An organization achieves its objectives only when it has right men in right positions. It is not by chance that some organizations get men of their choice while others do not. A person joins an organization just because of its paying capacity but also for its attitude towards its personnel, its recruitment policy, its training & executive developmental policy, performance evaluation, merit rating, promotion & transfer policy etc.
Staffing is defined as the process involved in identifying, assessing, placing, evaluating and developing individuals at work. The processes involved in it may be grouped under the major heads of: a) Job Analysis, b) Manpower Planning, c) Recruitment and Selection, d) Training, e) Manpower Development and f) Performance Appraisal
Job Analysis: Manager requires information about jobs before recruiting and placing people on it. Job analysis helps in determining the major characteristics and dimensions of a job. Main steps in the process of Job Analysis:
0 Identification and isolation of the component task in a job. 1 Examine how tasks are performed.
2 Examine why tasks are performed as they are.
3 Examine when and why the tasks are performed.
4 Identify the main duties involved, both regular and occasional, and scale the duties according to their difficulty, frequency and importance to the job as a whole. 5 Identify the main areas of responsibility (e.g., responsibility for work assignments, responsibility of the work of other people, responsibility for money, material etc.) 6 Note prevailing working conditions in respect of physical, social and financial aspects of the job.
Physical environment – temperature, noise, humidity, dirt, danger etc.
Social environment – Whether in teams, shifts, isolated work.
Financial conditions – Basic wage, bonus, incentive schemes, fringe benefits
etc. 7 Identify the personal demands which a job makes on an individual incumbent.
Physical demands (e.g., muscular energy, travel, hours of work)
Intellectual demands (Degree of intelligence, technical and academic qualifications, problem-solving abilities).
Skills (e.g. any particular psycho-motor, social or diplomatic skills called for).
Experience – know-how of responsibility, control or decision making.
Personality factors – ability to provide leadership, to initiate, to work without close supervision.
It is defined as the process (including forecasting, developing, implementing and controlling) by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people, and the right kind of people, at the right places, at the right time, doing things for which they are economically most useful.
Thus Manpower planning enables an enterprise to discover, at an early date, the critical points where shortage of qualified personnel are most likely to develop or where there is overstaffing and underutilization of their capabilities. It also makes provision for replacement on account of mobility of officers, resignations, retirements and other natural losses. TYPES OF MANPOWER PLANS:
Short-term and long term: Short range plans take care of the immediate requirements and the supply of manpower and are more useful for specific projects. Long-range plans are for next 3-5 years or more. Formal and Informal: A formal plan is one which comes into record in the form of a plan document, management decision, statement, charts, graphs etc. An informal plan exists only in the minds of the managers. It may come out in the shape of ideas and suggestions and sometimes even in action without a formal declaration earlier. Single or multiple choice: The single plan permit little or no deviation from the procedure laid down, while the multiple choice plans provide for a series of decision points with alternatives. The multiple choice plans enable a manager to decide about strategy in accordance with the circumstances as is common, for instance, in the game of chess. Comprehensive or specific: A comprehensive plan deals with all aspects of forecasting requirements, training and development plans, recruitment, replacement and succession plans for the organization as a whole. Specific plan may deal with limited aspect of problem.
The planning of manpower is a continuous process. The type of plan for an organization, depends upon the size, nature of the business, types of the skill and talent required and other environmental factors.
Forecasting of manpower demand: There are four major approaches: Executive judgment: In smaller organization the departmental heads assess their manpower requirement on the basis of their own experience and expectations. Short term forecast can be made more successfully under this method. The past trend: The past trend may set the future trend. Sales and marketing jobs may be predicted effectively this way. Some important statistical tools are Simple extrapolation, prediction based on single variables, the multiple regression method and the econometric methods. Workstudy: It starts with establishment of production or sales target. Productivity measurement:
RECRUITMENT and SELECTION
The process of recruitment begins after manpower requirements are ascertained in terms of quality through job-analysis and quantity through forecasting and planning. The principles underlying systematic selection are: 8 Recruitment method used must be technically sound. The interview and the tests should be conducted to find out facts about the candidates that have a bearing on job. 9 The methods must be administratively convenient. It should not be so short that superficial judgment is made about the candidates, nor it should be so long or arduous that the candidates and the interviewer are worn out by the end of it. 10 The method used must be, and must be seen to be, as fair as possible so that candidates feel that he has been judged on his merit.
