Water covers 71% of the Earth’s surface, and is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, it is found mostly in oceans and other large water bodies, with 1.6% of water below ground in aquifers and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation. Oceans hold 97% of surface water, glaciers and polar ice caps 2.4%, and other land surface water such as rivers, lakes and ponds 0.6%.
A very small amount of the Earth’s water is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products. Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land. Water on Earth moves continually through a cycle of evaporation or transpiration (evapotranspiration), precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Over land, evaporation and transpiration contribute to the precipitation over land. Let’s join our hands in saving water as much as possible. Here are the different ways we can follow to save atleast some amount of water per day.
What is Water Scarcity?
Simply put, water scarcity is either the lack of enough water (quantity) or lack of access to safe water (quality). It’s hard for most of us to imagine that clean, safe water is not something that can be taken for granted. But, in the developing world, finding a reliable source of safe water is often time consuming and expensive. This is known as economic scarcity. Water can be found…it simply requires more resources to do it. In other areas, the lack of water is a more profound problem. There simply isn’t enough. That is known as physical scarcity. The problem of water scarcity is a growing one. As more people put ever increasing demands on limited supplies, the cost and effort to build or even maintain access to water will increase. And water’s importance to political and social stability will only grow with the crisis.
SAVE WATER SAVE LIFE
Water is an interesting issue. As with all of Nature it is a symbiotic factor in a greater whole, and an element all life depends on. As we degrade our soils, poison our land and remove the natural catchments for runoff through deforestation and removal of trees; as we fill in our waterways and natural filtering systems in the name of development and progress; as we dam up rivers destroying natural eco-systems, we completely upset the natural scheme of things that water needs to flow and filter clean water for us all.
We will kill each over water. In our slumber we have assumed water will always be there for us – Clean water to drink, waterways for recreation, healthy rivers and oceans to supply us with healthy fish, water to wash our cars, water to green our lawns and landscapes, water to bath and shower in, water to brush our teeth with, water for our swimming pools. We can conserve, and consciousness is growing, but what about the new billions of people coming into the planet over the next few decades. As water levels go down, the pollutants in it get stronger. All of life is interdependent and all of life needs water or….?
Water security and climate change
Climate change will affect the water security of developing countries. Freshwater is a scarce resource. Only 2.5 per cent of the 1.4 billion km3 of water on Earth is freshwater fit for human consumption, and most of this is inaccessible — nearly 70 per cent is locked up in glaciers, snow and ice. Our greatest source of freshwater is the 8 million km3 of groundwater, with only 0.3 per cent of freshwater (105,000 km3) being found in rivers, streams and lakes. Discussions about freshwater availability increasingly focus on water security, which refers to people’s access to enough safe and affordable water to satisfy their needs for household use, food production and livelihoods. Water insecurity can arise from physical scarcity, resulting either from climatic or geographical factors, or from unsustainable consumption or overexploitation.
It can also have economic origins, with poor infrastructure or capacity preventing access to the water resources available, or occur where pollution or natural contamination renders water resources inaccessible. Water insecurity and scarcity already affect large parts of the developing world. The past century has seen a sixfold increase in global water demand. Nearly three billion people (about 40 per cent of the global population) live in areas where demand outstrips supply. This situation is set to worsen in the coming decades as populations grow, economies develop and agriculture and industry expand.
How Valuable Water is?
Three things no one can’t live without are Oxygen, Water and Food. No one can live without Water. But do you know how precious is water and how much pure water we have in world.
If 10 years ago someone had given suggestion to sell the pure water, I’m sure people made good joke or laughed a lot on him. But nowadays mineral or purified water is billion dollar industry. People are ready to spend 20 rupees for water bottle, because we know it’s not easy to get pure or clean water. One thing is sure; in future we are going to get shortage of clean water. In India you can see water shortage in every state, whether it’s capital of India, Delhi or a village of Bihar. People can’t get clean water easily. Here are some water facts to remember:
Less than 1% of the earth’s water is suitable for drinking More than a billion people around the globe survive on just over 1 gallon (4 liters) of water per day Potentially more than 3 billion people may suffer from water shortages by the year 2025 66% of the human body is water
A person can only live without water for approximately one week
Some of Facts about, How valuable clean Water are:
More than 4 million people died due to water related diseases. 98% of water realted diseases occured in developing countries. It takes about 300 litres of water to make the paper for just one Sunday newspaper. So use paper as less as you can, use E-mail and electronic sources more. On average, women in Africa and Asia have to walk 3.7 miles to collect water. It can be more in rural villages of India. In India alone, water born diseases cost the economy 73 million working days per year. Global sales of bottled water account for
over $60-$80 billion each year. A child dies of water born diseases about every 15 Seconds.
