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Solid Waste Management Free Essay Sample

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Solid Waste Management Free Essay Sample

Introduction

The Philippines is a country of 85 million people and encompasses 7,107 islands, though only about 2,000 islands are currently inhabited. With a rapidly growing population and lack of adequate disposal sites, solid waste has become a major problem for most medium to large – size cities. When Philippine President Gloria Macapagal – Arroyo took office in January 2001, the first act she signed into law dealt with solid waste management systems have posed serious health risk particularly in densely populated areas.

In Manila, for example, the closure of the largest disposal site in 2000 combined with inadequate capacity at other sites resulted in the disposal of tons of waste along city streets, empty lots, and in the waterways and bays in and around the city. Scavenging for recyclable material at open dumps is very common throughout many parts of the Philippines.

Solid waste in small island communities is managed primarily through open dumping and open burning. In some progressive communities, composting, recycling, and resource recovery operations have been implemented. In the more remote areas of the country, solid waste is managed at the household level since there is so community – wide collection and disposal services. This study tends to assess the Solid Waste Management of the community in Imus Institute. It also tends to determine which practice is the most commonly done by the people in Imus institute as for the students and employees of the said community.

Statement of the Problem

This study is focused on assessing the Solid Waste Management of the community in Imus Institute. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1.) What are the profiles of the respondents in terms of: a.) Gender

b.) Status in Imus Institute
2.) What are the practices of the respondents in managing their solid waste in Imus institute in terms of: a. Garbage Disposal
b. Garbage Composting
c. Garbage Segregation
d. Garbage Recycling
e. Garbage Combustion
3.) What are the common problems of the respondents in terms of: a. Lack of trash bins
b. Improper place of trash cans
c. Improper disposal of garbag
d. Delayed collection of garbage

Significance of the Study

The process of solid waste management is very evident nowadays. Government passed laws and suggested different ways to reduce waste products of the people. Some researchers also find solutions concerning solid waste disposal. The result of this study would benefit the following people: Students

The findings of the study will help the students to reduce biodegradable and non-biodegradable in the school and their community by leaning different waste how to management waste products.

School

The study aids to lessen the amount of solid waste generated in the school canteens and surroundings. And also provide learning from the employees concerning solid waste management.

Household Residents

The study will inform the members of the household that they can also help decrease the waste and help the environment.

Future Researchers

The result of the study may provide future researchers with relevant information related to their study.

Scope and Limitations

The study aims to determine the solid waste management practice in Imus Institute. There are fifty (50) respondents chosen. The study used Descriptive survey method. The instrument used in the study is the researcher – made survey questionnaire. The study will be conducted within the month of August of 2011. The study is limited in determining the kind of Solid Waste Management employed in the community in Imus Institute.

Chapter II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents the previous researches and studies on solid waste management practices. It also presents a brief description of related literature and studies foreign and local, synthesis, research paradigm, and the definition of terms specifically used in the study.

Conceptual Literatures

Waste Management

Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling, or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances with different methods and fields of expertise for each.

Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000

Article 1, Clause 5 (d) ensures the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological waste management excluding incineration.

Garbage Composting

Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Compost is a key ingredient in organic farming. At its most essential, the process of composting requires simply pilling up waste outdoors and waiting a year or more.

Garbage Recycling

Recycling is a processing used materials (waste) into new products to prevent a waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for “conventional” waste disposal, lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to virgin production.

Garbage Combustion

Combustion or burning is a sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species. The release of heat can result in the production of light in the form of either glowing or a flame. Fuels of interest often include organic compounds in the gas, liquid or solid phase.

Garbage Segregation

Waste segregation is the process of dividing garbage and waste products in an effort to reduce reuse and recycle materials.

Garbage Disposal

Waste disposal is the management of waste to prevent harm to the environment, injury or long term progressive damage to health. Disposal of waste is where the intention is to permanently store the waste for the duration of its biological and chemical activity, such that it is rendered harmless.