Sources of Recruitment: There are very many sources which are put to use for seeking candidates for jobs.. The nature of requirements, past experience, industry practice and organization policy are some of the factors which determine the selection of a particular source/sources. The main sources of recruitment are: 1. Advertisements in newspapers, magazines, radio and T.V. 1. Employment exchange
1. Universities, Technical Institutes and colleges
1. Private employment agencies
1. Trade associations
1. Customers, suppliers, connected agencies, relatives and friends
1. Internal transfers and promotions.
1. From other similar organizations
1. Executive clubs
1. Forced/Previous applications
Employment exchanges are organized by the state. Employers are under an obligation to notify certain categories of vacancies and invite applications through it. Universities and Institutes are approached by employers for locating qualified people in different fields. Private employment agencies help organizations in recruiting people for specified skills and occupations. They charge fee either from employer or employee for this service. These agencies compile bio-data of a large number of people from different fields and recommend suitable names to the employers on demand. The chambers of commerce, trade associations and employers federation help industries in locating the talents in various fields Trade unions are important source of recruiting workers in factories.
The process of selection leads to employment of persons who possess the ability and qualifications to perform the jobs which have fallen vacant in an organization. It divides the candidates for employment into two categories, namely those who will be offered employment and those who will not. Selection process is often described as a negative process because number of candidates rejected is many times more than those selected.
Selection process: Selection has become a critical process these days because it requires a heavy investment of money to get right type of people. Induction and training cost are also rising rapidly. In case a wrong type of person is chosen it is a great loss in terms of time, effort and money. The major steps followed are:
1. Application Bank
1. Preliminary interview
1. Employment tests
1. Employment Interview
1. Checking references
1. Physical Examination
1. Final selection
1. Placement and induction
Application form: These forms may help to make selection systematic. The details which are sought through forms may be classified into four groups:
Identification: Name, age, address, family particulars, passport no., nationality etc. Education: Examinations passed degrees and diplomas obtained, colleges and universities attended and languages known. Occupation: Professional experience, responsibilities held, emoluments drawn, time spent in service, references. Recreation: Interest, hobbies, cultural and social activities – membership of clubs, professional bodies.
Sometimes the form may be designed to get underlying motives or traits of the candidates also. These forms may include questions like ‘why have you selected this profession’, ‘what does your colleagues think about you’ etc.
The pattern of the form should ideally be different for different category of posts. The forms for top executive are assessed on totally different principle than those of middle level or lower level executives.
The form should provide wide margin for the candidates to fill the information and for the interviewer to put his remarks.
The application is rightly described as “the skeleton upon which the interviewer puts the flesh”.
Preliminary Interview: It is generally brief and does the job of eliminating totally unsuitable candidates. The preliminary interview offers advantages not only to the employer but also the applicant. If a candidate is eliminated at this stage the organization is saved expenses of processing him through the remaining steps of selection process. and the unsuitable candidate will be saved the trouble of passing through the long procedure.
Employment tests: These are designed to measure candidate’s ability and potentiality. It should be appreciated that individuals differ in almost all aspects one can think of. Matching the individual’s physical, mental and temperamental pattern with the requirement of job or field of training is a difficult task. Tests are considered reliable assessment procedure because they are developed to be objectively scored. Candidate’s aptitude, motivation and experience may be assessed through various tests developed by psychologists and management experts.
Employment Interview: It holds a central position in any recruitment procedure. It provides: 11 a sample of applicants’ behaviour which enables interviewer to judge the candidates. 12 Some clue to candidates motivation, his ambitions and outlook. 13 Some indication about candidate’s ability to deal with others, like initiative and problem facing.
Interview gives opportunity to the candidate to express him and impress the interviewers. The interviewers serve public relations functions also for the enterprise.
Interview questions could be open and closed. In the closed questions a candidate is asked questions which have definite answers. open questions on other hand may have varied and long answers which go on to show candidates’ views, opinion, likes and dislikes.
