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Sociological Imagination Persuasive Essay Sample

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Sociological Imagination Persuasive Essay Sample

1.A way of looking at the world
2.Relies on the scientific method – research
3.Encourages people to question why society is set up the way it is 4.Emphasizes social diversity
What are the benefits of using the sociological perspective? Helps us assess the truth of “commonsense”
Helps us assess opportunities and constraints in our own lives and the lives of others Empowers us to effectively participate in society
Helps us live in a diverse world
Ecological Fallacy: Sociologists talk about patterns in collectives or groups. Because an individual is a member of a particular group, that person does not necessarily exhibit all traits that characterize the group as a whole Socialization: Life-long process through which we learn our culture, develop a sense of self, and become functioning members of a society Social Conflict : Dominant group determines what constitutes mainstream culture Disadvantaged/oppressed groups buy into dominant culture. Ex. Individualism Social Learning Theory : Contrasts with psychoanalytic theories by focusing on observable behaviors Social Institutions : A predictable, established way to provide for one or more of society’s basic needs. Ex: Education, health care, political, economic, family 4 Social Changes :

The Industrial Revolution
The Growth of Cities
Political Change
Rapid Expansion of Colonialism
2 different ways of explaining social relationships:
Theological – Using religion to explain social structure and group differences Science – Scientific laws can explain human behavior and social structure Interdependence: Everything is related, so a change in one aspect of society necessarily changes everything else in that society Manifest Functions : Intended function of some aspect of society. Example: Prisons, education Latent Functions : Unintended function of some aspect of society.Example: Prisons, childcare The 5 Sociological Paradigms

1. Structural Functional Approach: In a stable society, change would not occur frequently. Views change as a sign that things are not functioning properly. Causes of change are often viewed as dysfunctions because they prevent stability. Macro-social approach

Focuses on large groups, whole societies
Emphasizes stability, solidarity
Organic Analogy – Society is like a body

2. Conflict Theory: Macro-social approach. The philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it. Explicitly focuses on inequality and differences in power. Argues that all people are equal. Differences exist because of unequal opportunities. Conflict is inevitable – there will always be clashes over limited resources. Change is inevitable – predicted revolution.

3. Symbolic Interaction Theory: Micro-social approach.Focuses on small group interactions Symbolic Interaction Approach:
Social Construction
We create our world through interactions
There is no one objective reality when it comes to how a society should function Thus, change is quite possible

4. The Feminist Perspective:
Developed out of the critique that sociological research was androcentric Like conflict theory, emphasizes power, inequality and the need for change Not just concerned about gender biases
Explicitly emphasize how race, class, gender, and sexuality impact behavior and life experience Also try to give voice to underprivileged groups
Chapter 3- Culture:
androcentric : Broad generalizations about all of society would be made based on research conducted only on white males culture : Consists of beliefs, values, behaviors and material objects that together form a people’s way of life What is the difference between material and non-material culture? Material culture in tangible. Non-material culture consists of ideas. 5 components of culture:

Symbols: Anything that carries a particular meaning for members of a certain culture Language: A system of symbols that allow for communication between individuals within a society. Sometimes used to determine how many distinct cultures there are in the world – by this measure, there are thousands Values: Culturally defined standards by which we judge what is good/bad, moral/immoral, desirable/undesirable Beliefs: Beliefs are specific statements about what we believe to be true and are based on our values Norms: Rules of conduct that guide people’s behavior in specific situations. Norms are an expression of culture

Mores: Norms that are widely observed and have high moral significance. Example: Monogamy Taboo: refers to a norm so strongly engrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion Folkways : Norms that are more casual. Example: No suit jacket to a wedding Sanctions : Penalties for violating norms, rewards for conforming to norms cultural transmission: We pass down culture from one generation to the next Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: Language shapes how we understand and behave in the world. Example 1: Inuit words for snow. Example 2: Orwell’s Newspeak and freedom Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Capital: certain “cultural habits and…dispositions” inherited from family are fundamentally important to school success Hunting and Gathering Societies : Characterized by use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food Everyone’s survival depends on the process of gathering food, therefore everyone who is capable participates in this activity There are excesses, there’s nothing to accumulate. These societies tend to be very egalitarian. Horticulture and Pastoralism: Use of simple hand tools and domesticated animals Allows for more permanent settlements

