* Describe the origins of socio-economic-political foundations in nursing education as a discipline. * Describe the academic focus on socio-economic-political aspect of nursing education. * Consider the relevance of socio-economic-political foundations on healthcare works.
SOCIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF NURSING EDUCATION
* Comes from the Latin word ‘socius’ – social or being with others; and Greek ‘logos’ – to study * Science or study of the origin, development, organization, and functioning of humansociety * Study of people living in groups; scientific study of human interaction
* derived from the Latin word “socios” or socialis” – meaning fellow, companion, or associate * a group of individuals with well defined limits which persists in time, thus enabling them to develop a set of common ideas, attitude, norms, and sanctions, interaction, and of techniques for living and fitting together * the tendency or desire of people to be with other people
* process of helping the individual find and adjust his role * an individual learns to appreciate the meaning and values that exist in the culture at large and eventually internalizes such beliefs and values as guides for human conduct * function of society where in patterns of behavior and aspects of personality are inculcated * process of internalizing the norms of standards of the group among a group
* one of the basic building blocks of social interaction * the position assigned by a person in a group or organization
* statuses a person holds at a particular time, (e.g. a teenage girl is a daughter to her parents, a sister to her brother, a friend to others in her social circle, and a pitcher to a softball team)
Types of Statuses
* Ascribed – acquired or received at birth without effort (e.g. family name, place of birth, sex, race) * Achieved – assumed voluntary and reflects a significant measure of personal ability and choice, realized through hard work, talent, merit, etc. (e.g. president, senator, professor) * Master status – a social position with exceptional importance for identity, often shaping a person’s entire life (e.g. President, Prime minister, consul, general);a person’s occupation functions as a master status
* a second major component of social interaction
* behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status e.g. the student role involves attending classes and completing assignments as well as devoting a substantial amount of time for personal enrichment through academic study.
* the incompatibility among the roles corresponding to two or more statuses e.g. parenting as well as working outside the home taxes both physical and emotional strength
* incompatibility among the roles, corresponding to a single status(e.g. a plant supervisor may wish to be an approachable friend to other workers but his responsibility requires maintaining some measure of personal distance from each employee)
* the process by which people disengage from important social roles (e.g. ex-priests, ex-nuns, ex-husbands, ex-alcoholics, etc.)
* way individuals have learned to live together; behavior learned as a result of living in groups which tend to be patterned and to be transmitted from generation to generation
* process of learning the culture of one’s own group
* process of learning another culture
Concepts of a Group
* a unit of interacting personalities with an interdependence of roles and status existing between or among the members * a number of people at a given time, interrelated and interact with one another with common shared attitudes, sentiments, aspirations, and goals
Kinds/Classification of Groups
* Primary – intimate personal or face-to-face relationship, e.g. family parents and siblings neighborhood group; school/classmates 3 important primary groups in the education process: family, neighborhood group, school * Secondary– impersonal, contractual, business, like, e.g. between seller and costumer; driver and passenger; sales representative and pharmacists.
-system or process of assigning individuals their respective ranks in a society based on income or wealth, education, occupation, and life style -classification of group members according to certain criteria differ due to the nature of the group (e.g. low, middle, high)
Kinds of Stratification
* closed system – allow for little changes in social position, e.g. “caste” * open system – permit considerable social mobility, e.g. “class”
* an “organization” or establishment for the promotion of a particular object, usually one for some public, education, charitable, or similar purpose(e.g. the Red Cross, UP, LNU, etc.) * may also be human, wherein a group of people organize around some important functions that define statutes and roles and facilitate achievements, e.g. the family, a universal institution found not only among civilized people but also in primitive society.
* smallest and most important social institution, with the unique function of producing and rearing the young. * composed of a group of interacting persons united by blood, marriage, or adoption, constituting a household, carrying a common culture and performing basic functions.
Classification of the Family
* Family of orientation – the family into which people are born and in which the major part of their socialization takes place. * Family of procreation – the family that people create when they marry and have children.
Based on Internal Organization or Membership
* nuclear or conjugal (based on marriage) – a two generation family group which consists of a couple and their children usually living apart from other relatives; places emphasis on the husband-wife relationship. * Extended or consanguine (shared blood) – a group which consists of one or more nuclear families plus other relatives; consists of the married couple, their parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins; place primary emphasis on the “blood ties” with various relatives.
Based on Dominance of Authority
* patriarchal – a family in which the authority is held by the eldest male * matriarchal – authority is held by the oldest female * matrifocal – the woman is the central and most important member * matricentric – the female is the authority figure in the absence of the male at work * egalitarian – a family structure in which the husband and the wife are equal in authority and privileges
Based on Residence
* patrilocal – a custom in which the married couple lives in the household or community of the husband’s parent * matrilocal – involves a married couple living in household or community of the wife’s parents * neolocal – the couple lives apart from either spouse’s parents or other relatives * avunculocal – prescribes that the newly married couple resides with or near the maternal uncle (mothers’ brother) of the groom. This type of residence is very rare. The opposite is amitalocal residence.
