All studies require that a research problem be identified and stated, and must be simple, concise, and in clear terms. Such problem will be the focus of a case study. State the Objectives of the Study The General and specific objectives of the study must be categorically expressed. Such objectives will be the bases in conducting research activities. Determine the Sources of Data The research must identify his sources of data or information, how he is going to select his sources, what variables are to be included and excluded, and how these variables are to be selected or determined. Determine the Procedures of Investigation The researcher should identify the procedures of data gathering, the tools used in data gathering so that the researcher will be able to proceed smoothly with the research activities according to the time frame of the study. Collate, Analyze, and Interpret the Data After gathering the data, they are collated, arranged, and presented for easy analysis and interpretation. Limitations or Weaknesses of Case Study Method
1. The researcher may select convenient cases, which are not typical for a case study. 2. The researcher may find difficulty selecting the factors to be studied due to different environmental settings and sampling sizes. 3. Hypotheses cannot be tested due to small sampling size and limited number of variables. 4.Reliable and genuine data may not be obtained in some case studies due to limited primary sources. Experimental Methods of Research Several Reasons For Conducting Experiments in a Natural Setting: 1. To test the external validity of a laboratory findings. 2. To improve conditions under which people live and work. Experiment also Involves……. Manipulation of One or More Variables which includes the: -Independent Variable -Dependent Variable Characteristics of a Good Experiment – Internal Validity -Reliabililty -Sensitivity -External Validity Internal Validity -if the cause and effect is interpretable, that is by manipulating the independent variable, it can cause a change in dependent variable.
Reliability An experiment is reliable if the obtained difference is likely to be found again and if the experiment is to be repeated. Sensitivity -an experiment is sensitive if such experiment is likely to detect the effect of an independent variable even when that effect is a small one. External Validity -if the findings can be generalized to individuals, settings,and conditions beyond the scope of the particular experiment. Purpose of Conducting Internship – To provide empirical tests of hypotheses derived from theories. -experiments can be used to test the effectiveness of treatments and program. Two Conditions for an Effective Experiment -Experimental Control -Random Assignment Three Conditions of Control: -Covariation -Time Order -Plausible Alternative Courses