Now use animal labor in the fields
Permanent settlements
Allowed for great population growth
Used money, instead of bartering system

Industrialization: Production of goods was now accomplished using complex machinery Changed cultural values of the family
Raised living standards, increased life span
Decreases in inequality, expanded personal freedom
Post-Industrialism : Rely on information technology. Rather than creating things, we create and share ideas and information Subculture: Segment of the culture that shares characteristics that distinguishes it from the broader culture. Examples: Surfers, college students, teenagers, ethnic groups Counterculture: are far more extreme. Actively oppose cultural norms widely accepted in larger society

How does multiculturalism address critiques of the subculture approach? Embraces the cultural diversity within the U.S. Perhaps instead of melting pot, we should aim to be a big salad Ethnocentrism : We tend to view our own culture as ‘natural’.We also tend to view our own culture as superior to other cultures. the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture Cultural Relativism: All cultures are valuable

Each culture must be evaluated and understood according to its own standards Practical considerations
Ethical considerations
Robert Edgerton “Sick Societies” (1992): Judge by their people’s happiness, health, survival… elements of exploitation Value Cluster: Values are not independent units; instead some come together to form a larger whole or value cluster Major Clusters:

– Leisure
– Self-fulfillment
– Physical Fitness
– Youth
– Concern for the Environment
John Porter (Americanization of Canadian Values? (1965)): Canadians, unlike the U.S., do not have a unifying ideology Structural Functionalism : Every society has to find a way to meet basic needs Aspects of culture function as a means towards meeting those needs. Example: Sacred cows in India Symbolic Interactionism: Remember, functionalism highlights how all cultural customs work to allow society to function smoothly Symbolic interaction highlights dysfunctional practices and focuses on subjective meaning. Example: Tanning Three causes of cultural change:

Invention – the process of creating new cultural elements
Discovery – recognizing and understanding more fully something already in existence Diffusion – the spread of cultural traits from society to another Cultural lag (William Ogburn): the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system Cultural Universal: We have biological universals but do not have a social universals in the world Cultural integration: the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system Cultural relativism: the practice of judging a culture by its own standards Cultural Leveling: cultural diffusion, groups are eager, for example, to adopt superior weapons and tools High culture – available only to the elites

Popular culture – available to average people
Nature vs. Nurture: Nature – instinctive human competitiveness Nurture – behavior is not instinctive, but learned (behaviorism) Chapter 4: Society
Epigenetics: refers to a third factor that may function as a bridge between the environment and genes or may “operate on its own to shape who we are” Biological Determinism: The belief much of our behaviour reflects in-built biological traits such as the need to reproduce and the need to survive Asylums (1961): got students to get sent to asylum and then conduct research Reference Groups: groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves Xenophobia: the fear of strangers

Reginald Bibby: about 1/3rd of Canadians continue to value religious faith and incorporate it in their lives Goffman and the “Presentation of the Self”: Emphasized symbolic meanings – even in terms of how we dress, stand and gesture – was crucial to fleshing out how we “play” our particular scripts and how we learn specific ways to embody them Habitus (Pierre Bourdieu): a socialized proclivity to think, act, and feel in a particular manner that becomes embodies in the individual Cultural Capital (Pierre Bourdieu): refer to the ideas, tastes, preferences and symbols that may be acquired through socialization and that may be deployed in social action to establish one’s social position Marlene Mackey and Gender Roles: 3 stages: imitation, play, game Mead and Role-Taking: play is a critical element in the development of a “self” Cooley and the “Looking-Glass Self”: the unique aspect of “humanness” called the “self” is socially created; that is, our self of self develops from interaction with others

Chapter 5: Socialization

Freud: Psychological Perspective : Like animals, humans have powerful drives or instincts. Unlike animals, we only have two drives

Freud personality model. Personalities are composed of three distinct parts: 1. Id: Unconscious, biological drives. Selfish, irrational, pleasure-driven. Represents individuals at their most self-centered 2. Ego: Mediates the conflict between the id and the superego. Conscious and reality-based. Provides plans for the individual to get what he/she wants in a way that is acceptable to society 3. Superego: Social norms, values, and morals learned by the individual. Demands of society. Represented by the individuals’ conscience