Based on Descent or Lineage
* patrilineal – the father’s side of the family is defined as kin * matrilineal – the mother’s side of the family is defined as kin * bilateral – the system used in most industrial societies (e.g. U.S.), children’s kinship is tied to both sides of the family and both male and female children are entitled to inherit.
Marriage Norms or Patterns
* Endogamy – prescribes marriage within one’s group – same social category (e.g. race, religion, village, social class). * Exagomy – the social norm that prescribes marriage outside one’s own group * Homogamy – the practice of marrying people with the same social, racial, ethnic, and religious background 2 functions: (1) it increases the chances that the children of a union will be exposed to reasonably consistent socialization experiences (2) it reduces disputes over issues other than child socialization * Marriage gradient – the tendency of men to marry women below them in age, education, and occupation
Other Forms of Marriage
* monogamy – marriage between one man and one woman
* polygamy – marriage involving more than one husband or wife
Functions of the Family
* reproduction and rearing of the group
* provide the needed socialization of the child with respect to his role and status * provide love and affections and a sense of security for its members * provide environment for personality development and growth of self-concept in relation to others
* since the family is a very important institution, education for the family life should be part of the curriculum * people who intend to get married should be oriented regarding their obligations so that the marriage will be successful * in Japan, there is a school for brides. There should be a school or course, not only for the brides but also for grooms. * since the average Filipino family is big, the school should teach the advantages of small families. * enculturation being a function of the family should pass on only worthwhile values, customs, mores, beliefs, and traditions. * sex is the propagation of the race and should therefore be engaged only by married people * it is not only the children who need an education, but also the parents * young people should not rush into marriage, but should give themselves time to find out whether they are really in love and suitable for each other. * since children are the ones who suffer from broken homes, couples should try hard to be reconciled and their parent, relatives, and friends, should help them toward this end. * couples should consult marriage counselors if they often quarrel or are drifting apart so that the marriage may be saved.
SCHOOLING AND EDUCATION
* another institution that also takes care of socialization and enculturation * a certain building having a unity of interacting
Schooling –central component of education in industrial and other societies where formal instruction is done under the direction of specially trained teachers
Functions of Schooling
* schools serves as a source of child care for the rising number of one-parent and two-career families. * among teens, schooling consumes much time and considerable energy, inhibiting deviant behavior. * schooling also occupies thousands of young people in their twenties for whom few jobs may be available. * high schools, colleges, and universities bring together people of marriageable age, many of whom meet their future spouses in the classroom. * school networks provide not only friendship, but valuable career opportunities and resources later on in life.
* the social institutions through which society members are with important knowledge, including basic facts, jobs, skills, and cultural values. * the formal institution that directs many of the learning experiences within a particular society * the ultimate a goal of education is the effective participation of individual in the total process of social interaction whether in terms of social, economic, health or any desirable human value. * provides a study of the regular patterns of relationship between society and the educational process and the explanation for such relationships, which contributes to the analysis of problems confronting the educational system * may be formal or informal
Formal education -sets definite objectives and goals, which are realized through systematic formal instructions and methods
Informal education- consists of learning, through interaction with others in the group, learning may be acquired through suggestion, observation, examples, imitation, and inculcation from any of the primary and secondary group or people one is engaged in.
ECONOMICAL FOUNDATION OF NURSING EDUCATION
Economy – consists of the economic system of a country or other area; the labor, capital, and land resources; and the manufacturing, production, trade,distribution, and consumption of goods and services of that area.
* the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. * comes from theAncient Greek oikonomia, “management of a household, administration”; from oikos, “house”) + nomos, “custom” or “law”, hence “rules of the household”. Health Economics
* branch of economics concerned with issues related to scarcity in the allocation of health and health care.
Why Study ECONOMICS?
* Lays great stress on precise and systematic analysis
* Helps us make sense of the everyday activity we observe around us
* Vital to business
* Helps consumers and workers make better buying and employment decision
* Makes for better financial decisions
5 Significant Things to Learn in Economics
* Economic Reasoning – how to think like an economist.
