Rizal left Philippines for the first time Spain. He boarded the Salvadora using a passport of Jose Mercado, which was procured for him by his uncle Antonio Rivera, father of Leonor Rivera. He was accompanied to the quay where the Salvadora was moored by his uncle Antonio, Vicente Gella, and Mateo Evangelista. 5 May1882
He conversed with the passengers of the ship; he was still feeling sea-sick. 6 May 1882
He played chess with the passengers on board.
8 May 1882
He saw mountains and Islands.
9 May 1882
Rizal arrived at Singapore.
10 May 1882
He went around the town of Singapore and maid some observations. 11 May 1882
In Singapore, at 2 p.m., Rizal boarded the boat Djemnah to continue his trip to Spain. He found the boat clean and well kept. 13 June 1882
Early on the morning he landed at Marseilles and boarded at the Noalles Hotel. Later he around for observation. 15 June 1882
He left Marseilles for Barcelona in an express train.
Departure for Spain
Rizal’s departure for Spain was kept secret to avoid detection by the Spanish authorities and the friars. Only his older brother, his uncle, his sisters Neneng and Lucia, the Valenzuela family, Pedro Paterno, Mateo Evangelista, the Ateneo Jesuit fathers, and some intimate friends. He used the name Jose Mercado. On May 3, 1882, Rizal departed on board the Spanish steamer Salvadora bound for Singapore. With tears in his eyes and gloom in his head, he gazed the receding skyline of Manila. He then took his pencil and paper and sketched it as it vanished in view. Singapore
(May 3, 1882) During the voyage he carefully observed the people and things on board the steamer. On May 9, the Salvadora docked at Singapore. He then stayed at Hotel de la Paz and spent two days on a sightseeing soiree of the city.
Rizal boarded the ship Djemnah, which was a French steamer and left Singapore for Europe on May 11. It was a larger and cleaner vessel which carried more passengers. On May 17, the Djemnah reached Point Galle, a seacoast town in southern Ceylon. The following day the voyage resumed towards Colombo, the capital of Ceylon. After a few hours of sailing, Rizal reached the city. Rizal was amazed by Colombo because of this scenic beauty and elegant building.
Through Suez Canal
From Colombo, the Djemnah continued the voyage crossing the Indian Ocean to the Cape coast of Africa. Rizal sighted the barren coast of Africa, for the first time, which he called an ‘inhospitable land but famous’. From Aden the ship proceeded to the city of Suez, the Red Sea terminal of Suez Canal. The Djemnah took five days to traverse the Suez Canal. Rizal was thrilled because it was his first trip through this canal which was build by Ferdinand de Lasseps. At Port Said, Rizal landed in order to see the interesting sights. He was fascinated to hear multi-racial inhabitants speaking a wide variety of language. Naples and Marseilles
From Port Said, the ship proceeded on its way to Europe. On June 11, Rizal reached Naples. This city pleased Rizal because of its business activity, its lively people and its scenic beauty. He was fascinated by the Mouth Vesuvius, the Castle of ST. Telmo and other historic sights of the city. The night of June 12, the steamer docked at the French harbor of Marseilles. Rizal bid farewell to his fellow passengers. He visited the famous Chateau d’lf where Dantes, was imprisoned. He stayed two and a half days in Marseilles. Barcelona
On the afternoon of May 15, Rizal left Marseilles to proceed to Spain via train. He crossed the Pyrenees and stopped for a day at the frontier town of Port Bou. After the passport inspection at Port Bou, Rizal continued his trip by rail, finally reaching Barcelona on June 16, 1882. In Barcelona, Rizal wrote a nationalistic essay entitled “Amor Patrio” which was his first written article on Spain’s soil. He then sent his article to Basilio Teodoro Moran, publisher of Diariong Tagalog. Basilio was deeply impressed by the article congratulated Rizal and asked Rizal to publish more articles. ,Rizal left Barcelona in the fall of 1882 and proceeded to Madrid. Madrid
On November 3, 1882, Rizal enrolled in the Universidad Central de Madrid. He took up took courses—Medicine and Philosophy and Letters.