A good interviewer should:
1. Be clear what work the candidate will have to do, if he is chosen; 1. Study the candidate’s application form and reports available on him before he sees him. 1. Listen carefully, prompting, steering and prodding only when it seems necessary. 1. Keep clear of irrelevance.
1. Explore patiently and thoughtfully the compatibility of man’s abilities and interests with those apparently desirable in the job under consideration.
Checking references: A referee is potentially an important source of information about a candidate’s ability, integrity and personality. Prior to final selection, the prospective employer normally makes an investigation on the references supplied by the applicant and undertakes more or less a thorough search into the candidate’s past employment, education, personal reputation, financial condition, police record etc. However, it is often difficult to persuade a referee to give his opinion frankly. Physical/Medical examination: This too is an important step. The health -physical as well as medical, is an important criteria for employer. Final selection and payment: A successful candidate is formally appointed by offering him an appointment letter or by concluding with him an employment agreement. Since no procedure for selection is perfect, employment in the beginning is provided on probation basis. During the probation the candidate is observed for his work, style of work, personality traits, honesty and integrity. If he is found to be worthy in all respects his selection is confirmed after a period of 6 months or 1 year.
Induction or orientation training: Conduction is concerned with introducing or orienting a new employee to the organization and its procedures, rules and regulations. Induction may also be defined as the socializing process by which the organization seeks to make an individual its agent for the achievement of its objectives and the individual seeks to make an agency of the organization for the achievement of his personal goal. An induction programme should tend to achieve the following objectives:
1. To buildup the new employee’s confidence in the organization and in himself so that he may become an efficient employee. 1. To promote a feeling of belonging and loyalty to the organization among newcomers. 1. To ensure that new employee may not form false impression regarding the new place of work. 1. To give the new entrant information regarding location of locker, rooms, cafeteria and other facilities, time of break off, leave rules etc. 1. To foster a close relationship between the new employee and old workers and supervisors.
The induction programme is generally informal But if a formal course is arranged after two-three weeks on the job, the initial introduction and the immediately needed information may be given by the supervisor of the new employee. The range of information that can be covered under orientation training may include the following: 1. Company’s history
1. Products of the company
1. Company’s organizational structure
1. Location of departments and employee services
1. Personnel policies and practices
1. Employee’s activities
1. Rules and regulations
1. Grievance procedures
1. Safety measures
1. Standing orders.
Training is a process for development of necessary knowledge, attitude and skills. It is important for manager’s efficiency. Knowledge is cognizance of facts, truths and information. Attitudes are dispositions toward people, things, situations and information. Skill is the ability to perform specialized work with perceivable competence. Training helps in reducing accidents, saving materials, reducing wastage, keeping cost under control and improving quality of work or of products.
Purpose of training:
1. To discover people with potential for improved performance. 1. To help potentially competent people to achieve a higher standard of performance. 1. To stimulate interest in work and a sense of loyalty.
1. To help to remove personal and/or professional deficiencies. 1. To improve human relations in organization by developing better understanding of human nature, perception and motivation.
Value of training:
14 Improvement in skill which means better quality and increased output. 15 Improvement in personal prospects of the employees in terms of better job, status and pay. 16 Gaining ability to cope with the changes in techniques and methods. 17 Saving of resources.
18 Reduction in absenteeism
Steps in Training programmes:
Analyzing the organization: Training aims at developing people to meet organizational goals more effectively. This objective can be met only when organizational goal are clear and its problems are identified. Identifying Performance, Discrepancies and Problems: Periodical reports and performance appraisals may reveal the discrepancies between planned and actual performance. The factors leading to such discrepancies may be studied and training programme may be designed to help people in overcoming the difficulties. Choosing the training objectives and techniques: Training objectives determine the type of training and techniques to be used. When, for example, performance is poor because of lack of training, on-job training may be arranged.