Review of Related Literature

According to the 11th Congress of the Philippines held at Manila last July 2002, they signed and agreed to Republic Act No. 9003 known as the “Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000” which will act as the policy of the State to adopt a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program which will ensure the protection of public health and environment; utilize environmentally – sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources and encourage resources conservation and recovery; set guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source reduction and waste minimization measures, including composting, recycling, reuse, recovery, green charcoal process, and others, before collection, treatment and disposal in appropriate and environmentally sound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically sustainable development principles;

ensure the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological waste management excluding incineration; and strengthen and integration of ecological solid waste management and resource conservation and recovery topics into the academic curricula of formal and non-formal education in order to promote environmental awareness and actions among citizenry.

In local setting, a project conducted by the Swedish government known as Strategy for Bilateral Development Cooperation last August 2007 in Payatas Dumpsite in Quezon City specifically Payatas’ forerunner, Smokey Mountains, is not directly dealing with the activities in Payatas, but the reduction of the residual waste generated by the households resulted to have a significant impact on the amount of waste finally deposited at the dumpsite. A potential continuation of the project will need a close cooperation with the Payatas as a key player in order to cover all aspects of Solid Waste Management.

Solid Waste Management: A small island experience in Ondiongan, Romblon, is a study conducted by the collaboration of ENVIRON Consulting Services, Municipal Government of Ondiongan, and United States Peace Corps. According to and September 2000, the Municipality of Ondiongan Romblon conducted a qualitative solid waste survey of residents, commercial business, government institutions and schools in order to assess waste composition and individual generation rates. They have concluded that the need for adequate solid waste management facilities in the Philippines is great. In many rural areas, the lack of environmentally friendly, sustainable and affordable waste management has led to the widespread open burning of solid waste.

The Municipality of Ondiongan is a small island of roughly 40,000 located in the central portion of the Philippine archipelago. The Municipality is implementing ecology solid waste using simple, sustainable systems that minimize the impact to the environment. Components of the program include public awareness campaigns, composting of biodegradable waste, recovery and resale of recyclable waste, and waste disposal of residual waste through landfilling. The program also aims to provide alternative livelihoods, reduce the dependence on outside resources like imported fertilizer, and dramatically diminish the amount of waste disposal through land filling.

Sagsago S.C (2006) conducted a study to discover whether real estate developers project as planning organization and practices on waste production, disposal for recyclable and biodegradable as well as the hazardous and toxic solid waste materials. The data were collected, analyzed and interpreted through the compliance of the developers in the Philippines Laws RA 9003 known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act 2000. The results of the study reveals the real estate develops preferred to organize the plan significantly their own environmental impact study. They plan and implement their Solid Waste Management practices.

Word bank (2006) conducted a study on collecting, treating and disposing of solid waste generated by urban population groups in an environmentally and socially satisfactory manner using the mass economical means available. It was revealed that in developing countries, the municipalities commonly spend 20% – 50% from their available recurrent budget on Solid Waste Management.

Emilita Cabatic (2001) assessed the purchasing practices of food during wet and dry seasons as part of Solid Waste Management in urban barangays of Solano, Nueva Vizcaya. The study made use of descriptive method utilizing made questionnaire and actual waste measurements. The household respondents were obtained by systematic sampling. It was found out that the food mostly purchased by the household were fresh vegetables and fruits at any season. The size of packing was in small volumes which contribute more solid and toxic waste.

SYNTHESIS

There were six related studies cited of which were conducted locally. Most of studies concluded that in our country there is lack of awareness and actions in managing solid waste materials especially those from the industries and household products. Studies also showed that the set of guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through waste minimization measure, including composting, recycling, re-use, recovery, green charcoal process, and others, before collection, treatment and disposal in appropriate and environmentally sound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically sustainable development principles has been a less priority in one community.

Also the studies presented different Solid Waste Management practices which were utilized from those of the rural and urban community in the Philippines. In Manila, for example, the closure of the largest disposal site in 2000 combined with the inadequate capacity at other sites resulted in the disposal of tons of waste along city streets, empty lots, and in the waterways and bays around the city. Scavenging recyclable material at open dumps is very common throughout many parts of the Philippines.

