Superstition and Black Cat Essay Sample
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Superstition and Black Cat Essay Sample
1. Excessively credulous belief in and reverence for supernatural beings. 2. A widely held but unjustified belief in supernatural causation leading to certain consequences of an action or event, or a practice… Superstition is a belief in supernatural causality: that one event leads to the cause of another without any physical process linking the two events, such as astrology, omens, witchcraft, etc., that contradicts natural science. Population:
1. All the inhabitants of a particular town, area, or country. 2. A particular section, group, or type of people or animals living in an area or country.
The aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community. The community of people living in a particular region and having shared customs, laws, and organizations.
Branch of psychology concerned with the personality, attitudes, motivations, and behaviour of the individual or group in the context of social interaction. The field emerged in the U.S. in the 1920s. Topics include the attribution of social status based on perceptual cues, the influence of social factors (such as peers) on a person’s attitudes and beliefs, the functioning of small groups and large organizations, and the dynamics of face-to-face interactions.
An attitude is an expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event (the attitude object). Prominent psychologist Gordon Allport once described attitudes “the most distinctive and indispensable concept in contemporary social psychology.” In lay language, attitude may refer to the distinct concept of mood, or be especially synonymous with teenage rebellion. An attitude can be defined as a positive or negative evaluation of people, objects, event, activities, ideas, or just about anything in your environment.
Many measurements and scales are used to examine attitudes. Attitudes can be difficult to measure because measurement is arbitrary, meaning people have to give attitudes a scale to measure it against, and attitudes are ultimately a hypothetical construct that cannot be observed directly. Following the explicit-implicit dichotomy, attitudes can be examined through direct and indirect measures. Explicit measures tend to rely on self-reports or easily observed behaviors. These tend to involve bipolar scales (e.g., good-bad, favorable-unfavorable, support-oppose, etc.). Explicit measures can also be used by measuring the straightforward attribution of characteristics to nominate groups, such as “I feel that baptists are….?” or “I think that men are…?” Likert scales and other self-reports are also commonly used. Implicit measures are not consciously directed and are assumed to be automatic, which may make implicit measures more valid and reliable than explicit measures (such as self-reports).
For example, people can be motivated such that they find it socially desirable to appear to have certain attitudes. An example of this is that people can hold implicit prejudicial attitudes, but express explicit attitudes that report little prejudice. Implicit measures help account for these situations and look at attitudes that a person may not be aware of or want to show. Implicit measures therefore usually rely on an indirect measure of attitude. For example, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) examines the strength between the target concept and an attribute element by considering the latency in which a person can examine two response keys when each has two meanings. With little time to carefully examine what the participant is doing they respond according to internal keys. This priming can show attitudes the person has about a particular object. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attitude_%28psychology%29
According to Doob (1947), learning can account for most of the attitudes we hold. Theories of classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning and social learning are mainly responsible for formation of attitude. Unlike personality, attitudes are expected to change as a function of experience. Tesser (1993) has argued that hereditary variables may affect attitudes – but believes that they may do so indirectly. For example, consistency theories, which imply that we must be consistent in our beliefs and values. As with any type of heritability, to determine if a particular trait has a basis in our genes, twin studies are used. The most famous example of such a theory is Dissonance-reduction theory, associated with Leon Festinger, which explains that when the components of an attitude (including belief and behavior) are at odds an individual may adjust one to match the other (for example, adjusting a belief to match a behavior). Other theories include balance theory, originally proposed by Heider (1958), and the self-perception theory, originally proposed by Daryl Bem. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attitude_%28psychology%29#Attitude_formation
Work sampling is the statistical technique for determining the proportion of time spent by workers in various defined categories of activity (e.g. setting up a machine, assembling two parts, idle…etc.). It is as important as all other statistical techniques because it permits quick analysis, recognition, and enhancement of job responsibilities, tasks, performance competencies, and organizational work flows. Other names used for it are ‘activity sampling’, ‘occurrence sampling’, and ‘ratio delay study’. In a work sampling study, a large number of observations are made of the workers over an extended period of time. For statistical accuracy, the observations must be taken at random times during the period of study, and the period must be representative of the types of activities performed by the subjects. One important usage of the work sampling technique is the determination of the standard time for a manual manufacturing task. Similar techniques for calculating the standard time are time study, standard data, and predetermined motion time systems.
role of superstitions:
Superstitions are well and alive in many cultures the world over. Despite being rooted in ancient traditional belief systems, they still play a part in modern times. From breaking mirrors,and black cats as omens of bad luck in Western cultures, to avoidance of washing feet before bedtime and food restrictions during illness and pregnancy in Eastern cultures, we’ve all believed or practiced them at some point. Most major religions have their roots in superstition and they still play a considerable part in many people’s daily lives. From blessing people when they sneeze to attending regularly scheduled rituals in structures built specifically for that purpose. Many “Christians” won’t like this response but these thing are true. Most religious holidays are scheduled around ancient Pagan ritual dates which were being celebrated LONG before Christianity was popular or even thought of…I was taught that in CCD. Christmas, winter solstice; Easter, vernal equinoxe, the list is long. Culture at times, supersedes religion. As such beliefs are most often brought down from generation to generation, such notions are difficult to dispell, no matter how illogical it may be.