On the Job and Off the Job (As discussed in the class; types along with its advantages and disadvantages)
In management today, the emphasis is upon ability to lead, to stimulate and encourage, to exercise creative imagination about probable trends, to teach others to do and to develop. The development methods include: On-the-job-training: An executive is supposed to learn how to do his work while working. It has many advantages. The trainee learns it under actual fire. He can sizeup his subordinates and in turn he is appraised by them, without artificial support. He can demonstrate independently his potential leadership qualities. It is argued that the best executives will rise to their opportunities without te support of formal training. But it has certain disadvantages also. It is costly as cost of learning is involved. It is risky as one wrong decision can prove to be catastrophic. It is ineffective in developing really capable executives. Understudy: Under this method, the trainee is posted under a senior manager. As a result, he becomes well-acquainted with the latter’s responsibilities and the manner in which they are executed. It is popular and quite successful but it too has certain disadvantages. Many senior managers look upon this s an attempt to phase them out, hence they go out of way to spoil the chances of learner.
The executives not chosen for understudy are disappointed and stop exerting themselves. They may even get jealous and sabotage their colleagues (who has been selected) chances. Role playing: It too has become quite popular. The employees play a role in a dramatic setting which corresponds to work. For example two employees are asked to enact a commonly faced problem-situation. When the two act others observe and make mental notes and evaluate the situation. After the act is over, others may be asked to do the same, similar or different act. Rotating assignment as a training device: This is a very effective method. The executive is sent to different departments for specific periods to learn as much as he can about different activities. It has many advantages. This helps people to think in terms of managerial principles rather than technical aspects of a department. Rotating allows to find the most suitable assignment for themselves. Thirdly, by gaining an overall view of inter-departmental problems, one understands that whole is more important than the part. Also it has been found to be an enriching and motivating tool.
The principle disadvantages are the disturbances caused by periodic changes. An executive knowing that he will be in a department for a short-while may not be committed. Workshop training programmes: Short, intensive workshop programme is also gaining popularity. The executives are brought together for periods ranging from a couple of days to 4 weeks. Such short courses are also conducted by companies themselves or by various institutes or consultants. They are usually restricted to qualified executives and professional staff. Their objective is to provide refresher courses and training in new developments and techniques. One additional advantage of this method is that it provides the opportunity for discussion by small groups of executives with common interest and problems. One limitation of such school is that they take executives away from their desks for quite some time. Special Projects: This is a highly useful training device under which a trainee may be assigned a project that is closely related to the work of his department. For instance a trainee may be assigned to develop a system of cost control in the execution of an order.
The trainee is asked to study the problem and make recommendation upon it. Committee assignments: These are very much related to project assignments. Under this method an ad hoc committee is constituted and is assigned a subject to discuss and make recommendations. The committee has assigned objectives and responsibilities related to the work of the organization. It makes a study of the problem and present its suggestions to departmental manager. In this case every member gets a chance to learn a lot from others. Case study or problem solving: Under this method the trainees may be given a problem to discuss which is more or less related to principles already taught. This is particularly useful in teaching law, personnel management, human relations, marketing management and business policy. The important thing learnt here is that there is no single answer to a particular problem. The answer of each trainee may differ. Business Games: A variety of business management games have been devised and are being used with varying success in development plans. A particularly important type is a class-room exercise in which teams of students compete against each other to achieve common objectives. The game is designed to be a close representative of real life situations.
The trainees are asked to make decisions about productions, cost, research and development. Since teams compete the team spirit also develop. Computers have become an important tool to play these games with much greater success. The participants thus gets chance to analyse facts and figures and choose from among various alternatives available. Conference and seminars: A conference is a group meeting or group discussion in which the members seek to develop knowledge and understanding by participation in discussion. It is an effective training device for persons in the position of both conference members. A person can learn from others by comparing his opinions with those of others. He learns to respect the view point of others and to realize that there is more than one workable approach to a problem. As a conference leader, a man can develop his skill to motivate people through his direction of discussion. It helps participants to improve communication skills and broadening of outlook.
Indirect agencies: In order to raise the level of performance and broaden the knowledge of the employees the company frequently take help of such agencies as the library and reading rooms, evening schools, correspondence courses and nearby colleges and universities. Programmed learning: It consists of resenting questions, facts or problems to the learner, allowing him to respond and provide feedback on accuracy of his answers. The trainee learns while going through the material supplied to him at his convenience. Lectures: These are by far the most widely used method because they are simple, inexpensive and effective. A large number of participants can be trained. The instructor may present some concepts, facts and ideas and invite participants to ask for clarifications and comments.