Sport In Society: The Historic and Economic Development Of Sport Essay Sample
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Sport In Society: The Historic and Economic Development Of Sport Essay Sample
In this assignment I have been asked to provide to a report including information for local clubs on the operation of the sports industry both locally and nationally. The sports I have chosen to study are Football and Rugby. They both affect the economy on both a national and international basis. In this report I will explore the development and organisation of the sports industry today covering the organisation of sport through the public, private and voluntary sector; the role of education; the funding of sport both currently and historically; and the impact of media and sponsorship. I will then conclude in a summary stating why and how education, the media and funding have such an influence on sport, giving suggestions of how they might continue to influence and shape the development of sports.
The sports industry currently has a very high influence on both the local and national economy, promoting a healthy lifestyle, providing entertainment, and showing role models and goals for young people to aspire to. Sport provides business opportunities, jobs, and advertisement/sponsorship facilities in the UK and helps to keep the national economy running smoothly. Regular sporting events are held regularly throughout Britain, whether a school sports day, Sunday league or a premier league football match. Sport is continually used or seen in our everyday lives; and with recent health promotion, its popularity is ever increasing. The television broadcasts different sports, and documentaries on sports. Special channels devoted to sports are also available, and sports have played a huge part in the development of the television industry.
Another huge influence on participation in sport is PESSCL. This is PE, School Sport, and Club Links. The PESSCL scheme suggests that all children no matter their circumstances or abilities should be able to participate in and enjoy physical education and sport. It also insists on a minimum of two hours of high quality physical activity a week to be performed in schools. By 2006 this scheme had ensured that there was an increase of 75% in sporting activity within the educational environment. I think the PESSCL programme will certainly increase the rates of participation in sport in the UK.
The government are helping to improve this by setting restrictions on selling playing fields and recreational space. Before a restriction was put into place, 40 playing fields a month were being sold.
The government have also invested in school sports by donating ï¿½686 million to build new facilities, ï¿½459 on PESSCL, and ï¿½10 million in 2002 to help re build run down playgrounds in at least 500 schools. They have been funding and giving grants to the educational system to help purchase new equipment and coaches to promote sport further for a few years now and already the UK has seen an improvement in the quality of facilities.
Fundraising has, and still does come from the national lottery. Since 1994 it has turned into a major source of funding for the sports council that can be accessed via applications from different organisations and clubs across the UK. Similar to the national lottery, funding has come from the millennium commission. Around twelve projects came from this sum of money in the year 2000, the most famous probably being the Wembley Project.
Within the sports industry, there are three sectors. These sectors are public, private, and voluntary.
The public sector of sport includes leisure centres and facilities that are open to the public. These tend to be simple facilities where clubs can take place, sports can be performed and gym training can be taken up. Little money is collected through this sector although wages are paid to workers and equipment fees are usually reclaimed. The public sector is not a money making sector of sport and is not a commercial way of providing sporting facilities, its cheap costs and the convenience means that sport is promoted throughout different areas within the UK. Public sector funding comes from the government and taxes as it is widely available to the public and is made for that specific reason. This helps to promote the participation n sport and as most people in the UK are tax payers they feel that they should get their moneys worth and therefore participate in sports of some form.
The private sector involves a money making process where everything is commercialised. Private clubs allow people of “higher class” or a better income to use their own facilities – but at the same time they are charged extortionate prices. Some of the companies within the public sector are Canons Health Clubs and JJB gym. These companies have opened their own private facilities with the correct facilities and equipment in order to attract the market that they wish to sell their services to; the market being mid/high class people with a fairly high income and money to spend on leisure. The private sector receives no grants and no income from taxes as they are all about profit. Grants are also rare in the private sector unless there is a huge partnership that could potentially benefit both companies dramatically.
The voluntary sector is purely for the love of sport. The public sector consists of people that have come together voluntarily and decided to start a sporting club without looking for any profit or money. They merely wish to give their time to train people and help them realise their potential or raise young children from grass roots level and help them move on into a sporting life. They are supported by government funds or donations given to them by people taking part in the club. This pays for equipment and perhaps the rent of facilities needed to keep the club running smoothly. The people who run voluntary sports clubs give up their own time to teach others, and pass on the skills that they have acquired. The voluntary sector can receive funding from grants, membership fees, loans, and sponsorship.
Many thousands of Britons have now become passionate and very involved in sport, especially football. Football dates back to approximately the 1820’s when men used to play in the streets, which was known as “mob football”. These were little more than violent, bloody street battles where many were injured and properties vandalised. The football field was the length of the town with some 500 players participating. Although violent, this helped to develop community spirit, team work and cooperation. Eventually the game developed into an organised sport with many rules, regulations, and roles that must be taken up in order for a game to be played safely.
The worlds first known football club was Sheffield Football Club, which was closely followed by Notts. county football club at around 1862. Structured games then began to take place, with rules in play, referees at hand and spectators watching the game for entertainment. Everything started to click into place, and left us with our now fairly civilised world of football. Towards 1878, matches became floodlit and the game grew stupendously. The fact that means of transport had been improved by rail and that it was a cheap way for people to entertain themselves meant that the popularity of football was on the rise. The law of 11 players on a team had developed by 1870, and the FA cup was first played a year later in 1871. Eventually, in 1888, the football league was created. The original league clubs were as follows:
1. Aston Villa
3. Blackburn Rovers
4. Accrington Stanley
5. Bolton Wonderers
7. Derby County
8. Notts. County
9. Stoke City
10. Wolverhampton Wanderers
11. West Bromwich Albion
12. Preston North End
As the popularity of football grew, the size of crowds increased considerably and the time came that it was essential for stadiums to be built. Here is a table displaying the cup results for previous years.