We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

Second Generation Computers Essay Sample

The whole doc is available only for registered users OPEN DOC
  • Pages:
  • Word count: 532
  • Category: computer

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues.

Get Access

Second Generation Computers Essay Sample

The computers built in the 1950s and 1960s are considered the 2nd generation computers. These computers make use of the transistors invented by Bell Telephone laboratories and they had many of the same components as the modern-day computer. For instance, 2nd generation computers typically had a printer, some sort of tape or disk storage, operating systems, stored programs, as well as some sort of memory. These computers were also generally more reliable and were solid in design. 1957: FORTRAN

FORTRAN, an acronym for Formula Translator was the first successful programming language. This language used words and sentences instead of the binary machine codes that had been commonplace in computers prior to the 1950s. FORTRAN could be read by ordinary people with no previous programming experience or knowledge, and it made it easier for computers to be programmed. FORTRAN was extremely useful in that given a single statement, many instructions would be produced. FORTAN created programs that were just as good as those produced by human programmers. Not only was it one of the most successful programming languages ever, but it also dominated many other languages for years.

1959: COBOL
COBOL, the Common Business Oriented Language, was invented in 1959. This is a business programming language that allowed for computer programs to be easily read.

1960: PDP-1
DEC, or the Digital Equipment Corporation was founded by Kenneth Olsen and Harland Anderson in 1957. In 1960, DEC introduced the Programmed Data Processor, or PDP-1. The PDP-1 was a mainframe computer famous for its low costs. Compared to other computers that generally cost more than $1 million dollars, at “only” about $120,000 the PDP-1 was considered really cheap! The PDP-1 could be sold at such a low price because it did not contain many advanced peripherals and software. In other computers, these advanced systems amounted to nearly 80% of the computers’ cost.

1961: IBM 1400 Series
The IBM 1400 Series were a major breakthrough for IBM. The first computer in this series is the IBM 1401. The 1401 was a computer system that used transistors instead of the vacuum tubes found in previous IBM computers. The system contained many peripherals, which included, among others, a new high-speed printer. This printer could print 600 lines per minute! The total cost of an IBM 1401 was $150,000. 12,000 of these computers were produced.

1962: SpaceWar!
Space War is the first interactive computer game. It was developed by MIT students Slug Russell, Shag Graetz, and Alan Kotok for the PDP-1 computer. In this game, players must battle against enemy spaceships and face obstacles like the gravity of the sun. The players used primitive joysticks to maneuver their ships. SpaceWar has helped to inspired future video games.

Late 1960s: Integrated Circuit
Introduced in the 1960s simultaneously by Texas Instruments and by Fairchild Semi-Conductor, the integrated circuit combines many tiny transistors and other electrical components onto a small silicon chip. It replaced the need for individual transistors. Later, these integrated circuits were refined so that one small chip could contain thousands of transistors, as well as other similar components. As more and more components were squeezed into a small silicon chip, the size of computers gradually decreased.

We can write a custom essay

According to Your Specific Requirements

Order an essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Computer software programs

To know about the connection of these topics it is must to know about the link between these phrases as well as the basic concept of these two. Firstly, to know what is computer software and wireless Information systems and then secondly to discuss about their affects upon each other. Computer software is basically some programs or events that are written just to achieve certain...

The Turing Test Review

The Turing Test (TT) is used to test whether computers have mentality. The set up of the test is as follows: there are 3 subjects involved. All three subjects are accessible to each other via a chat program and nothing else. The first subject is a real person, a human being. The second subject is a computer. The third subject is an interrogator whose job...

Chic Paints Ltd Essay Sample

1 Chic Paints Limited (CPL) are a large manufacturing company who specialise in producing niche specialist paints such as those used on boats, cars and industrial machinery. As a result of a management buyout from Ashstead Plc 6 years ago, CPL was bought by 5 of Ashstead’s directors who had previously formed the board on Chic Paints when it was a subsidiary of Ashstead Plc....

What is Computer Crime?

It is unfortunate to see that the number of computer crimes is increasing and has been considerably swelling during the last few decades. However, computer and information technology provide many benefits for everyone. Although, they have sometimes used to annoy or harm people. This trend has caused several social issues as public property, unauthorized using password of someone, stealing a billion dollar from bank or...

The use of computer systems in different...

- Accounting is a paramount aspect of all businesses, as every venture has a legal duty to produce correct tax reports, an accountant job would be very difficult without a computer. For example, a human error in cash flow data can critically affect the management of a business and even result in an HMRC tax fine. Biz Brain is one of the most used online...

Get Access To The Full Essay
Materials Daily
100,000+ Subjects
2000+ Topics
Free Plagiarism
All Materials
are Cataloged Well

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.
Sorry, but only registered users have full access

How about getting this access

Become a member

Your Answer Is Very Helpful For Us
Thank You A Lot!


Emma Taylor


Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?

Couldn't Find What You Looking For?

Get access to our huge knowledge base which is continuously updated

Next Update Will Be About:
14 : 59 : 59
Become a Member