First Visit to Paris
On June 1883, Rizal left Madrid to visit Paris. He stayed at the Hotel de Paris but then moved to a cheaper hotel. In Spain, he became close with prominent Spanish liberal and republican Spaniards, who were mostly Masons. In March 1883, he joined the Masonic lodge called Acacia in Madrid. His reason for joining was to secure Freemasonry’s aid in his fight against the friars in the Philippines. Later he was transferred to Lodge Solidaridad where he became a Master Mason on November 15, 1890. Still later, he was awarded the diploma as Master Mason by Le Grand Orient de France in Paris. After departure for Spain, things turned from bad to worse in Calamba. Rizal left Paris on February 1, 1886, after acquiring enough experience in the clinic of Dr. Weckert. He was set to go to Germany. He visited Strasbourg and other German towns.
On February 3, 1886, he arrived in Heidelberg, a historic city in Germany famous for its old university and romantic surroundings. He lived in a boarding house with some German law students. He worked at the University Eye Hospital under the direction of Dr. Otto Becker and attended the lectures of Doctor Becker and Prof. Wilhelm Kuehne at the university. On April 22, 1886, spring on Heidelberg, he wrote a poem to the beautiful blooming flowers at the Neckar River. Among those was his favorite flower—the forget-me-not. Rizal then spent three-month summer vacation at Wilhelmsfeld, a mountainous village close to Heidelberg. He stayed at the vicarage of a kind Protestant pastor, Dr. Karl Ullmer. He was very delighted in his stay at the Ullmers. On July 31, 1886, Rizal wrote his first letter in German to Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt. Rizal heard that Blumentritt was interested in the Philippine languages. Rizal was fortunate to be sojourning in Heidelberg when the famous University of Heidelberg held its fifth centenary celebration on August 6 of 1886. It was three days before his departure and he was sad because he had come to love the land and the beautiful city. Leipzig and Dresden
On August 9, 1886, three days after the fifth centenary of the University of the Heidelberg, Rizal left the city. He boarded a train and visited various cities of Germany until arriving in Leipzig on August 14, 1886. Cost of living in Leipzig is the cheapest in Europe so he stayed there for two months and a half. During his stay, he corrected some chapters in his second novel and also had time for exercise. He also worked as a proof-reader in a publishing firm and earning some money. Dresden
Rizal left Leipzig to set course on Dresden on October 29, 1886. At Dresden, Rizal met Dr. Adolph Meyer, the director of the Anthropological and Ethnological Museum. Morning of November 1, Rizal left Dresden by train reaching Berlin in the evening. Berlin
Rizal liked Berlin because of its atmosphere which was very scientific and the absence of race prejudice. On March 21, 1887, the Noli Me Tangere came off the printing press. Rizal immediately sent copies to his intimate friends, including Blumentritt, Dr. Antonio Jaena, Mariano Ponce, and Felix R. Hidalgo. After the publication of Noli, Rizal planned to visit the important places in Europe. Rizal received his money from Paciano worth 1,000 pesos. He immediately paid viola the sum of 300 pesos from his kind loan. At dawn of May 11, 1887, Rizal and Viola left Berlin by train. Spring was in the air and Europe is blooming with flowers. Their destination was Dresden, “One of the best cities in Germany”. Dresden
Rizal and Viola spent some time in Dresden. Their visit coincided with the regional floral exposition. Rizal studied different plants because he was interested in botany. Their next stopover was Teschen. Rizal and Viola sent a wire to Blumentritt, as suggested by Dr. Jagor
Blumentritt and Leitmeritz
At 1:30 p.m. of May 13, 1887, the train with Rizal and Viola on board arrived at the railroad station of Leitmeritz, Bohemia. Professor Blumentritt waited for them in the station after he received the wire. He was carrying a pencil sketch of Rizal which the letter had previously sent him, so that he could identify his Filipino friend. He warmly welcomed Rizal and Viola. For the first time, Rizal and Blumentritt met each other.
