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Rural-Urban Migration Essay Sample

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Introduction of TOPIC


Migration of people from one place to another is one of the oldest phenomenon’s ever experienced in the planet earth. People move from either rural to rural or rural to urban or urban to urban and urban to urban. The migration process is traced back from the early days of our forefathers. This was a period when people in most parts lived as agriculturists and gatherers. At this old times, little business transaction or mere no business deals that were in put in places, hence people’s interactions were minimal. Most people lived within a given area where all their chores and tasks were concentrated. The needs for persons to move from their normal dwellings were often raised through natural factors. The migrations occurred with those people in rural places and were normally recognized as rural-rural migration pattern. Cases of rural – urban and urban migration were quite minimal. The reason for rural  to rural migration to be a common trend of the past perhaps is because most people went around in search for greener land for agricultural activities or for the gatherers, they looked for places endowed with wild edible products. . (Berry, 2000)

The advancement in knowledge and the dawn of new technology caused dramatic changes on the original migration of rural to rural. The change occurred with the increased civilization of people. The introduction of industrial technology was one of the major causes of the transition from this pattern. Since the birth of industrial revolution, most investors concentrated the plants in the major cities possible because of the availability of the necessary facilities and services which go hand in hand for successful business transactions. However, most cities had few residences who resided in such places. The demands for human resource and labor force were greatly in amazing state. People from the rural places realized there easy ways of earning their living and the shifting from rural to urban became common act.  The practice continued and gained momentum.

The beginning of the twentieth century was the time when the issue of rural –urban migration began to be a debatable matter. The increased population in the cities had started to create pressures on the essential facilities. The raise of concern was not only created by the inadequacy of essential facilities but a lot more factors where in consideration. Although, some of the individuals did not contemplate the reason beyond the movement displayed, some saw it as a natural process. As the pressure has continued to mount on most cities in the United States, has caused the call of concern of many people from various fields. Geographers, sociologists, economists, industrialists and many more others have come to research and find solutions for the contemporary problem being created by the rural-urban migration. . (Allyn, 2000)

In the today’s world, there are several cities which are craving for the solution being attributed to the increased human populations in the particular towns. However, it is very hard to solve a problem without understanding the causes of the problems. While focusing specifically on this specific problem, the rapid movement of people from the rural to urban is as a result of several reasons. The migrations of the early years of 1920s were in the United States were from the southern parts of the underdeveloped to the northern and western sides which were a bit industrialized. More than 500,000 plus residents migrated to urban areas from the southern making an increased population in the northern and Midwest parts.  Some of the reasons for the early migration remain to be replications in the present generation as stated in many research works from the migration department of the United States. While the population of this early migration was generated by centralized industrialization in the two northern and western parts, most people in the presented American have also moved from the underdeveloped rural areas to urban areas

which are dominated by industries. (Berry, 2000) However, there

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many reasons which are diversified and different from those of the old reasons of rural-urban migration. During this era of technology advancement and changes, many people allovers the United States are eager to learning and earn quality education. This being a very paramount requirement in achieving the goals of most students, it has been a common thinking that studying in the rural places is  a milestone which deters the process of effective learning. Moreover, the teaching standards in the rural areas are always reported to be in their dismal point. Hence, this has caused many residents in the rural areas to drift to urban in search for quality education. It is believed that the disparity in education level is perhaps caused by the separation of the rich and the poor. Sources indicate that a higher percentage of the rich prefers to live in the urban than in the rural dwellings. Such separation has then extended their roots even in the kind of education the students receive in their schooling. (Kathleen, 1998)

It is not rare to meet many people going round the cities day after day in search of job. The rising cost of living in the United States and in the global world has ignited the fire for employment purposes. When a numbers of people are interviewed, no matter the kind of interview methodology used, more than 75 % of the respondents have obviously given a similar answer for inventing into the cities. That is there intention of coming to the city were solely aimed at getting a job as the village dwellings proved to had no scope for jobs. In this line, more other push factors are still cited.  Unfortunately, the increased populations in the cities have recent resulted into minimal opportunities in the job market. Then, their dreams for getting their daily bread/ meals are like they have hit a blind end. Another category that been identified gave allegation of finding a betters job.  Employers in the rural areas are depicted to offer unfair returns to most employees. This is one of the reasons that make those people in many rural places not to retain their jobs for more than a year. Those people who leave their rural employment in a year average 88%. The percentage which remains either to work on their own farms or in the rural places other than urban does not exceed 5 %. (Allyn, 2000)

Generally, social services plays important role in one lives.  The consciousness which is attached to the availability of the services is enormous. While the poor Americans would be pushed from their rural areas to the cities in yearning for jobs, the rich would be pushed to the centers due to lack of quality health amenities within his dwellings. Public services in the states are determining factor on the settlement are residing of people in a given place. Although the health facilities are distributed in the whole parts of the states, the cities are the one endowed with the most recent health facilities which forms preferences to most noble men in America.

The traveling congestion problem within the cities makes some of the rich men to avoid being far from the city health services. In addition, entertainment facilities are part of reasons which make some of the move from their rural areas to the urban. The rural place had been inflicted by unknown disease in which several    entertainment clubs and restaurants close down. The entertainment work forms part of leisure time for most people. Hence, death of several entertainment clubs in the rural places raises an alarming concern in the Illinois state. Most people who used to enjoy themselves have vacated the settlement and went to the urban centers as a way of finding and satisfying their needs. . (Berry, 2000)

Man is a social being like any other social organism. They really do interact with each other on the to day daily tasks. However, there is one surprising facts which have not been entirely solved.  Many years have passed while the world has been struggling to abolish some minute problems. The minor things have turned to massively unbelievable barrier. The instincts of men and women of worthy have not been fully matured. Hence, there are some people who consider others in the lowest view side of the middle age of evolution. The problems of social factors do often arise in many parts of the United States.

The fact that many communities from various parts of the world have inhabited American land does not reveal to the out side world the end vice of tribalism and racism. Scores of people living in America have caught themselves in tight corner due to issues that are attributed on grounds of racial discrimination and even tribalism. The dominancy of particular race or tribe in one rural area creates any environment which is not favorable for the minorities’ social contributions and prosperities. With the increase in pressures from such living places, scores of people have opted to migrate to the cities where social life is homogenous without such unethical vices. (Allyn, 2000)

In the conclusion, the rural to urban migration during the first few decades have signified a transition of many changes of life in America. The events of such migrations have affected not only the migrants but also the whole population within the American boundaries. The main causes of the rural –urban migration in the United States are attributed to educational factors, economic and social factors. The economic factors which are in intimate relation with industrialization are the main cause for the pattern of migration.


Allyn, S. (2000): How the Rubber city became the capital of West Virginia

Berry, C. (2000):  Southern Migration, Northern Exiles:  University of Illinois Press

Kathleen, B. (1998): An Invisible Minority in City Schools: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Schultz, P. (1990): A quantitative study of rural-urban migration in Colombia.

Kleber, R. (1999): Cultural and Societal Dynamics: Plenum Press.

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