How to save water without changing your lifestyle
The average household consumes approximately 240lt of water per person per day. That means that for a household with four people in it, 960lt of water is used every day which equates to 350’400lt per year!
How is this usage broken down? Would you believe that only 3% of your total water consumed is used for drinking and cooking? The rest is used for the garden (35%), toilet flushing (29%), bathing/ showering (20%) and for laundry (13%). If we covert these percentages to volumes, the average home uses 122’640lt per year to water the garden,101’616lt to flush your toilet,70’080lt to keep ourselves clean and 45’552lt to keep our clothes clean! The other 10’512lt per year is used for drinking and cooking. Water Rhapsody look to match water quality with application. Municipal water for drinking (for now anyway but this could change), rainwater for showering, toilet flushing and laundry and lastly, grey water for garden irrigation. A combination of all of our systems can save you up to 90% on your water bills!
Saving Water at the Sink
Turn off the water while you brush your teeth. You’ve heard this standard water-saving strategy before but it never hurts to be reminded. Turn off the water while you wash your hands.
To wash your hands effectively and use less water, fill the palm of one hand with water and turn off the water.
Add soap and lather well.
Posters found at schools and clinics recommend lathering your hands for at least 15 seconds (the amount of time it takes to sing “Happy Birthday”). Remember to lather between your fingers and round your wrists.
Turn on water and rinse quickly.
Running water for the recommended fifteen seconds uses approximately 41.69 ounces of water on average (assuming the water is only on for fifteen seconds).
Turning off the water while you lather uses 11.26 ounces of water on average. By allowing the water to run while you wash your hands you waste more than three times the water than if you turn off the water while you wash your hands.
Save Water on the Toilet
Consider purchasing a low flush toilet or converting a standard toilet to low flush. Or use the following saving rule in your bathroom: “If it’s yellow, let it mellow; if it’s brown, flush it down!” While this strategy is repellant to many, it is a safe, water-saving alternative that is practiced in many countries.
Save Water in the Shower
Install a low-flow shower head and always keep your showers as short as possible. If you take a bath do not fill the tub up any higher than necessary. Consider saving the water for your plants.
Ground water resource gets naturally recharged through percolation. But due to indiscriminate development and rapid urbainzation, exposed surface for soil has been reduced drastically with resultant reduction in percolation of rainwater, thereby depleting ground water resource. Rainwater harvesting is the process of augmenting the natural filtration of rainwater in to the underground formation by some artificial methods. “Conscious collection and storage of rainwater to cater to demands of water, for drinking, domestic purpose & irrigation” Broadly there are two ways of harvesting rainwater:
1)Surface runoff harvesting 2) Roof top rainwater harvesting If you harvest your rainwater, your water savings are even bigger as the water you harvest is used for bathing, showering, laundry and toilet flushing. Rainfall is seasonal, but for the rainy months, you could be self-sufficient in terms of water supply.
1. Use your washing machine only when it is filled to its total capacity. You can save about 4500 litres per month in this process. Besides saving water, this method is also helpful to save electricity. 2. Avoid using a shower for bathing. Try using a bucket instead. This will help you save about 150-200 litres every day. 3. Turn off the tap while brushing and save more than 200 litres of water every month. 4. Stop participating in Holi. As we all know, a massive quantity of water is wasted during this festival. 5. Don’t drink water if you are not thirsty.
6. Use sprinklers to water the plants provided you have a large garden. 7. Ensure that your home has no leakages. Also check whether all water bottles are closed properly. 8. Use small glasses for drinking water. The smaller the container, the less consumption of water. 9. Whenever you waste water, just think about those millions of people who still struggle to save every drop of water for their survival. 10. Lastly, spread awareness regarding water conservation.
