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Stages of Spelling Development Essay Sample

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Introduction of TOPIC

In the first stage, called the Emergent Stage, children are able to convey his/her message by scribbling, drawing shapes, writing mock letters, and/or random strings of letters/numbers. In some cases, one letter represents an entire word or the most salient sound of a word. Some Emergent children confuse letters, numbers, and letter-like forms and substitute letters and sounds that feel and look alike (e.g., the sounds /v/ and /f/, the letters d and b) The child generally lacks knowledge of the alphabet, lacks left-to-right directionality in writing, and lacks concept of word (one-to-one matching of spoken and written words). Consistent spacing between words and consistent use of letter-sound correspondences are absent. What Students Do Independently

•Hold writing utensils
•Write on page
•Distinguish between writing and drawing
•Draw letters and letter-like shapes
•Left-to-right directionality
•Some letter-sound matching

What Students Use but Confuse
•Draw and scribble for writing
•Confuse letters, numbers, and letter-like forms
•Wrap writing from right to left at the ends of lines
•Substitute letters and sounds that feel and look alike (e.g., the sounds /v/ and /f/, the letters d and b)

What is Absent
•Sound-symbol match
•Left-to-right directionality
•Sound-symbol relationships
•Consistent spacing between words
•Consistent use of letter-sound correspondences

In the next stage, called the Letter Name Stage, children are first able to distinguish consonant sounds that come at the beginning of a word and then are next able to hear the ending consonant sounds. Later they are able to hear more refined distinctions in blends and digraphs, first at the beginnings of words and then at the ends. Also within this stage is the ability to hear short vowel sounds in the middle of one syllable words. Students begin to understand letter-sound correspondences. At this stage, students are becoming phonemic spellers. They may spell every sound in a word with one letter and omit silent letters. Students may not include spaces between all words. Generally, students at this stage of development begin to understand concept of word, are slow word-by-word readers, and point to each word as they read. Students confuse some sounds based on point of articulation (e.g., jrop for drop) and spell long vowel sounds with one vowel. Consistency in representing sounds in spelling, preconsonantal nasals (jup for jump), most long vowel markers and vowels in unstressed syllables (e.g., redr for reader) are absent.

What Students Do Independently
•Represent most salient sound in words (usually beginning or ending consonant) •Know most letters of the alphabet
•Letter-sound correspondences
•Some blends and digraphs
•Most beginning and ending sounds
•Clear letter-sound correspondences
•Some frequently used short-vowel words
•All of the above plus:
oRegular short vowels (e.g., CVC)
oMost consonant blends and digraphs
oPreconsonantal nasals (e.g., jump, fund)
oSome common long vowel patterns

What Students Use but Confuse
•Represent some sounds based on point of articulation (e.g., jrop for drop) •Spell long vowel sounds with one vowel

•Substitute letter name closest to point of articulation for short vowels
(e.g., het for hit) •Some consonant blends and digraphs
•Preconsonantal nasals (e.g., jump, fund)
•Substitute common spelling patterns for low frequency short vowels (e.g., bot for bought)

What is Absent
•Spacing between all words
•Vowels in syllables
•Consistency in representing sounds in spelling
•Preconsonantal nasals (jup for jump)
•Most long vowel markers
•Vowels in unstressed syllables (e.g., redr for reader)

In the Within Word Stage, children spell most single syllable short-vowel words correc

tly, along with most initial consonant digraphs and blends. At this stage of development, they begin

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using long vowel markers in their spelling (e.g., gaim for game or rede for read) and their abilities to focus on the distinct spelling patterns associated with each long vowel sound are explored and learned. They begin reading with greater speed, fluency, and can read silently. They can write extended texts and can begin revising and editing. Most students in this stage use but confuse long-vowel markers for some irregular long vowel words (e.g., fite for fight), low frequency long-vowel words phonetically (e.g., mite for might) and common inflectional endings (e.g., -ing, ed). Consonant doubling (e.g., runing for running), vowels in unaccented syllables (e.g., tabl for table) and dropping silent e (e.g., amazeing for amazing) are absent.

