We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

The significance of Globalization to issues of development that been raised so far in the course Essay Sample

essay
The whole doc is available only for registered users OPEN DOC

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all the help you need with your essay and educational goals.

Get Access

The significance of Globalization to issues of development that been raised so far in the course Essay Sample

Globalization broadly refers to the expansion of global linkages, the organisation of social life on a global scale, and the growth of a global consciousness, and therefore to the consolidation of world society. Such an ecumenical definition captures much of what the term commonly means, but it’s meaning is disputed. It includes several large processes; definitions differ in what they emphasise. Globalization is historically complex. The meaning of the term is itself a topic in global discussion; it may refer to “real” processes, to ideas that justify them, or to a way of thinking about them.

There are four key concepts of globalization, Stretched social relations, Rationalisation, Intensification and Interpenetration. Stretched social relations are the existence of cultural, economic and political networks of connection across the world. Regionalisation is the Increased interconnection between states that border on each other. Intensification is the increased density of interaction across the globe which implies that the impacts of events are felt more strongly than before.

Interpenetration is the extent to which apparently distant cultures and societies come face to face with each other at local level, creating increased diversity. There are three main approaches to globalization, globalist, traditionalist and tranformationalist. Globalists believe that globalization is uncontrollable by humans and cannot be resisted. Social processes have been affected greatly by globalization and now operate at a global scale. Global interdependence makes national boundaries less important.

Local and national differences become less important, and produce a more uniform global culture and economy. Within globalists there are optimists and pessimists. Positive globalists see globalization as ultimately leading to us all being world citizens through communication and therefore understanding each other’s cultures and nations. Pessimistic globalists see the world as becoming more uniform and therefore losing individual cultures. They see the major economic powers, such as the US, Western Europe and Japan as being able to resist change and inflict their own agenda on the world.

The globalist position on the economy is that there has been a recent growth in international trade and investment and that national economies have turned into a global economy determined by world market forces. Globalists see economic globalization as a positive development that will help consumers by increasing the scale and efficiency of markets for goods and capital. This opinion is supported by economic neo-liberals but condemned by neo-Marxists. Tranformationalists agree with traditionalists that globalists have exaggerated their case. They argue that nation states do remain military, economically and politically powerful.

However they do also believe that globalization has its effects. According to this view globalization is complex, varied and unpredictable. They believe that nation-states should retain a key role. Transformationalists see the present period as a step in a long evolutionary process in which local and national economies merge into more mixed, interdependent societies. They argue that interdependence is sweeping the international economic system; this places added constraints on national economic decision-making. Traditionalists believe that globalization isn’t real.

Traditionalists argue that in spite of increases in global flows of trade and money around the world, these are not that different to what occurred previously. The exchange of good and cultures goes back to early times. They believe that what globalists call globalization is a continuation and development of earlier world trading links. Traditionalists see the majority of economic and social activity as being regional rather than global, for example the European Union is an example of increased regionalization. Traditionalists say that the international economy has not progressed to a global economy as claimed by the globalists.

Separate national economies still remain an important category. Economic globalization is associated with markets and production becoming increasingly interdependent and integrated because of the growth of trade and the flows of capital and technology. Trade is associated with interdependency and capital flows are associated with integration. It is also said, by traditionalists, to be a process, which has been going on for sometime. The development of Newly industrializing economies (NIEs) such as Mexico, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Malaysia, have had a significant impact on employment in the North.

Unemployment and a fall in incomes for the less skilled in the North could be a direct result of the drift of manufacturing jobs to the south. A drop in living standards of Northern workers could be the result of the loss of competitiveness of the Northern Economies in manufacturing and the move of production to the Southern NIEs. Another explanation of the collapse of unskilled employment in the North is attributable to advanced technological developments there, rather than international trade and migration. Environmental degradation can be bought about by pollution and over exploitation of resources.

Globalization brings wider industrialization and therefore more widespread pollution and more use of environmental resources. For some time the transformation of the environment was considered a necessary change, for example construction of irrigation systems and flood control dykes. Negative views of the change stated when industrial production began and the threat of air and water pollution became apparent. As less developed countries industrialise the fear is that pollution will increase drastically. Rapid industrialisation in the Soviet Union and China resulted in little concern for the environment.