* Economic Terminology – terms that any educated person in the modern society needs to know * Economic Insights – general insights economists have gained into how the economy functions * Economic Institutions – physical or mental structure that significantly influences economic decisions * Economic Policy – action to influence economic events
* Economic Growth – produces more and better goods and services which develop a higher standard of living. * Full Employment – provides suitable jobs for all citizens who are willing and able to work. * Economic Efficiency – achieves maximum fulfillment of wants using available productive resources. * Price-level Stability – avoids inflation and deflation. * Economic Freedom – guarantees high degree of freedom in economic activities. * Equitable Distribution of Income – ensures that no group of citizens faces stark poverty while others enjoy extreme luxury. * Economic Security – provides security to people who are unable to earn minimal levels of income. * Balance of Trade – seeks a reasonable overall balance with the rest of the world in international trade and financial transactions.
2 Divisions of Economics
* Macroeconomics –examines economy as a whole or its basic subdivisions or aggregates such as (e.g. government, household, business sectors) * Microeconomics – specific economic units.
Foundation of Economics
* Society’s material want – material wants of its citizens and institutions are virtually unlimited and insatiable. * Economic resources – the means of producing goods and services (limited or scarce).
Elements of Economics
A. Goods are items that bring utility.
* Consumer goods – finished products that give direct satisfaction * Capital Goods – used in the production of other goods and services * Luxury Goods – items that are not directly needed but bought for prestige and status symbols * Economic Goods – useful but scarce
* Basic Goods – seek to satisfy the gut-level needs
* Tangible Goods – form of material goods.
B. Services – non-material goods in a form of action done.
Concept of Supply and Demand
Demand – people’s willingness to buy a particular product Laws of Demand:
1. As the price of commodity decreases, quantity increases. As the price increases, demand decreases. 2. The price of a commodity is inversely proportional to demand.
Supply – willingness of a producer to manufacture goods.
Laws of Supply:
1. As the price increases, quantity supplied also increases; as the price decreases, quantity supplied also decreases. 2. Price of the commodity is directly proportional to supply.
POLITICAL FOUNDATION OF NURSING EDUCATION
Politics is a means to an end, the end consisting of public policy. * (from Greek “of, for, or relating to citizens”) is the art or science of influencing people’s beliefs on a civic, or individual level, when there are more than 2 people involved.
Influence can be exerted on:
* workplace – by affecting the development of institutional policies * community – through activities on local boards
* professional organizations – participating on committees or serving as an officer * government – involvement in campaigns, letter writing, and voting
Nurses and Political Action
* Nurses hold a level of stature that is highly respected and trusted * they are viewed as professionals who truly are interested in the welfare of others. * The role of nurses in health promotion is recognized by international, national, and state organizations * organized support of
these issues can greatly affect world health, so nurses have a duty to investigate their role and increase their level of participation. * this type of empowerment broadens nursing’s political focus and increases respect for the profession on all political levels. * Nurses frequently do not address political issues that affect the profession * A lack of knowledge of the legislative process causes them to be overwhelmed by the complexity of public policy * Nurses focus on clinical care and sometimes ignore larger issues, partially due to a heavy workload, but also due to a lack of understanding of how to influence public policy.
Public Policy Formation
There are four main steps in the process of public policy formation:
* setting an agenda
* government response
* policy design
* program implementation
* force that enables persons or groups to realize their will even against opposition
* Nurses become empowered through education, leadership, and collective action
Power in nursing is based on four facets:
* expertise and reputation
* position or profession
* connections to influential people, such as major corporations, organizations, and politicians
Visionary leaders can bring nursing to the next level of professionalism and involvement. Nurses are in an ideal profession to articulate a higher vision of leadership. If nurses can rid themselves of their traditional tunnel vision, they can participate in the promotion and election of visionary leaders. * Having visionary nursing leaders in strategic positions in health care facilities; professional organizations; and national offices significantly increases the influence of nurses and, therefore, their objectives in the health care political arena.
WHO’s key focus on policy development encompasses many nursing philosophies The organizations’ policies for action include:
* integrating health and human development into public policies
* ensuring equitable access to health services
* promoting and protecting health
* preventing and controlling specific health problems
* represents an important means of democratizing the workplace and providing a more attractive work setting for professionally motivated nurses. It is also an important training mechanism for the development of decision-making and political-influence skills. * is the creation of joint staff administrative groups who have responsibility for determining the policies and standards of nursing practice within an agency.
Flattening the Hierarchy
* has the virtue of increasing the number of leadership positions and adding to the visibility and power component of jobs * provides more persons with access to the power structure of an organization * great need for opening channels of communication and making system knowledge (e.g. budget, salaries, and the minutes of certain meetings more routinely available for everyone)
* Foundations of Education by Amparo S. Lardizabal
* Handbook on Health Economics by Rex Gamisera, Ludivina Magpali, and Charlie Cruz * http://www.slideshare.net/Henyo/sociological-foundations-of-education-sociology-and-socialization-process * http://www.sunypress.edu/pdf/60923.pdf