Studies on Small Scale Storage of J.Sambac Essay Sample

Studies on Small Scale Storage of J.Sambac Pages
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An experiment was conducted to study the effect of various packing materials on the extension of the shelf life of J.sambac when packed and stored in a small scale for retail sales. Packing in 400 gauge polythene bags without vent and storing in cold storage unit resulted in least physiological loss in weight, maximum fresh flower percentage and best shelf life of 2.8 days. INTRODUCTION

Jasminum sambac is an important commercial flower crop in southern and eastern India occupying an area of 2.03 ha and an annual production worth Rs.120 million. In India, jasmines are cultivated throughout the country but the commercial cultivation is confined to certain districts of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Utter Pradesh; Rajasthan, West Bengal and parts of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Tamil Nadu is the leading producer of jasmine in the country with an annual production of 77,247t from the cultivated area of 9360 ha (Kolavalli,1988). The flowers are popular among the people of Tamil Nadu. However, the very short shelf life combined with seasonal availability results in erratic price trends. Hence this study was undertaken to prolong the shelf life of J.sambac when stored on a small scale in the retail market. MATERIALS AND METHODS

The present study was conducted at the Department of Floriculture and medicinal Crops, Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam during 2007. Fully developed J.sambac flowers were harvested early in the morning and brought to the laboratory by 10.00 a.m. The study was conducted on 100 grams of loose flowers. Nine packing materials were assessed viz., packing in 200, 300 and 400 gauge polyethylene bags with 1% vent, (P1,P2 &P3 respectively) packing in, newspaper bags, brown paper bags, cardboard boxes ( P4,P5 &P6 respectively) and packing in 200,300 and 400 gauge polyethylene bags without vents (P7,P8 &P9 respectively).

The packed flowers were stored in different storage environment viz., at room temperature (T2), refrigerated conditions (at 10oC) (T1) and in cold storage unit (T3). The temperature of the unit was uniformly maintained at 100C as opening temperature and 70C as closing temperature. The experimental design followed was Completely Randomized Block design (CRD). All experiments were replicated thrice. Observations were recorded on physiological loss in weight (PLW), percentage of fresh flowers and on shelf life of the flowers. The physiological loss in weight was measured in per cent on the basis of the initial weight of the flowers. The percentage of fresh flowers was calculated on first, second and third day after packing by counting the number of discoloured or damaged flowers in the pack and expressed as per cent. The shelf life of the flowers was recorded on visual basis. The recorded data was statistically analyzed and presented in table 1 and 2. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Effect of Packaging and storage environment on Physiological loss of weight of loose flowers of J.sambac : The various packaging materials used had significant influence on the physiological loss in weight of loose flowers of J.sambac. and is presented in Table 1. The weight loss was least in flowers packed in 400 gauge polyethylene bags without vent (16.09 %). This was followed by packing in 200 gauge and 300 gauge polythene bags (17.77 %, 20.10%) and was highest in flowers packed in brown paper bags (36.21 %). Packing in newspaper bags and cardboard box showed poor performance and this was on par with each other (32.65%, 32.84%). However, packing in polythene bags with vents was significantly superior to packing in newspaper bags, brown paper bags and cardboard boxes. This was in concurrence with the findings of Srinivas and Reddy (2000) in J.sambac. An increase in the thickness of polythene bags is associated with a reduction in their permeability to moisture and air, thereby reducing the PLW probably due to reduction in the moisture loss and respiration of the produce ( Bhuller and Farnaham, 1980; Hardenburg,1971).

Among the different storage environments studied, storage in cold storage unit recorded least physiological loss in weight (21.56%) while storage at room temperature recorded highest physiological loss in weight (31.68%). Similar results have been reported by Madaiah and Reddy (2000) in packaging and storage studies of J.multiflorum. The lower temperatures of the cold storage unit might have been responsible for the lower physiological loss in weight. The interaction effect between packaging material and storage temperatures also had significant influence on the physiological loss in weight of the loose jasmine flowers. Flowers packed in 400 gauge polythene bags and stored in cold storage unit recorded least physiological loss in weight of 7.84 %. This was followed by packing in 300 gauge polyethene bags and stored in cold storage unit (11.32 %), whereas flowers packed in newspaper bags stored at room temperature recorded least physiological loss in weight of 43.09%. This might be due to the characteristics of cool chamber and packaging. Cool chambers have been shown to maintain a lower temperature and higher relative humidity (Anon, 1985).

