are able to recreate a person, however, as the limitations stated in chapter one hindered the author to tackle more informations , it is recommended that further readings should be done by the ones who would opt to continues this study.
There are also interviews and surveys that could be performed by other researchers who would perform studies close enough to the topic with regards to the effectiveness of the application of the restorative justice programs among juvenile delinquents as well as with other inmates.
Senator Carol A. Roessler. (2004). Restorative Justice Programs.
http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:ZqTxLvUCXg0J:www.legis.state.wi.us/LaB/reports/046full.pdf+statistical+data+on+restorative+Justice+developments&hl=tl&gl=ph&ct=clnk&cd=9. (November 3, 2006).)
Kim Workman. (2001). Recent Research Supporting the Underlying Theories of APAC-
Based Prison. http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:mKfaLdYr5hEJ:www.pficjr.org/programs/apac/studies/recentresearch+other+theories+supporting+restorative+justice&hl=tl&gl=ph&ct=clnk&cd=7. (November 2, 2006).
Howard Zehr. (2002). The Little Book of Restorative Justice (Little Books of Justice &
Peacebuilding Series). Good Books Publishing Company.
Howard Zehr. (2004). Critical Issues in Restorative Justice. Criminal Justice Press.
Dennis Sullivan. (2001). Restorative Justice: Healing the Foundations of Our Everyday
Lives. Good Books Publishing Company.
Lorraine Stutzman Amstutz. (2005). The Little Book of Restorative Discipline for
Schools: Teaching Responsibility; Creating Caring Climates (The Little Books of
Justice and Peacebuilding … Little Books of Justice and Peacebuilding)
Daniel W. Van Ness. (2006). Restoring Justice: An Introduction to Restorative Justice.
Anthony E. Bottoms. (2005). Restorative Justice And Criminal Justice: Competing Or Reconcilable Paradigms? (Studies in Penal Theory & Penal Ethics). Hart Publishing (UK); New Ed edition.
Allan Macrae. (2004). The Little Book of Family Group Conferences: New Zealand Style (Little Books of Justice & Peacebuilding Series). Good Books Publishing
Byron R. Johnson, David B. Larson and Timothy C. Pitts, ÔReligious Programs, Institutional adjustment, and recidivism among former inmates in Prison Fellowship Programs’,Juatice Quarterly, Vol.14 No. 1, March 1997, 1997. Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences