Review Of Related Literature Essay Sample

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The bilimbi, Averrhoa bilimbi, L., (Oxalidaceae), is closely alliedto the carambola but quite different in appearance, manner of fruiting,flavor and uses. The only strictly English names are “cucumber tree”and “tree sorrel”, bestowed by the British in colonial times. “Bilimbi” isthe common name in India and has become widely used.Bilimbisare all much the same wherever they are grown, but P.J.Wester reported that a form with sweet fruits had been discovered inthe Philippines. The bilimbi is a tropical species, more sensitive to coldthan the carambola, especially when very young. In Florida, it needsprotection from cold and wind. Ideally, rainfall should be rather evenlydistributed throughout most of the year but there should be a 2- to 3-month dry season. The bilimbi is not found in the wettest zones of Malaya. The tree makes slow growth in shady or semi-shady situations. Some of the folkloric uses of kamias are in skin diseases, especially with pruritus, reduce the leaves to a paste and applytolerably warm to areas of affected skin.

It is used as a post-partumand rectal inflammation while in infusion of leaves it is used in mumps,acne, and localized rheumatic complaints. Paste of leaves applied toaffected areas. Warm paste of leaves also used for pruritus. In Fever,Fruit can be a cooling drink and it can be also used for a variety of maladies: beriberi, cough, prevention of scurvy. The Infusion of leavesalso drank as a protective tonic after childbirth. Tamarind (Tamarindusindica) is a tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa. The genus Tamarindus is a monotypic taxon, having only a single species. The tamarind tree produces edible, pod-like fruit which are used extensively in cuisines around the world. Tamarind has folkloric medical usage. In some countries, its leaves can be made as a poultice and be applied to ulcers, boils, and rashes.

Its ash may be processed to become a decoction and be gargled to treat sore throats. Its bark may be used to treat asthma by drinking the boiled bark water. Some of these medical uses of tamarind are sometimes effective but not yet approved by science. Although not that popular, Tamarind leaves may also be used as a poultice to relieve inflamed joints. Its leaves have polyphenols and flavonoids in which it have the presence of proanthocyanidine in various forms like apigenin, anthocyanin, procyanidine, catechin, epicatechin, along with taxifolin, eriodictyol and naringenin.

Other constituents like tartaric acid, mucilage, pectin, arabinose, xylose, galactose, glucose, uronic acid and triterpenes have also been identified in Tamarind. Out of these phytoconstituents, polyphenols and flavonoids have been well known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive action. Inflammation may be extinguished even by using Tamarind leaves as poultice only. SilingLabuyo (Capsicum frutescens) is a species of chili pepper that is sometimes considered to be part of the species Capsicum annuum. Pepper cultivars in Capsicum frutescens can be annual or short-lived perennial plants. Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) fromPseudomonassyringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step.

The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples. Ethylene serves as a hormone in plants.[20] It acts at trace levels throughout the life of the plant by stimulating or regulating the ripening of fruit, the opening of flowers, and the abscission (or shedding) of leaves. Commercial ripening rooms use “catalytic generators” to make ethylene gas from a liquid supply of ethanol. Typically, a gassing level of 500 to 2,000 ppm is used, for 24 to 48 hours.

Care must be taken to control carbon dioxide levels in ripening rooms when gassing, as high temperature ripening (20 °C; 68 °F)[citation needed] has been seen to produce CO2 levels of 10% in 24 hours.[21] In 1901 Russian scientist DimitryNeljubow showed that ethylene could affect plant growth after he identified it as the active ingredient in vapors leaking from a gas main. The vapors were causing surrounding plants to grow abnormally. Three decades later, researchers found that plants not only responded to ethylene, but they could produce their own, and production of the gas increased when the scientists cut (injured) the fruit with a knife.

Researchers later discovered that plants produce ethylene in many tissues in response to cues beyond the stress from heat and injury. It is made during certain developmental conditions to signal seeds to germinate.

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