Erikson’s eight stages of development:
a) Infancy – the challenge of trust (versus mistrust)
b) Toddlerhood – the challenge of autonomy (versus doubt and shame) c) Preschool – the challenge of initiative(versus guilt)
d) Preadolescence – the challenge of industriousness (versus inferiority) e) Adolescence – the challenge of gaining identity (versus confusion) f) Young Adulthood – the challenge of intimacy (versus isolation) g) Middle adulthood
– the challenge of making a difference (versus self-absorption) h) Old age – the challenge of integrity (versus despair)

Real – what actually occurs in everyday life
Ideal – how we should behave
social interaction: the process by which people act and react in relationship to others Thomas theorem: the reality people construct in their interaction has real consequences for the future ethno-methodological research: a strategy to reveal the assumptions people have about their social world dramaturgical analysis: explores the social interaction in terms of theatrical performance The 4 ways which gender influences personal performances : (1) Demeanor – with greater social power, men have more freedom in how they act (2) Use of space – men command more space than women

(3) Staring and touching – done by men to women
(4) Smiling – a way to please another, usually done by women Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development:
a) Sensorimotor Stage – individuals experience the world only through their senses b) Preoperational Stage – individuals first use language and other senses c) Concrete Operational Stage – individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings d) Formal Operational Stage – individuals think abstractly and critically Kohlberg’s three stages of childhood moral development:

a) Pre-conventional – pain and pleasure
b) Conventional – distinguish right and wrong from parents and culture c) Post-conventional – moving beyond society norms to consider abstract and ethical moral development as researched by Gilligan: i) Boys – justice perspective: formal rules to define right and wrong ii) Girls – care and responsibility perspective: judging a situation with an eye on personal relationships and loyalties

The development of self:
i) The self is not there at birth, it develops
ii) The self develops only with social experience
iii) Social experience is an exchange of symbols
iv) Seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people’s intentions v) Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s point of view vi) By taking the role of another, we become self-aware (the I and the me Chapter 6- Social Interactions in Everyday Life

Social structure:
Stable patterns of social relationships
Provides the framework for all social interaction
Social structure connects us as individuals to the wider society, integrates us to the group itself

Social structure consists of four things:
1 Social institutions:
Set of organized believes and rules that determines how a society fulfills its basic needs A standardized way of doing something
2 Groups:
People who interact, share an identity, and are interdependent 3 Status:
A socially defined position with rights, duties, and expectations Two types: Ascribed and Achieved
Ascribed status: something your born with. social position a person receives at birth, or is given later in life. Achieved status: something that you achieve, something you do to earn a status. social position a person takes on voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort 4 Roles:

Behaviors that are associated with a status
role set: a number of roles attached to a single status
role strain: tension among the roles attached to a single status role conflict: conflict among the roles connected to two or more statuses (having a job and being a student) The sick role (Talcott parsons, 1951)

1 The sick person is exempt from “normal;” social roles
2 The sick person is not responsible for his or her condition
1 The sick person should try to get well
2 The sick person should seek technically competent help

Critique of the “sick role”
Social structure may “function” to the advantage of those with power It (re) produces inequalities in power
People of certain statuses/roles are treated differently than others Only these people experience “role conflict”

Micro level Analysis of Social Structure
Ethnomethodology (Garfunkel)
The study of commonsense knowledge
Uses “Breaching experiments”
Dramaturgical analysis (Goffman)
“All the world’s a stage”
“We all perform a “role”
a Impression management (manage the impression we give off) b Face-saving behavior (the ways we act to try and avoid potential embarrassment)

Social Structure and Social Problems:
The rest of the course we will examine how external social structures limit and impact individual lives These structures are beyond any individuals control
Structural explanation do not simply “blame society”
Social problems cannot be reduced to the individual
They are macro level forms of inequality that require social solutions

The mission school syndrome:
Use the 4 components of social structure to understand how residential schools impacted first nation society and created social problems Chapter 7- Organizations and Groups:
Primary Group: a group characterized by intimate face-to-face association and co-operation Secondary Group: Ones that are larger, more anonymous and temporary, and more formal and impersonal, such as a workplace or university class In-group: groups we feel loyal towards

Out-groups: groups we feel antagonistic towards
Cliques: close-knit clusters of individuals or factions within groups that tend to set themselves off from the rest of the group Chapter 8- Sexuality and Society:
Sex: Biological differences between men and women. Sex refers to how we reproduce (the actual action) Sex: Biological Sex and the body:
Primary sex characteristics: gentiles, organs used for reproduction Secondary sex characteristics: body development apart from gentiles that distinguish mature males from females ex: women mature have wider hips for giving birth **sex is not the same thing as gender. Gender is based on the personal traits and patterns of behavior Gender: The cultural beliefs, practices, and assumptions associated with each sex (masculine, feminine) Only two sexes?