Rizal had beautiful memories of his visit to Leitmeritz. He enjoyed the warm hospitality and enjoyed the cooking of the professor’s wife Rosa. Blumentritt’s children were Dolores, Conrad, and Fritz. Blumentritt showed the scenic sights and historical spots of Leitmeritz. On May 16, at 9:45 A.M., Rizal and Viola left Leitmeritz by train. Blumentritt and his family were at the railroad station to see them off, and they all shed tears in parting as the train departed. Rizal carried with him all the beautiful memories of his visit to Leitmeritz.
History City of Prague
After their stay at Leitmeritz, Rizal together with Viola visited the city of Prague. On May 20, Rizal and Viola arrived in the beautiful Vienna. Famous in songs and story, this city very much fascinated Rizal because of its beautiful buildings, religions images and charm.
To Rheinfall, To Salzburg, To Munich & Nuremberg
The river voyage ended in Lintz. They traveled overland to Salzburg and from there to Munich where they sojourned for a short time to savor the famous Munich beer, reputed to be the best in Germany. From Munich they went to Nuremberg, an old city of Germany. From Rheinfall, they crossed the frontier to Schaffhausen, Switzerland. They stayed in this city from June 2 to 3, 1887. They then continued their tour to Basel, Bern, and Lausanne. After sightseeing in Lausanne, Rizal and Viola left on a little boat, crossing the foggy Leman Lake to Geneva. Geneva
Rizal and Viola visited Geneva. This Swiss city is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe which was visited by world tourist every year. Rizal showed his rowing prowess which he acquired during his boyhood days in Calamba. On June 19, 1887, it was Rizal’s 26th birthday and treated Viola to a blow-out. Rizal and Viola spent fifteen days in Geneva. On June 23, they parted ways. Viola decided to return to Barcelona while Rizal continued his tour to Italy.
Rizal went to Italy. He visited Turin, Milan, Venice and Florence. On June 27, 1887, he reached Rome. He was thrilled by the sights and memories of the Eternal City—Rome. On June 29th, Rizal visited for the first time the Vatican, the “City of the Popes” and the capital Christendom. After a week of staying in Rome, he prepared to return to the Philippines. He had already written to his father that he was coming home.
From 1882 to 1887, Rizal was in Europe studying. After 5 years of memorable adventure in Europe, he returned to the Philippines in August 1887 and practiced medicine in Calamba. Rizal left Rome by train for Marseilles and on July 3, 1887 he boarded the steamer Djemnah which was the same steamer he boarded five years ago. The steamer was enroute to the Orient via the Suez Canal. Rizal saw this canal for the second time. On July 30, he transferred to another steamer in Saigon to steamer Haiphong which was bound to Manila. On August 2, the steamer left Saigon for Manila. Arrival at Manila
On August 5, the Haiphong arrived in Manila and he went ashore with a happy heart for he was once again in Filipino soil. He stayed in the city for a short time to visit some friends and observed that Manila was the same five years ago. Home in Calamba
On August 8, he returned to Calamba. His family welcomed him affectionately. The rejoicing returns over when his family became worried of his safety. Paciano did not leave him during the first days because he wants to protect him from any enemy assault. Even his own father would not let him go out alone. Governor General Terrero summoned Rizal and advised him to leave the Philippines for his own good. He was giving Rizal a change to escape the fury of the friar’s wrath. Rizal really needs to go because he could not disobey the governor general’s orders. Rizal left Calamba in 1888.
Haunted by enemies and threatened by friars, Rizal was forced to leave Philippines for the second time. It was February 1888 then. Rizal at 27 was an embittered victim of human iniquities, a disillusioned dreamer, and a frustrated reformer. This was the start of Rizal’s second travel. On February 3, 1888, after six months of stay in Calamba, Rizal left Manila for Hong Kong on board the Zafiro. He arrived in Hong Kong on February 8.
In Hong Kong, Rizal stayed at Victoria Hotel. He was welcomed by the Filipino community in Hong Kong. During this time, a Spaniard, Jose Varanda, was shadowing Rizal’s movements in Hong Kong. It is believed that he was ordered to spy on Rizal. Macao
On February 18, Rizal accompanied by Basa, boarded the ferry steamer Kiu-Kiang for Macao. He was surprised to see a familiar figure among the passengers—Sainz de Varanda. Rizal described Macao as a small, low and gloomy.