Tragically, excessive open dumping of solid waste combined with the seasonal monsoon rains in the Payatas site in July 2000 caused a large – scale slope failure that resulted in the deaths of hundreds of scavengers. Currently, there is a lack of active sanitary landfills throughout the entire country. Solid waste in small island communities is managed primarily through open dumping and open burning.

However, several permitted “controlled dumps” have been constructed and they employ a minimum of environmental controls. Controlled dumps differ significantly from open dumps in that cover material is used to bury waste. In some progressive communities, composting, recycling, and resource recovery operations have been implemented. In the more remote areas of the country, solid waste is managed at the household level since there are no community – wide collection and disposal services.

All students conducted used descriptive survey method of solid waste management. The studies likewise conducted surveys to determine the practice. Research made questionnaire was also utilized in the study.

Research Paradigm

Imus Institute Community

Solid Waste Management Survey Questionnaire

Solid Waste Management Practices
Disposal
Composting
Segregation
Recycling
Reduction

Figure 1. The schematic diagram of the survey on Solid Waste Management
Practices in Imus Institute

Definition of Terms

The following terms used were defined operationally for easier and clearer understanding of the study. Assessment The process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skill, attitudes and beliefs. Assessment can focus in the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system as a whole.

Respondents Profile Refers to the age, gender, and position in the community in Imus Institute (if it is student, administration, maintenance and/or security guard). Solid Waste Refers to the type of disposed garbage where the decomposition hastens through some fertilizer. This includes the leftover foods from canteen, leaves, papers and the likes. Solid Waste Management Set of practical ways to reduce its amount to the barest minimum while also recovering discarded materials for reuse, recycling and composting.

Chapter III
METHODOLOGY

This chapter contains the research design, sample, sampling technique, data gathering, research procedure, research instrument and statistical treatment of data used in the study.

Research Design

The study utilized a Descriptive Type of Research on assessing the solid waste management of the community in Imus Institute. Descriptive research is concerned with the description of data and characteristics about a population. The goal is acquisition of factual, accurate and systematic data that can be used in averages, frequencies and similar statistical calculations.

Research Samples

There are 559 respondents that will be coming from selected students, and 30 employees which compose of faculty and canteen staff. The respondents will accomplish the Solid Waste Management Questionnaires.

Sampling Technique

A probability stratified sampling will be used in this study. In this type of sampling technique the sampling units are selected subjectively by the researcher, who attempts to obtain a sample appears to be representative of the population. The chance that a particular sampling unit will be selected as the sample depends upon the subjective judgment of the researcher.

Research Instrument

The researcher – made questionnaire on Solid Waste Management will be used in obtaining data. The Solid Waste Management Questionnaire is composed of three (3) criteria: (1) the respondent’s demographic profile; (2) the solid waste management practices namely; (3) garbage disposal, garbage composting, garbage segregation, garbage recycling and garbage combustion.

Research Procedure

Step 1: Stating objectives and Research Problem
Step 2: Constructing Survey Form
Step 3: Actual Data Gathering of the Study
Step 4: Analysis and Interpretation of the Data
Step 5: Drawing Conclusions

Statistical Treatment

The statistical tool will be used is the frequently data for the demographic profile, practices and methods to measure the percentages of each criterion in the determining the Solid Waste Management practices of the respondents.

Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis of collected data and interpretation of the findings of the study

The Profile of the Respondents

There were 559 students and 30 employees of Imus Institute responded on the assessment of solid waste management practices of Imus Institute community. They were given a survey questionnaire and instructed to answer the questions on the spot. Table 1.1 The gender of the respondents

Respondents| Male| Female|
StudentsEmployees| 27610| 28320|

The table shows the gender of the respondents in which 276 are male students and 283 are female students. The researcher uses 30 Imus Institute employees which 20 of this are female and 10 are male.

This only revealed that majority of the respondents used by the researchers are female. In connection to the total population of Imus Institute, greater percentage of population is composed of female gender.