Western societies only “recognize” two sexes
Intersexual people: someone who is born with both female and male parts, so we surgically assign them a biological sex. (also referred to as a hermaphrodite). About 1-2% of the population is inter-sexed

Transsexuals: Feel they are one sex even though they are biologically the other. Can get gender reassignment. (reconstructive surgery).

Sex as a continuum rather than a dichotomy?
Dichotomy: either or, nothing in between (male or female)
Continuum: spectrum between the two
“Corrections” to inter-sexed are socially motivated rather than medically necessary Canadian health care funds ‘corrective procedures’ since the are viewed as medically necessary

Questions about “correcting’ inter-sexed kids
1) Do inter-sexed children have a right to determine their own identity?
Many children are not told when this procedure is done to them
Many find their bodies become “medicalized”
2) “Historical amnesia” about sexual surgery
Castrato: a male singer, castrated before puberty
Most come from very poor families
Like sex, western societies only recognize two genders: masculine and feminine Other cultures recognized a third:
1) Berdaches: mixture of male and female
Seen as sacred, mystical, and possessing special powers
To have berdaches as a family member was seen as good fortune
Sexual orientation is not the key criteria
2) Hijra: a biological male or intersex person who is considered a member of “the third gender/sex”
In both Hindus and Muslims saw that Hijra as possessing special powers and holding special religious favor/justification
Neither Hijra nor men who have sex with them are considered “gay”

Western Examples of Gender Crossing
A member of one sex dressing as the “opposite” gender
Vast majority of cross-dressers are heterosexual
Women can “cross-dress” without disapproval but men are not afforded the same leniency Why is male cross-dressing so taboo in our society, yet it was perfectly acceptable in First Nation’s societies?

Culture Variation: sexual practice differs from culture to culture. Ex: the common position to have sex varies, or showing affection for one another.

Incest Taboo:
a universal agreement
forbidden marriage or sexual relation with a relative.
But around the world what counts as a “relative” varies ex: only first cousin is off limits but second, third etc is fine. Sexual Revolution (started in the rowing 20’s): people moved from their small towns to the city and wanted to explore different sexual relationships. It really started to launch in 1960’ when “sex, drugs and rockin roll” started to take place and seem acceptable and the idea that sex was ok whether you were married or not. lead to the global use of birth control Sexual counter-revolution: returning back to “family values” for moral reasons of sexual transmitting diseases. Premarital sex: sex before marriage, common amoung the young now of days Extramaterial sex: sex outside the marriage (cheating)

Sexual Orientation: A persons romantic and emotional attraction for someone. Could be seen in many ways: Heterosexuality: attraction for the opposite sex
Homo: attraction for the same sex
Bisexuality: Attraction for both
Asexuality: lack of attraction for either
***Sexual behaviour does NOT equal sexual attraction
Sexual Orientation can be divieded into two thoughts:
A product of society: What behaviours cultures see as homo differs A product of biology: you are born homo just like you are born left or right handed Sexual issues and Controversies:
Teen pregnancy
Sexual Violence:
Rape: used to hurt or control someone. Promoted by power.
Date rape

Gender wage gap
Women earn 70 cents to the male dollar
A gap still exists in the same profession with the same educational credentials Patriarchy: a hierarchal set of social and cultural systems that benefit and favor men

How do we learn gender?
Gender roles:
The attitudes, behavior, and activities that are deemed appropriate for each sex and learned through socialization How much of our own identity has been “assigned”?
A sex/gender panoptican
We learn to monitor and change our own behavior
Numerous social institutions socialize us into gender roles Family/parents:
treat baby boys and girls differently
Peer groups: re-enforce gender norms especially boys

Media Images of Gender and Beauty
Media images of gender greatly impact the way we understand ourselves and others Women are reduced to their looks, depicted as submissive and docile, seen as “objects” rather than thinking human beings (subjects)

