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Solid Waste Management Essay Sample

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Introduction of TOPIC

Solid waste management is a polite term for garbage management. As long as humans have been living in settled communities, solid waste, or garbage, has been an issue, and modern societies generate far more solid waste than early humans ever did. Daily life in industrialized nations can generate several pounds (kilograms) of solid waste per consumer, not only directly in the home, but indirectly in factories that manufacture goods purchased by consumers. Solid waste management is a system for handling all of this garbage, and includes municipal waste collection, recycling programs, dumps, and incinerators.

To the great benefit of archeology, early methods of waste management consisted of digging pits and throwing garbage into them. This created a record of the kinds of lives that people lived, showing things like what people ate, the materials used to make eating utensils, and other interesting glimpses into historic daily life. When human cities began to be more concentrated, however, dealing with the garbage became a serious issue. Houses that did not have room to bury their trash would throw it into the streets, making a stroll to the corner store an unpleasant prospect. In response, many cities started to set up municipal garbage collection, in the form of rag and bone men who would buy useful garbage from people and recycle it, or waste collection teams that would dispose of unusable waste.

Solid waste management is defined as it includes all the activities that seek to minimize the health, environmental and aesthetic impacts of solid waste. It is the process of removing the discarded materials from inhabited places in a timely manner to prevent the spread of disease, and to dispose the discarded materials in a manner that is environmentally acceptable. It is the orderly execution of functional elements such as collecting, transporting, processing and disposing of solid wastes.

Solid Wastes

It is non-liquid waste arising from domestic, trade, industrial, agricultural, mining, construction activities, and from public services. Maybe defined as “unwanted material disposed by man, which can neither flow into streams nor escapes immediately into the atmosphere.”

Importance Of Solid Waste Management

Solid waste management not only comes from industrial units. It also comes from various sources. Every man with the operation of daily domestic work creates solid waste for disposal. A study in United States shows that solid waste per person per day in 1920 is about 1.2kg. It increased to 2.3kg in 1970 and about 3.6 in 1980.

It just shows that solid waste per person is mounting due to number of reasons. Solid waste disposal creates a problem primarily in highly populated areas. The more the concentrated the population, the greater the problem.

Types of Solid Wastes
* Municipal Solid Wastes
* Industrial Wastes
* Hazardous Wastes
* Hospital Wastes
* Construction and Demolition Waste
* Wastes from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)
* Agricultural Wastes

Municipal Solid Wastes
It consists of household wastes, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes.

* Biodegradable Wastes
* Recyclable Materials
* Inert Wastes
* Composite Wastes
* Domestic Hazardous Wastes

Hazardous Wastes
Industrial and hospital wastes are considered as hazardous as they may contain toxic substances. Certain types of household wastes are also hazardous. It could be highly toxic to humans, animals, and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable, or explosive; and react when exposed to certain things such as gases.

Hospital Wastes
Hospital wastes are generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals and also in the research activities in these fields as well as in the production and testing of biological. It may include wastes like sharps, soiled waste, disposables, anatomical wastes, cultures, discarded medicines, chemical wastes, etc. This is in the form of disposable syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc.

Electronic Wastes
E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world. In developed countries, currently, it is equals to 2% of the total solid waste
generation and is expected to grow to 3% by 2015. E-waste is growing three times faster than average annual municipal solid waste generation.

Sources of Solid Wastes
* Municipal – street sweepings, sewage treatment plant waste, waste from schools and institutions * Domestic – garbage, rubbish, and occasional large wastes from houses * Commercial – from different stores and offices

* Industrial – from manufacturing plants
* Mining – from coal mining, strip mining, etc.
* Agricultural – from farms, grasslands, and gardens

Waste Prevention
Prevention means eliminating or reducing the quantity of waste which is produced in the first place, thus reducing the quantity of waste which must be managed. Prevention can take the form of reducing the quantities of materials used in a process or reducing the quantity of harmful materials which may be contained in a product. Prevention can also include the reuse of products.

Prevention is the most desirable waste management option as it eliminates the need for handling, transporting, recycling or disposal of waste. It provides the highest level of environmental protection by optimizing the use of resources and by removing a potential source of pollution.

Waste Minimization
Minimization includes any process or activity that avoids, reduces or eliminates waste at its source or results in re-use or recycling. It can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between the terms “Prevention” and “Minimization.” Waste prevention and minimization measures can be applied at all stages in the life-cycle of a product including the production process, the marketing, distribution, or utilization stages, up to discarding the product at the end-of life stage.

Solid waste disposal
by: christian bAGAY
1.)Landfill- Disposal of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. A properly designed and managed landfill can be a hygienic, poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can c

ause wind-blown litter, pest infestation, production of methane and carbon dioxide and generation of

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liquid leachate.

2.)Incineration- Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. Also called thermal treatment. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials such as biological medical waste. Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.

3.)Recycling- Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately by segregation. The most common recycled products are beverage can, wire, aerosol cans, PET bottles, glass, and paper.

4.)Biological reprocessing- Recoverable materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recovered through composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat.

5.)Avoidance and reduction methods- An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created, also known as waste reduction. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products, repairing instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags, encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products such as disposable utensils.

6.)Energy recovery- The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating and the use of the gas fuel, to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine.

Feasible Options For Achieving Reduced Material Use and Waste Generation (Four Rs) BY : Emilene Santiago

REDUCTION

* Waste reduction can be achieved in three basic ways:
1) Reducing the amount of material used per product without sacrificing the utility of that product 2) Increasing the lifetime of a product
3) Eliminating the need for the product
* Waste reduction in industry is called pollution prevention. * Pollution prevention is the process of changing the operation in such a manner that pollutants are not even emitted. * Reduction of waste on the household level is called waste reduction (sometimes referred to as a source reduction).