Technology in development has both been seen as a solution and a problem, technology as the solution to development was seen as the view during the golden age when various infrastructure projects were developed in the third world. On the other hand many people saw technology as the problem, in the 1970’s there were plenty of people questioning the association of technology with progress. During the 1980’s a new view developed. Technology was explained as a social process. This view is that technology both reflects and influences the society that produces it.

Technology is an important influence in shaping society, but it is just one influence. Another important part of globalization is Industrialization. Industrialisation and development are not necessarily dependent on each other. There has been an effort to improve living standards by other ways, such as improved agricultural production and technology. The way globalisation affects industrialization is viewed very differently by major development organisations, the UN’s view is that global competition does not automatically bring faster growth and developments, the World Bank says that there is a ositive link between freeing markets and trade and the eradication of poverty in the long term. Culture is a crucial component of globalization because it is through culture that common understandings are developed. Culture flows between countries is increasing fast possibly due to the ownership rates of televisions with cable and satellite increasing. Globalizers focus on structures and argue that with the growth of global culture comes the demise of national cultures. Traditionalists say that claims for globalization are excessive and that culture remains deeply national.

From this view, cultural imperialism is seen as overstating external structural forces and undervaluing local and human agency and overstating change. Explain how consideration of Power is relevant to debates on globalization. Globalization is associated with unequal economic and power relations, the effects of globalization are geographically uneven. It is suggested that we are moving towards a global world with no borders. A few world cities will become the nodes of global power; the financial decision-making will be made in these cities.

Decisions made in these cities of power can have dramatic effects for the rest of the world. Contemporary globalization raises the question about how societies are governed and how they should be governed. Globalists argue that in a globalized world, national governments are increasingly powerless and irrelevant. Traditionalists maintain that the capacity of national governments to regulate the lives of their citizens and to manage global affairs has never been so extensive. Transformationalists argue against both views saying that national governments are having to adapt their roles and functions.

As a result, a significant reconfiguration in the power, jurisdiction and authority is underway. National governments are not so much losing power but having to change to where power and sovereignty is shared among many other public and private agencies. Globalists and tranformationalists argue that power is no longer exercised on a national scale but has acquired a global dimension. As a consequence, the business of government and politics is becoming internationalised and globalized.

We can write a custom essay

According to Your Specific Requirements

Order an essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Peculiarities of various assignment types

The educational process is diverse and full of interesting writing tasks which help students develop their academic abilities. Different assignments types are created by professionals in order to enhance students’ level of analytical, critical and writing skills and to vary the learning process. As a student, you will encounter numerous tasks of diverse complexities throughout your student life. Sometimes, maybe, too complicated! They have different peculiarities, structural...

Making decisions in health and social care

Critically analyses the concepts, features, and importance of costs and accounting in making decisions in health and social care Cost accounting is a method used in accounting to capture a company’s or organisation’s production costs. It assesses the input costs of every step in production, fixed costs like depreciation of capital equipment. Cost accounting measures and records costs individually then compare the input results via...

Сhildren development

Physical development 7-12 years By the age of 7 a child enjoys things such as bike riding and rollerblading they are now able to tie and untie shoelaces without adult help, they are now starting to understand what rules are and are able to follow simple rules. At 8-12 years a child improves the physical skills that they have already developed and start to see...

Forex international trading market

Introduction Forex exchange is on the rise in Namibia; resulting in more people wanting to learn how to trade to try to increase their income so that they can enhance their standard of living. Forex Foreign exchange identifies the process of converting domestic currency into international banknotes at particular exchange rates (Bofah, 2017, para.1). As the number of foreigners in Namibia is increasing, more Namibians...

Aristotelian idea of God

This image produced in 1544 shows emerging's of the Judeo-Christians and Aristotelian's traditions. Aristotle was very interested in the idea of motion and said “The world is in a constant state of motion and change”. An example of how the world is changing is the growth of trees and plants. Aristotle believed in a prime mover, which is the being which creates change in the...

Get Access To The Full Essay
icon
300+
Materials Daily
icon
100,000+ Subjects
2000+ Topics
icon
Free Plagiarism
Checker
icon
All Materials
are Cataloged Well

Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.

By clicking "SEND", you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We'll occasionally send you account related and promo emails.
Sorry, but only registered users have full access

How about getting this access
immediately?

Become a member

Your Answer Is Very Helpful For Us
Thank You A Lot!

logo

Emma Taylor

online

Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?

Can't find What you were Looking for?

Get access to our huge, continuously updated knowledge base

The next update will be in:
14 : 59 : 59
Become a Member