During his two day stay in Macao, he visited the theater, casino, cathedral and churches, pagodas and botanical gardens and the bazaars. He also saw the famous Grotto of Camoens. In the evening of February 19, he witnessed a Catholic procession wherein the devotees were dressed in blue and purple dresses and were carrying unlighted candles. On February 20, Rizal and Basa returned to Hong Kong on board the ferry steamer Kiu-Kiang. Hong Kong
Rizal stayed in Hong Kong for two weeks.
On February 22, 1888, Rizal left Hong Kong on board the Oceanic, an American steamer and his destination was Japan. Rizal did not like the meals on board but liked the ship because it was clean and efficiently managed.
Among the happiest moments of Rizal in his life was his sojourn in the Land of the Cherry Blossoms. He stayed in Japan for one month and a half from February 28 to April 13, 1888. He was charmed by the natural beauty of Japan, the manners of the Japanese people and the picturesque of shrines. He also fell in love with a Japanese girl, who loveliness infused joy and romance in his sorrowing heart. Morning of Tuesday, February 28, 1888, Rizal arrived at Yokohama and stayed in the Grand Hotel. The following day, he moved to Tokyo and took a room at the Tokyo Hotel where he stayed from March 2 to 7.
He was impressed by the city of Tokyo. After his arrival in Tokyo, Rizal was visited by Juan Perez caballero, secretary of Spanish Legation. The latter invited him to live at the Spanish Legation. Rizal knew that this was the Spanish government’s way of monitoring Rizal but he accepted anyways. On March 7, he moved out of Tokyo Hotel and lived at the Spanish Legation. He and Perez Caballero became good friends and described him as a young, fine and an excellent writer. On April 13, 1888, Rizal boarded the Belgic, an English steamer, at Yokohama, bound for the United States. He left Japan with a heavy heart for he knew that he will never see this beautiful land again, so as his beloved O-Sei-San. His sojourn in Japan for 45 days was one of the happiest interludes of his life. Across the Pacific
On December 1, 1888 after a last handshake of their eight months of friendship and bidding each other goodbye, Rizal and Tetcho parted ways—never to meet again. Visit to the United States
Rizal first saw America on April 28, 1888.
Rizal’s trip to America started on April 28, 1888 to May 16, 1888. San Francisco
The steamer Belgic docked at the San Francisco on Saturday morning, April 28, 1888. All passengers were not allowed to land. The American health authorities placed the ship under quarantine on the ground it came from the Far east where a cholera epidemic was alleged to be raging. Rizal was surprised because he knew there was no Cholera epidemic at that time. On Friday afternoon, May 4, 1888, he was permitted to go ashore and then he registered for a room at the Palace Hotel. Rizal stayed in San Francisco for two days from May 4 to 6. On May 6, Rizal left San Francisco for Oakland, nine miles across San Francisco Bay by ferry boat. On May 7, he awoke and had a good breakfast at Reno, Nevada. On May 8, Rizal was in the state of Utah. From Ogden, they went to Denver. On May 9, they were passing through the mountains and rocks along the river. They woke up at Colorado, which he described as a state with a lot of trees. On May 10, they arrived at Nebraska then to Omaha, which was a big city.
They passed the Missouri River and arrived at Illinois. On May 11, they arrived at Chicago. He observed that every store in Chicago are selling cigars and has Indian figures. May 12 they arrived at Wagner Car which he described as beautiful and well populated. They arrived at the English territory in the afternoon, and saw the Niagara Falls. They had a stopover to see some sights and went to the side below the Niagara Falls. On May 13, they arrived at Albany which was a big city. The Hudson River runs along and carries many boats. The sights here were beautiful although more solitary than those of Pasig. The grand transcontinental trip ended on Sunday, May 13, at 11:00 A.M. On Sunday morning, May 13, Rizal arrived at New YorkOn May 16, 1888 he left New York for Liverpool on board the City of Rome. He was onboard in a steamer which was “the second largest ship in the world”—the Great Eastern.