REUSE
* To reuse is to use an item again after it has been used. This includes conventional reuse where the item is used again for the same function, and new-life reuse where it is used for a different function. * Reuse is an integral part of society.

RECYCLING
* Another means of reducing the waste destined for disposal is to separate out materials that have some economic value, collect the separately, and use them as a source of raw materials. * Recycling is the breaking down of the used item into raw materials which are used to make new items. * The separation relies on some readily identifiable characteristic or property known as a code of the specific material that distinguishes it from all others. * The most difficult operation in recycling is the identification and separation of plastics. * The plastics industry has responded by marking most consumer products with a code that identifies the type of plastic.

Obstacles that our present economic system is facing on the use of secondary materials:
* Location of wastes
* Low value of material
* Uncertainty of supply
* Administrative and institutional constraints
* Legal restrictions
* Uncertain markets

RECOVERY

* Recovery is defined as the process in which the refuse is collected without prior separation, and the desired materials are separated at a central facility or materials recovery facility (MRF). * The recovery of materials, although it sounds terribly attractive, is still a marginal option. * The most difficult problem faced by engineers designing such facilities is the availability of firm markets for the recovered product.

Reference:: Solid Waste Engineering / P. Aarne Vesilind, William A. Worrell, Debra R. Reinhart.

Philippine Environment Laws Regarding Solid Waste Management
By: Richard Febra
REPUBLIC ACT
NO. 9003
Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000
AN ACT PROVIDING FOR AN ECOLOGICAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM, CREATING THE NECESSARY INSTITUTIONAL MECHANISMS AND INCENTIVES, DECLARING CERTAIN ACTS PROHIBITED AND PROVIDING PENALTIES, APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR, AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

* Ensure the protection of public health and environment
* Utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources and encourage resources conservation and recovery

DENR ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER No. 50
Series of 1998
* ADOPTING THE LANDFILL SITE IDENTIFICATION AND SCREENING CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES * The DENR is the government agency responsible for the management and development of the country’s environment and natural resources * The basic services and facilities, include, but are not limited to general hygiene and sanitation, beautification and solid waste management

ADMINISTRATIVE ORDER
No. 93-90
* CREATING A PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE ON SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT UNDER THE PRESIDENTIAL TASK FORCE ON WASTE MANAGEMENT * Presidential Task Force on Waste Management (PTFWM) created by virtue of Memorandum Circular No. 39 * Formulate an integrated national systems framework on solid waste management as well as the criteria/guidelines in the preparation of local waste management plans

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE
No. 825

* PROVIDING PENALTY FOR IMPROPER DISPOSAL OF GARBAGE AND OTHER FORMS OF UNCLEANLINESS AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES. * All garbages, filth and other waste matters, shall be placed in the proper receptacles for the disposition there of by garbage collectors. * Any person, who shall litter or throw garbage, filth, or other waste matters, in public places, such as roads, canals esteros or parks, shall suffer an imprisonment of not less than 5 days nor more than one year or a fine of not less than PhP100.00 or more than PhP2,000.00 or both such fine and imprisonment at the discretion of the Court or tribunal, without prejudice to the imposition of a higher penalty under any other law or decree. * If the violator is a corporation, firm, or other corporate entities, the maximum penalty shall be imposed upon the president, manager, director or persons responsible for its operation.

Effects of Lack of
Solid Waste Management
By: Jude Bryant Amante

* The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) estimates that it takes over 4,000 liters of water to produce one kilo of rice. Because of the loss of forests, we have less water since most of our freshwater comes from watersheds found in forests. Therefore, loss of forests means loss of food. * More than 400 plant and animal species found in the Philippines are currently threatened with extinction, including the Philippine eagle, the tamaraw, and the dugong. * In 2001, 49 of the nation’s mammal species, 86 bird species, and 320 plant species were threatened with extinction.

Decline of Natural Resources  and Biodiversity

* The Philippines has fifty major rivers now polluted due to abuse and neglect. * Approximately two-thirds of the country’s original mangroves have been lost. * A hundred years ago, the Philippines had close to 22 million hectares of old growth forest. At the start of 2000, we had less than 600,000 hectares of old-growth forest left. In one century, we had cut down close to 97 percent of our original forest.

Alarming Waste Problem in the Philippines
* The Philippines is looming with garbage problems despite the passage of the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act or the Republic Act (RA) 9003.

* 2007 first quarter data from the National Solid Waste Management Commission shows that there are 677 open dumpsites, 343 controlled dumps, and 21 landfills in the country. * Environmentalists stress that Republic Act 9003 calls for the adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological waste management and explicitly excludes waste incineration as an ecological option. * Incinerators have significantly higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions (per kilowatt) than a coal-fired power plant when all of the carbon coming out of an incinerator stack is measured. Such emissions are banned by the country’s Clean Air Act.

CONCLUSION

* Mismanagement of waste has serious environmental consequences: ground and surface water contamination, local flooding, air pollution, exposure to toxins, and spread of disease. * RA 9003 further calls for the establishment of materials recovery facilities, or ecology centers, in every barangay or cluster of a barangay. * Recognizing the importance of the environment’s immediate recovery and effects of improper waste management to the Philippines, there is a need for understanding and reformation of attitudes and concern towards the protection of environment. * An intensive social marketing program has to be established on a long-term scale within a barangay – the smallest unit of the local government.

References:
* http://imagineechoprojectswaste.blogspot.com/2008/04/decline-of-natural-resources.html

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