Losing weight and beauty
The body type in most ads is physically unattainable for 95-99% of women 40-50% of female smokers smoke to control their weight
Survey results: a majority of women picked losing weight above any other goal Is this beauty standard even real or achievable for those deemed beautiful Postmodernism: blurring of image and reality

Effects of Unreal Images
Eating disorders are the 3rd most common illness among adolescent American females Nearly half of girls 12-17 year old girls have already dieted 4 and 5 year old children use body size to judge someone else as “nice” or “mean”

Participation in our own subjection
We are not simply passive “victims” of sex/gender systems Beauty and gender are forms of social control that we internalize and actively participate in Durkehim: social facts cannot simply be “willed away”

They are external and real
Although “real”, gender and beauty standards change
Need to build new social facts, not just criticize existing ones Dove’s new “real beauty” campaign: a new understanding of beauty?

Chapter 9- Crime and Deviance:
Deviance: any behavior, belief, or condition that violates a group’s cultural norms Socialization: the process of social interaction that integrates us into a complex of social and cultural systems (we learn the norms through socialization) School

Cooley came up with the “looking glass self” wanted to see how our behavior is shaped through interactions with others (what do I look like to other people, how do they judge) we act ways that we think others want us to act. Michel Foucault: Discipline and Punish

Examines how power, knowledge and social control all intertwine Argues that many social institutions are panoptic
Observe and normalize our behavior
Workers know that the boss is watching and know that they need to behave

Jeremy Bentham: Panoptical (1787)
A jail that allows constant surveillance
Why he thinks its so important: the prisoners know that they can be observed at anytime, because the prisoner knows that he can be under surveillance, he keeps himself in line and acts accordingly Prisoners learn to self-monitor their behavior

The prisoners “become normal”

Theoretical Perspectives on Crime and Deviance:
Functionalist perspectives:
Robert Merton:
Functional societies have limited deviance
Deviance occurs when people are “blocked” from achieving goals Strain theory: people use illegitimate means to reach goals Functionalists understand deviance as a structural problem
Crime is a result of social breakdown and dysfunction

First Nations Cigarette Smuggling
Reserves lack economic opportunities
Most impoverished group in Canada
Substandard education
Education is key to social mobility

Political institutions:
Could not vote until 1960’s
Weak political voice to effect social change

Strength of functional analysis:
Shows that blaming the individual is too simplistic
Milgram experiments: social circumstances drastically effect one’s behavior (will do deviant acts)

Control and social bond theory:
Deviance increases when social ties are weak and social disorganization is high Must fix structural causes of crime rather than simply punish criminals

Problems with Merton:
Is deviance “limited” in a functional society?

Durkheim: the function of deviance/crime

Punishment/crime has a social function: reinforces solidarity Crime provides an opportunity for people to gather together to show their opposition Second function of deviance: fostering social change

Those who challenge norms affect social change
Durkheim argues that deviance is “normal”, necessary, and functional

Symbolic integrationist perspectives
Differential association theory:
Likelihood of deviance increases if you associate with deviant groups

Labeling theory
People internalize the deviant ‘label’ and act accordingly, (secondary deviance)

Howard Becker: Moral Crusades
A movement to “label” particular behaviors deviant and change laws Deviance: any behavior labeled deviant by people in positions of power (raise, gender, are able to label what is deviant and what isn’t) E.g Becker: The criminalization of marijuana in the USA (if you smoke, you go crazy, you kill people, go insane) all sorts of majority people targeted, musicians. Emily murphy, says that marijuana makes you go insane and wrote it in her book and next year it was on the Canadian drug act

Media Reports on Crime: Myth vs Reality
Myth 1: Crime is out of control in Canada (homicide went down 30%, and cbc coverage went up 300% on homicide) Leads Canadian to overestimate crime rates
Myth 2- Violent Crime is very common
Most common crime is property crime
News as a commodity (it is very cheap to report on crime)
Social effects on media misrepresentations:
(i)Calls for ‘tougher’ measures against crime despite little empirical support for such measures (building more jail even though crime rate is going up)
(ii)Unfounded fear of victimization (women most likely to get in danger in own home)
(iii) Support for moral crusades against crime (political support) (why is it the law and media tend to look at the crime)

Conflict Theory and Crime/Deviance
– Marx- the superstructure of society maintains the capitalist’s position

Ideology : (Ideas, Common sense)

SuperStructure: (Law, legal institutions)