What Students Do Independently
•Initial and final consonants
•Consonants blends and digraphs
•Regular short vowel patterns
•Preconsonantal nasals
•Some common long vowels patterns (e.g., CVCe)
•All of the above plus about half of most single syllable long-vowel words •All of the above plus:
oSingle syllable long-vowel words
oMay know some common Latin suffixes (e.g., action)

What Students Use but Confuse
•Long vowel markers (e.g., gaem for game)
•Long-vowel markers for some irregular long vowel words (e.g., fite for fight) •Low frequency long-vowel words phonetically (e.g., mite for might) •Use common inflectional endings (e.g., -ing, ed)

•Spell common Latin suffixes phonetically (puncshure for puncture)

What is Absent
•Consonant doubling (e.g., runing for running)
•Vowels in unaccented syllables (e.g., tabl for table)
•Same as above
•Consonant doubling
•Dropping silent e (e.g., amazeing for amazing)

Once these two stages are solidified, more accomplished study begins on two and three syllable words. The Syllable Juncture Stage focuses on the letter combinations and sounds that occur where syllables join. Features include when to double letters, stress patterns and complex vowel patterns that are less distinctive in sound patterns developed in earlier stages. This stage is rather long in time and most children remain in the SJ stage for a period of 3 years or more.

Syllables and Affixes Stage (Ages 8-18/Third through eighth grade)

Students at this stage of development spell most single syllable long- and short-vowel words. Their mistakes typically happen at the juncture of syllables, especially in unaccented syllables. As readers, they read with good fluency and expression, and read faster when reading silently than orally. As writers, they are able to compose more sophisticated and critical texts.

What Students Do IndependentlyWhat Students Use but Confuse What is Absent
Syllables and Affixes

shiping for shipping

catel for cattle

keper for keeper

•Initial and final consonants
•Consonant blends and digraphs
•Short-vowel patterns
•Most long-vowel patterns
•Most common inflectional endings (e.g., -est, -er, -ed) •Consonant doubling (e.g., hoping for hopping) •Long-vowel patterns in accented syllables (catel for cattle) •Reduce vowel in unaccented syllables (e.g., travul for travel) •Double consonants and drop e (e.g., amazzing for amazing)•Occasional deletion of middle syllables (e.g., mancure for manicure) Middle

Syllables and Affixes

seller for cellar

damige for damage

fortunet for fortunate •All of the above plus: oConsonant doubling (e.g., skipping, cattle) oDouble and e drop (e.g., hopping, faking)•Syllables that receive less stress (e.g., hoky for hockey, faver for favor) •Sounds at syllable junctures like single syllable words (e.g., puncher for puncture, attenshun for attention)•Assimilated prefixes (e.g., imoral for immoral) •Root constancies in derivationally related pairs (condem for condemn) Late

Syllables and Affixes

confedent for confident•All of the above plus:
oLong vowel patterns in accented syllables (e.g., sign/signature) oDouble and e drop •Some suffixes and prefixes (e.g., pertend for pretend) •Vowel alternations in derivationally related pairs (e.g., compusition for composition)•Same as above

The final stage, called Derivational Constancy, explores the unique influences of other languages on English, particularly Greek and Latin. The meaningful relationships between words that shift vowel or consonant sounds (such as the change in the sound of g between the words sign and signature) are developed. This stage is also lengthy and continues beyond high school.

Derivational Relations Stage (Ages 10 and above/Fifth to 12th grade)

Students at this stage of development spell most words correctly. They make errors on low frequency, multiple syllable words derived from Latin and Greek roots. They also make errors on assimilated prefixes (e.g., in + mobile = immobile). Students examine how words share common derivations and related roots/bases.

What Students Do IndependentlyWhat Students Use but Confuse What is Absent
Derivational Relations

benafit for benefit

residant for resident

opisition for opposition

•Most words spelled correctly
•Most vowel and consonant variations •Unaccented or schwa sounds (e.g., invatation for invitation) •Silent consonants (e.g., crumb, muscle, column)
•Consonant doubling (e.g., colection for collection, ammusement for amusement) •Some suffixes and prefixes (e.g., appearence for appearance) •Some vowel alternations in derivationally related pairs (e.g., compusition for composition) •Silent letters related to derivation (e.g., teradactil for pterodactyl—from Greek pteron meaning wing) Middle

Derivational Relations

•Most words spelled correctly
•Common Latin suffixes (e.g., -ist, -tion, -ism)•Some silent letters (e.g. alledged for alleged) •Same as above plus some reduced vowels (e.g., prohabition for prohibition) Late
Derivational Relations

•Most words correctly•Assimilated prefixes (e.g., apearance for appearance) •Unfamiliar Latin and Greek derived forms (e.g., factsimile for facsimile) •Foreign borrowings (e.g., café, cantina, buffet) •Some uncommon roots (e.g., exhilerate for exhilarate)

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