Save Water Save The Planet
Water is the most valuable resource of nature. It is a endless creation by god so people don’t take care of this matter. As a result crisis of water become one of the most important issue. Desperately using of water is a bad sign for the world. There are many areas in the world where people don’t get their drinking water properly. The beauty of nature effecting by this problem. So we have to use the water as much we need without wasting. While shaving or washing your face doesn’t let water run. More ways of Saving water
Some refrigerators, air conditioners and ice-makers are cooled with wasted flows of water. Consider upgrading with air-cooled appliances for significant water savings. Adjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered and not the house, sidewalk, or street. Run your clothes washer and dishwasher only when they are full. You can save up to 1,000 gallons a month. Use the garbage disposal sparingly. Compost vegetable food waste instead and save gallons every time. Plant in the fall when conditions are cooler and rainfall is more plentiful. Monitor your water bill for unusually high use.
Your bill and water meter are tools that can help you discover leaks. Water your lawn and garden in the morning or evening when temperatures are cooler to minimize evaporation. Wash your fruits and vegetables in a pan of water instead of running water from the tap. Spreading a layer of organic mulch around plants retains moisture and saves water, time and money. Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway and sidewalk and save water every time. Collect the water you use for rinsing fruits and vegetables, then reuse it to water houseplants. Shorten your shower by a minute or two and you’ll save up to 150 gallons per month. Collect water from your roof to water your garden.
Designate one glass for your drinking water each day or refill a water bottle. This will cut down on the number of glasses to wash. When doing laundry, match the water level to the size of the load. Soak pots and pans instead of letting the water run while you scrape them clean.
Avoid extra flushes in the toilets.
Do not water the plants between 11 am to 4 pm, as the water will evaporate.
Plant native or drought-tolerant plants. Group plants based on water needs.
Dont waste water just because someone else is paying, such as in hotels and Do 1 thing Every day that saves water. Encourage your friends, neighbours and co-workers to do their part.
Water Scarcity In India
Make “Water Conservation” compulsory in all buildings, apartments. Privatize “Water Management” systems which will bring in more efficiency. Spread awareness about the potential problems arising due to water scarcity. I think this is more an awareness issue. There is attitude which has to be eradicated. For this each one can take steps by spreading awareness among friends, relatives and neighborhood.
Apart from the ideas mentioned initiatives need to be taken for Rainwater harvesting at the village level. Ponds need to be created and they need to be maintained. A lot of water is rendered useless because its polluted. Lot of awareness needs to be spread at village level. A lot of awareness needs to be spread in young students who are more receptive Those who wish to protect environment of India they have to concentrate on political pressure groups. Present laws, constitution, administration network, awareness is quiet enough to protect our environment, animals, water sources and pollution controls.
People seating in ministries are not fool they know about environment. Problems are in willingness and decision making. With Our whole country reeling under a ubiquitous water crisis, we must spread awareness about how this problem could be contained. For that, we ourselves have to know how to deal with it. People in India have no care as to whether they save water or not. Simple steps like turning water off while brushing or shaving, cleaning of porches and balconies with buckets of water rather than running hoses, cleaning cars with bucket water than running hoses etc.
Each part of the chain worsens the water problem. No single way to stop this exists. Everybody from individuals to companies to politicians should stricken up. Otherwise we’re looking at water wars real soon. This is not a one day problem; this is not even one city or village problem. People in our country give damn for this have any one constructed their house with few pot hole for rain water harvesting or the villagers have removed the silt form their ponds without waiting for the Government to come and help had they used drip irrigation and sprinklers or the people in the city have have disposed their waste properly without disposing them on roads and open spaces which is the major obstruction for the water to get sunk into ground. If they have prevented the rapid decline of water table by not exploiting it by bring well (especially commercial use).
1. The common causes of scarcity of potable water (human, climatic).The effect of climate and seasonal winds on water level. Human-related causes for aggravating depletion. 2. Effects of droughts/floods in terms environment, human and economic costs. 3. Researching on water efficiency practices that would replace current practices that lead to waste. 4. Viability of conservation efforts in terms of micro- and macro- level efforts (How long can it be sustained and how much resource in terms of time, money and effort will go into it?). Forming a local, regional and global network working towards this goal in a feasible manner. 5. Immediate need for mapping ground water sources. Embarking on a policy initiative campaign on this. Related to it, on a larger level, is the need for Universal Metering. 6. Preventing rash real estate activities that negatively impact on forest and water areas. 7. Helping in educating the public on recycling. Finding out about ground and fresh water treatment and management and making due suggestions.