Once Again in London
Rizal lived in London from May, 1888 to March 1889. He chose this English city because of three reasons: 1. To improve his knowledge of the English language,
2. To Study and annotate Morga’s Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas, which he heard to be available in the British Museum and 3. London was a safe place from the attacks of Spanish tyranny. Across the Atlantic
Rizal arrived at Liverpool, England on May, 1888. He stayed one day in Liverpool spending the night at Adelphi Hotel. He described it as a big and beautiful city. Life in London
On May 25, 1888, Rizal went to London. For a short time, he stayed at the home of Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor– a lawyer in London. By the end of May he was a boarder of the Beckett family. His home was located near public parks and within easy walking distance to the British Museum. He spent most of his time in the British Museum studying the book of Morga’s Sucesos and other rare historical books about the Philippines.
In September of 1888, he visited Paris for a week for him to search for more historical materials in the Bibliotheque Nationale. After reading over the old books, he returned to London. On December 11, 1888, he went to Spain visiting Madrid and Barcelona.
Christmas in London
Rizal returned to London on December 24 and spent Christmas and New Year’s Day with the Becketts. On March 19, 1889, Rizal bade goodbye to the Beckett family and left London for Paris. He was sad as he crossed the English Channel for he cherished many beautiful memories in London.
Universal Exposition of 1889
Rizal went to Paris on the spring of 1889. The city was full of excitement because of the Universal Exposition and it was hard to look for an inn to stay. Rizal was fascinated by the Universal Exposition of Paris. It opened on May 5, 1889. The greatest attraction of the exposition was the Eiffel Tower, which was built by Alexander Eiffel. Rizal also participated in an art competition but got no prize. During one time, Rizal together with the Kidlat Club was amazed by the proud American Indians December 25, 1889, Rizal celebrated his Christmas in Paris. Rizal and Jose Albert planned to have a sumptuous Christmas dinner. By the mid of January 1890, he was back in Paris, during that time influenza was epidemic throughout Paris. He complained of a terrible headache but he was not stricken with flu. Belgian Brussels
On January 28, 1890, Rizal left Paris for Brussels, the capital of Belgium. Rizal was accompanied by Jose Albert when he moved to Brussels. In Brussels Rizal was busy writing his second novel “El Filibusterismo”. Aside from writing its chapters, he wrote articles for La Solidaridad. Rizal received news that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying the good image of their nation y gambling too much. He wrote a letter to the Filipinos in Spain and the gambling Filipino and the gambling Filipinos in Madrid were angry when they learned of Rizal’s moralizing.
Rizal’s life in Madrid could be described as full of misfortunes. In August 1890, Rizal arrived in Madrid. He tried all legal means to seek justice for his family and the Calamba tenants, but to no avail. On March 30, 1891, Rizal proceeded to Paris by train. Rizal retired from the Propaganda Movement and retired also from La Solidaridad. In Brussels Rizal worked day after day revising the finished manuscript of El Filibusterismo and readied it for printing. Ghent
On July 5, 1891, Rizal left Brussels for Ghent a famous university city in Belgium. He stayed at Ghent because the cost of printing is cheaper. Rizal had limited funds and lived in a cheap boarding house.
After the publication of El Filibusterismo, Rizal left Europe for Hong Kong. He lived there from November, 1891 to June 1892. On October 18, 1891, Rizal boarded the steamer Melbourne in Marseilles bound for Hong Kong. During the voyage he began writing his third novel in Tagalog. Makamisa, Dapitan, and another untitled novel were some of the unfinished novels of Rizal. Rizal described his trip as “heavenly”.
Rizal arrived in Hong Kong on November 20, 1891. He was welcomed by Jose Basa and lived at Number 5 D’ Aguilar Street where he also opened his medical clinic. Before the Christmas of 1891, he was gladdened by the arrival of his father, brother and Silvestre Ubaldo in Hong Kong.
In May, 1892, Rizal made up his mind to return to Manila. He gave two letters, which were sealed and inscribed on it “to be opened after my death”, to his friend Dr. Marques for safekeeping. At noon of June 26, 1892, Rizal and his sister Lucia arrived in Manila