Base: (Economics/production)

-Law maintains the Capitalists dominant position
1. White collar/ corporate crimes not policed as much as street crime
2. High status criminals not labeled criminal
3. Weak labour laws

Conflict Theory: Race and Crime
Popular myths: racial minorities commit more crime than whites (Whites in Canada enjoy more power/work in there favor) Minorities (excluding First Nations) have lower rates of incarceration than whites Immigrants have lower rates of crime than other Canadians

Why are First Nations so over-represented in jail? Means that member is preventing that we would predict that they are represented and split up. Poverty: Inability to pay fines (lack the funds to pay fines which mean goes to jail) twice as high than any group in Canada. Over half were there for none payment for fines. Problems with Structuralism

Laws and procedures that unintentionally discriminate against certain group

Chapter 10- Social Stratification:
The Davis Moore Thesis
Inequality is functional
Makes people strive for rewards
Society needs people to perform important tasks
Functionalists argue social stratification is based on a meritocracy Meritocracy: a hierarchy of positions and rewards based on people abilities and credentials Critique of Meritocracy and “functional” inequality

1 The poor are not lazy
20% of the Canadian population is the “working poor”
56% of family heads and 55% of single poor adults work full or part time
2 The poor want to work and are motivated to work
3 The poor have neither earned nor deserve their position
1.3 million Canadian kids in poverty
Is poverty based on kids’ own merit?

Social mobility: movement from one level of stratification to another The class you are born into is the predictor of the class you will die in

Marx: ideology and class:
The way we perceive the world justifies economic inequality Social programs perceived as “handouts”
Yet strangely, hand outs to multi-billion dollar corporations are seen as “good for the economy” Alienation: a feeling of powerlessness and estrangement from one’s self and the world The world seems “alien” to us

The world seems beyond our control/incapable of change

Objective measurements of class:
The researcher groups people together according to quantitative variables: wealth, income, prestige etc. Subjective measurement of class:
What class to people self identify with
If people subjectively associate with the wrong class, why would they collectively act as a group? Critiques of Marx:
Definition of class is too simple
Class = the ownership or non-ownership of the forces of production Class interests are directly related to this distinction
Weber and others have developed more complex understandings of class Socioeconomic Status (SES):
Considers income, wealth, prestige, power, rather than just ownership if the FOP The Upper Class (Capitalist Class):
1.1% of the population
Wealth is greater than the lowest 90% of the population
Massive power: individual decisions have huge social impact Upper Middle Class:
Education is key for this class
Don’t outright own forces of production, but do control it Chapter 11:
Social Class in the U.S.

Chapter 12-Global Stratification:

Chapter 18- Families:
Kinship: a social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption Marriage: a legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing Family: a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children Nuclear: a family composed of one or two parents and their children(conjugal) Extended: a family consisting of parents and children, as well as other kin (consanguine) Endogamy: marriage between people of the same social category Exogamy: marriage between people of different social categories Monogamous: marriage that unites two partners

Polygamous: marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses Family:social exchange – family: marriage and courtship is a form of negotiation social-conflict – family (3): i.Property and inheritance – men to hand down property to their sons ii.Patriarchy – men must control the sexuality of women

iii.Race and ethnicity – endogamous marriage supports racial and ethnic hierarchies social functions of the family (4): i. Socialization – parents help children become integrated, contributing members of society ii. Regulation of sexual activity – Incest taboo

iii. Social placement – parents maintain social organization by passing their own social identity iv. Material and emotional identity – families provide physical protection, emotional support, and financial assistance the four stages of family life:

a. Courtship
b. Settling in
c. Child rearing
d. The family in later life
Identify causes for the high U.S. divorce rate (6):
a. Individualism is on the rise
b. Romantic love fades
c. Women are less dependent on men
d. Many of today’s marriages are stressful
e. Divorce has become socially acceptable
f. Legally, a divorce is easier to get
Identify risk factors for divorce (4):
a. Young spouses who lack money and emotional maturity
b. Marriage due to unexpected pregnancy
c. Children of divorced parents
d. Previous divorce
alternative family forms:
a. One-parent families
b. Cohabitation
c. Gay and lesbian couples
d. Singlehood
controversy of new reproductive technologies:
a. Who is the mother
b. In a divorce, who can decide to destroy the embryo
c. Is genetic screening ethical?

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