Water Resource Management
A collective approach for better water management to equitably distribute clean water & tackle related issues. India is a vast country with varied geo-climatic conditions. The monsoon patterns are irregular throughout the country becoming worse due to climatic change. Also the soil patterns are different, and being a country with vast expense, the issues are different in different regions as far as availability of resources is concerned.
Water has been a major concern in almost all parts of India. There has been inequitable distribution of this natural resource, be it for irrigation or drinking. I have been focusing on the water scarcity in drought prone areas especially during summer months. The major concerns are distribution and unavailability of potable water. Through this project I will be highlighting analysing the issues by the case studies that we have developed and other examples that came up during research till now. I believe that the technological advancement in making clean water available will have to be blended with Management of equitable distribution of water, given the fact that it is increasingly becoming so scarce a resource that people in some parts of India do not get water even for drinking for upto 9-10 days and women in rural areas have to walk kilometers in search of water on foot.
This is leading to serious social issues in terms of work, gender and even crimes, with riots reported over water in these areas. Hence along with availability, distribution is a big issue which is addressed by this project. Some Facts: By the year 2020, says a recent World Bank report, most major Indian cities will run dry. India has the highest water footprints among the top rice and wheat producing countries (China, US, Indonesia, etc.)Industrial water consumption is expected quadruple between 2000 and 2050 in India; by 2050 industrial water consumption will reach 18% of total annual water consumption, up from just 6% in 2000 “The UN has warned for many years that water shortages will become one of the most pressing problems on the planet over the coming decades, with one report estimating that four billion people will be affected by 2050. What is happening in India, which has too many people in places where there is not enough water, is a foretaste of what is to come.”
Are we seeing the beginnings of what is well may our inevitable future? It is beginning in India. Water is such a precious commodity. Water is the life blood of the planet. It runs through the veins of the entire planet. And just like the blood in our body, we cannot survive without it. And just like our blood, water has many different types. And just like our bod, if our blood is polluted so are we. And just like our body it has a complicated and astounding circulation system. And just like our body when that natural circulation system is interfered with or blocked, we get sicker and sicker.
We have to work with what we have and treat it and the earth’s circulation system very tenderly and with great respect, restoring her to health. Her health is our health. We all know we can go without food for a while, but not water. Without water no life can exist. The greater percentage of our planet is of water (our oceans), as are our human bodies. Every natural element with Nature exists within the human body. We are integrally bound together in this dance of life.
Implications for water scarcity in different regions of the world
When the needs of the environment are not taken into account explicitly, the shared conclusion of the various analyses is that there is no water scarcity in the developed world (Europe, North America, Australia, Japan). In all analyses there is already absolute or physical water scarcity affecting food production and productive water use (not water supply and sanitation) in the arid parts of the world, for example in North Africa, and the Middle East. Depending on the definition of water scarcity using the various indicators, there are varying opinions on the degree and severity of water scarcity in large parts of Asia and Africa in 2025. There is broad agreement, however, that there will be significantly increasing water scarcity that will turn “water’ into a key, or the key, limiting factor in food production and livelihoods generation for poor people in rural virtually throughout rural Asia and most of Africa, with particularly severe water scarcity in the bread baskets of North-West India and Northern China.
Latin-America is relatively water abundant, at least as analysed at the national level, and is not showing up as water scarce, unless as seen in IWMI’s definition of “economically water scarce”, i.e. implying the need for considerable investments in the water sector to make the resources available to satisfy people’s needs. Most small islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific are facing severe water scarcity and will face increasing water scarcity. When taking into account the water needs of ecosystems, then there are considerable parts of Europe, North America, part of South-West Australia, and part of South America that already face considerable water scarcity, particularly where irrigated agriculture and ecosystems compete for water resources. Accounting for the needs of ecosystems will significantly exacerbate water scarcity issues in many parts of Asia.