Table 1.2. Status of the respondents in Imus Institute
Respondents| Status|
5591020| Students from 1st – 4th year levelCanteen staffFaculty|

The Table shows the status where the respondents are designated. It shown in the table that majority of the respondents are coming from the students in Imus Institute and which it has 559 students followed by the faculty with 20 respondents and the canteen staff with 10 respondents. These respondents are the one who carefully observe on the practices made by the Imus Institute Community. The Common Practices in Imus Institute Community

Table 2.1. The practices observe by the students in Imus Institute Solid Waste Management Practices| Weighted Mean|
* Garbage disposal * Garbage composting * Garbage segregation * Garbage recycling * Garbage reduction * Garbage combustion| 2.942.332.532.522.662.3|

Table 2.1 shows the status where the respondents are designated. It shown in the table that majority of the respondents are coming from the students in Imus Institute and which it has 559 students followed by the faculty with 20 respondents and the canteen staff with 10 respondents. These respondents are the one who carefully observe on the practices made by the Imus Institute Community.

This only revealed that Imus Institute practices different Solid Waste Management in which garbage combustion take the least place which is more ideal since combustion of any materials is not advisable in reducing garbage. It also shows that the Solid Waste Management Practices of Imus institute respond seldom to often respectively. Table 2.1. The practices observed by the Imus Institute employees Solid Waste Management Practices| Weighted Mean|

* Garbage disposal * Garbage composting * Garbage segregation * Garbage recycling * Garbage reduction * Garbage combustion| 4.372.733.674.073.82.87|

From the employees’ point of view, it was revealed that garbage disposal with a weighted mean of 4.37 ranked the highest from the Solid Waste Management Practices of Imus Institute followed by garbage recycling with a weighted mean of 4.07. It also shows that garbage combustion with a weighted mean of 2.87, garbage composting with 2.73 shows the lowest practices made by the institution.

The results only imply that students and employees of Imus Institute are aware on the kind of waste disposal used in the school and the respondents are aware that the school is cooperating for the clean and green campaign by different organizations who are promoting to save the earth. On the other hand, Imus Institute community should practice the composing since it requires less effort. The Common Problems Encountered by the Respondents in Managing Waste Disposal Table 3.1 Problems encountered by the Imus Institute in managing waste disposal is student’s perspective. Common Problems| Frequency|

* Lack of trash bins * Improper place of trash cans * Improper disposal of garbage * Delayed collection of garbage * Lack of awareness in Solid Waste Management| 207192238117256|

From the multiple response of the students on the problems encountered by them in managing waste disposal lack of awareness in Solid Waste Management is the number one problem with 256 number of response followed by the improper disposal of garbage with 238 responses, lack of trash bins with 207 response, improper place of trash cans with the total response of 192 and lastly, delayed collection of garbage was the last problem encountered by the students with 117 responses.

The table only revealed that students from Imus Institute need a program on waste disposal awareness. Table 3.2. Common problems encountered by the employees in managing waste disposal in employees’ perspective. Common Problems| Frequency|

* Lack of trash bins * Improper place of trash cans * Improper disposal of garbage * Delayed collection of garbage * Lack of awareness in Solid Waste Management| 141313410|

From the responses of employees in Imus Institute, lack of trash bins is the highest problem encountered with 14 responses, followed by the improper place of trash cans and improper disposal of garbage with 13 responses each, next is lack of awareness in solid waste management with 10 number of responses, and the least problem encounter is the delayed collection of garbage with only 4 responses.

The table shows that the number of trash bins in employees’ point of view is not sufficient since Imus Institute has a greater number of populations. In general, lacks of awareness in solid waste management, lack of trash bins and improper disposal or garbage are the top three (3) problems encountered by the employees and students of Imus Institute.

CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary
The study focused on assessing the Solid Waste Management Practices of the community in Imus Institute. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What are the profile of the respondents in terms of:

a. Gender
b. Status in Imus Institute
2. What are the practices of the respondents in managing their solid waste in Imus institute in terms of: a. Garbage Disposal
b. Garbage Composting
c. Garbage Segregation
d. Garbage Recycling
e. Garbage Combustion
3. What are the common problems of the respondents in terms of: a. Lack of trash bins
b. Improper place of trash cans
c. Improper disposal of garbage
d. Delayed collection of garbage

The Descriptive Type of Research on assessing the solid waste management of the community in Imus Institute was used in the study. Descriptive research is concerned with the description of data and characteristics about a population. The goal is acquisition of factual, accurate and systematic data that can be used in averages, frequencies and similar statistical calculations. There are 559 respondents that will be coming from selected students and 30 employees which compose of faculty and canteen staff. The respondents will accomplish the Solid Waste Management Questionnaires. A Stratified samplings were used in the study. From the finding there were 559 students and 30 employees of Imus Institute responded on the assessment of solid waste management practices of Imus Institute community.

They were given a survey questionnaire and instructed to answer the questions on the spot. The gender of the respondents in which 276 are male students and 283 are female students are determine be the researchers. The researcher uses 30 Imus Institute employees which 20 of this are female and 10 are male. Table 1.2 shows the status where the respondents are designated. It shown in the table that majority of the respondents are coming from the students in Imus Institute and which it has 559 students followed by the faculty with 20 respondents and the canteen staff with 10 respondents. These respondents are the one who carefully observe on the practices made by the Imus Institute Community. Table 2.1 shows the status where the respondents are designated.

It shown in the table that majority of the respondents are coming from the students in Imus Institute and which it has 559 students followed by the faculty with 20 respondents and the canteen staff with 10 respondents. These respondents are the one who carefully observe on the practices made by the Imus Institute Community. From the employees’ point of view, it was revealed that garbage disposal with a weighted mean of 4.37 ranked the highest from the Solid Waste Management Practices of Imus Institute followed by garbage recycling with a weighted mean of 4.07.

It also shows that garbage combustion with a weighted mean of 2.87, garbage composting with 2.73 shows the lowest practices made by the institution.From the responses of employees in Imus Institute, lack of trash bins is the highest problem encountered with 14 responses, followed by the improper place of trash cans and improper disposal of garbage with 13 responses each, next is lack of awareness in solid waste management with 10 number of responses, and the least problem encounter is the delayed collection of garbage with only 4 responses.

Conclusions

1. Majority of the respondents used by the researchers are female. In connection to the total population of Imus Institute, greater percentage of population is composed of female gender. 2. The students and employees of Imus Institute are aware on the kind of waste disposal used in the school and the respondents are aware that the school is cooperating for the clean and green campaign by different organizations who are promoting to save the earth. On the other hand, Imus Institute community should practice the composing since it requires less effort. 3. Lacks of awareness in solid waste management, lack of trash bins and improper disposal or garbage are the top three (3) problems encountered by the employees and students of Imus Institute.

Recommendation

The researchers have done their best for completing and making the study beneficial and effective for the students and employees of Imus Institute but there are some parts of the study that can be improved by the future researchers. We also recommend to the future researchers to be more determined and hardworking even though they will take time on doing this kind of investigatory project, especially, in gathering information about the practices of every respondent. They must be a very good observer on their surroundings for them to be able to give more detailed information about the topic of the study.

And we recommend for the school itself, to add some seminars, programs, or projects that will help the students and employees to be more knowledgeable about the proper solid waste management practices, for them to apply; not only at school but for their own community. We also recommend adding more trash bins to separate the different kinds of garbage (plastics, biodegradable and non-biodegradable) thrown away by the students and employees of Imus Institute community.

Reference

Websites

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-solid-waste-management.htm

http://www.emb.gov.ph/eeid/ESWM.htm

http://www.ehow.com/facts5996739meaning-waste-segregation.html

http://www.wastedirectory.net/

http://www.emb.gov.ph/laws/solid%20management/ra9003.pdf

http://www.conexor.se/philippines/dilg/dilgpayatas1.htm

http://www.environcorp.com/img/media/SWMPhilippinesPaper.pdf

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