Similarly, packaging has been found to maintain a high RH and modified atmospheric conditions, especially pertaining to oxygen and carbon di oxide composition (Anzueto and Rizvi,1985), thereby reducing moisture loss and respiration rate of the flowers in the package. In the present investigation the MA created in the package and lower temperatures of the cold storage unit may have been responsible for the lower physiological loss in weight. Effect of Packaging and storage environment on fresh flower percentage of loose flowers of J.sambac : The percentage of fresh flowers was calculated on the first, second, third and fourth day after packing. The effect of packing had significant effect on fresh flower percentage on first, second, third and fourth day after packing. On the first and second day after packing, packing in polybags without vents indicated highest retention of flower freshness, irrespective of the gauge thickness used (89.45%). This was followed by packing in polythene bags without vents (56.79%, 55.77% and 54.78%). Packing in newspaper bags resulted in least retention of flower freshness (12.36%). Similarly, storage in cold storage unit recorded highest percentage of fresh flowers.

The combined effect of packing material and storage temperature also had significant effect on flower freshness. Flowers packed in 400 gauge polythene bags and stored in cold storage unit recorded highest percentage fresh flower percentage. This treatment was on par with packing in 400, 300 and 200 gauge polythene bags and storing in cold storage unit and refrigerated unit. On the third and fourth day after packing, packing in polybags without vents indicated highest retention of flower freshness, irrespective of the gauge thickness used (89.84 and 63.55%). This was followed by packing in 200 gauge polythene bags with vents (15.56%). Packing in newspaper bags resulted in least retention of flower freshness (6.67%). Similarly, storage in cold storage unit recorded highest percentage of fresh flowers (45.93%). The combined effect of packing material and storage temperature also had significant effect on flower freshness. Flowers packed in 200, 300 and 400 gauge polythene bags and stored in cold storage unit recorded highest percentage fresh flower percentage (89.84%). In general, storage at room temperature resulted in lowest fresh flower percentage irrespective of the packaging used.

Effect of Packaging and storage environment on shelf life of loose flowers of J.sambac : The individual and interaction effect of various packaging materials and different storage environments used had significant influence on the shelf life of loose flowers of J.sambac and is depicted in table 1. The shelf life was best in flowers packed in 400 and 300 gauge polyethylene bags without vent (2.78 days in both treatments). Packing in 200 gauge polythene bags without vent (2.33 days) was on par with this treatment. All other packaging treatments recorded least shelf life ranging from 1.44 to 1.89 days and were on par with each other. Similar results have been reported by Srinivas and Reddy (2000) in packaging and ventilation studies of J.sambac and J.multiflorum. The increase in shelf life in unventilated polythene bags might be due to creation of a modified atmosphere.

Among the storage temperatures evaluated, storage in cold storage unit recorded best shelf life of 2.37 days and was on par with storage at refrigerated temperatures (2.33 days) while storage at room temperature recorded least shelf life of 1.22 days. The result was in concurrence with those of Madaiah and Reddy (2000). The interaction effect between packaging material and storage temperatures also had significant influence on the shelf life of the loose jasmine flowers. Flowers packed in 400 and 300 gauge polythene bags and stored in cold storage unit recorded best shelf life of 3.67 days. This was on par with packing in 400 and 300 gauge polythene bags and storage at refrigerated temperature and packing in 200 gauge polyethene bags and storage at refrigerated temperature.

The lowest shelf life was observed in storage at room temperature irrespective of the type of packing. The results are in concurrence with the findings of Madaiah and Reddy, 2000 in J.multiflorum. This can be attributed to the fact that the cool chamber maintains a lower temperature and higher relative humidity (Anon, 1985). Similarly, packaging has been found to create modified atmospheric conditions (Anzueto and Rizvi,1985). The MA created in the package and lower temperatures of the cold storage unit may have been responsible for the increase in shelf life.

REFERENCE:

1. Anonymous, 1985. Zero energy cool chamber, Res. Bult., 43: IARI , New Delhi, India. 2. Anzueto,C.R. and S.S.H.Rizvi,1985. Individual packaging of apples for shelf life extension. J.Fd.Sci., 50 (4): 897 -900. 3. Bhuller, J.S. Farnaham, 1980. Studies on ripening and storage behaviour of safeda guava (Psidium gujava L.), Indian Food Packer, 34: 5-7. 4. Hardenburg ,R.E.1971. Effect of inpackage environment on keeping quality of fruits and vegetables. Hort. Science,6: 198 -201. 5. Kolavalli,S. 1988 . Floriculture Industry in India. Centre for management in Agriculture, IIM, Allahabad. 6. Madaiah, D. and T. Venkatesh Reddy (2000) Post Harvest response of Jasminum multiflorum flowers to packaging and cool chamber storage. Pp 556 -559. 7. Panse, V.G. and Sukhatme, P.V. 1976. Statistical Methods for Agricultural Workers. ICAR, New Delhi. 8. Srininvas Nirmala and T. Venkatesh Reddy (2000 ) Shelf life of Jasminum sambac flowers as influenced by packaging and ventilation . pp 546-549. 9. Srinivas Nirmala and T. Venkatesh Reddy (1998) Extension of shelf life of Jasminum multiflorum through packaging. pp 624-625.

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