Superstitition plays with the insecurity and uncertainty of an individual or society towards a particular subject. For example, during pregnancy, the mother-to-be certainly want the best for their newborn and would most likely heed advises which she feels would contribute positively to whole process.
There are people out there who refuses to critically analyse their lives objectively and they prefer to simply attribute it to bad luck, evil spell, etc. B.F. Skinner, reknown psychologist, demonstrated that you can create superstitious behavior in animals. When an animal is placed in a Skinner box, that contains a device which can automatically dispense food and food is given to the animal every five minutes regardless what the animal does; the animal will typically develop a superstitious behavior. This will occur when for example the animal happens to pick up its right foot just as food is delivered: the animal will then repeat this behavior, which will be intermittently reinforced. In this manner the superstitious behavior will become well established. The above example, demonstrated by Skinner, shows that although a series of events has already been set into motion, coincidental actions by a being or animal, can cause them to believe that they have altered the series of events. Humans can overcome superstitious behavior if they understand what is taking place, and if they refrain from engaging in the superstitious behavior. They must then notice that events unfold in the same fashion as if they had engaged in the behavior. http://malaysia.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20070515201609AAcnsPK
Types Of Superstitions:
Good luck superstitions and bad luck superstitions
Do you believe in superstitions?
[pic]Thousands of people believe in superstitions although a lot off people think of them as nonsense and not based on reason. Where does the word “superstition” come from? The word superstition comes from two Latin words: “Super’’ and “Stare”. Super means above and stare means to stand. We know that the source of the superstitions is ignorance. Do you know anyone who does not have a superstition? Most of the people, more or less, believe in them. Even though they deny superstitions, they can not help believing in them. They are superstitious. Unfortunately, we have hundreds of superstitions. Superstitions are all around the world. They change from culture to culture and they have a big influence in our lives. There are two types of superstition. Good luck superstitions and bad luck superstitions. Some common superstitions around the world:
Good luck superstitions
– If your right hand itches, you will earn money.
– If you find a four-leaf clover, you will have good luck.
– If you see a horseshoe which was lost, you will have good luck. – If you throw rice on a new bride and groom, they will have so many children. – If you dream about a white cat, you will have good luck.
– If you see a black cat which walks towards you, it brings you good luck. – If your right ear itches, someone is speaking well of you. – You can hang up garlic in your house for good luck.
– If you put a mirror just across the door, you will have good luck. – If you put the sugar into the cup first, before the tea, you will have good luck. – If you step on your shadow, it brings you good luck.
– If you catch a falling leaf on the first day of autumn, you will have good luck all winter. – If you blow out all the candles on your birthday cake in one blow, you will get whatever you want. – If the first butterfly you see in the year is white, it brings you good luck all year. – If a girl drinks salty water then goes to sleep, she will see her future husband in her dream.
Bad luck superstitions
– If you open an umbrella indoors, it brings you bad luck.
– If you sleep with your feet towards the door, a nightwalker will steal your soul. – If you whistle at night, a nightwalker will come to your home. – When a cat sneezes three times indoors, it will rain in 24 hours. – If you dream about a dog, you will have a lot of enemies.
– If you break a mirror, it will bring you seven years of bad luck. – If an owl hoots in your garden, it brings you bad luck.
– If you walk under a ladder, you will have bad luck.
– If you kill an albatross, it brings you bad luck.
– If you sleep on a table, you will have bad luck.
– If a dog howls at night, death is near.
– If you see a bird that comes towards you, you will have bad luck.
– If you drop a dishcloth, you will have bad luck.
– If you eat from the pot, it will rain at your wedding ceremony.
– If you start a trip on Friday, you will meet misfortune.
– If your left hand itches, you will lose money.
History Of Supestitions:
What are superstitions?
Superstitions are beliefs or practices for which there appears to be no rational substance. It is a term designated to these beliefs that result from ignorance and fear of the unknown. Those who use the term imply that they have certain knowledge or superior evidence for their scientific, philosophical, or religious convictions. An ambiguous word, it probably cannot be used ecxept subjectively. Ignorance of natural causes leads to the belief that certain striking phenomena express the will or the anger of some invisible overruling power, and the objects in which such phenomena appear are forthwith deified, as example, in Nature-worship. Conversely, many superstitious practices are due to an exaggerated notion or a false interpretation of natural events, so that effects are sought which are beyond the efficiency of physical causes. Curiosity also with regard to things that are hidden or are still in the future plays a considerable part, example, in the various kinds of divination. With this qualification in mind, superstitions may be classified roughly as religious, cultural and personal. All religious beliefs and practices may seem superstitious to the person without religion.
Superstitions that belong to the cultural tradition are enormous in their variety. Nearly all persons, in nearly times, have held, seriously, irrational beliefs concerning methods of warding off ill or bringing good, foretelling the future, and healing and preventing sickness and accidents. A few specific folk traditions, such as beliefs in the evil eye or in the efficacy of amulets, have been found in most periods of history and in most parts of the world. Others may be limited to one country, region or village, to one family, or to one social or vocational group. Finally, people develop personal superstitions: a student writes a good form of literary piece with a certain pen, and from that moment the pen is lucky; a horseplayer may be convinced that black horses run well for him. Superstitions has been deeply influential in history. Even in so-called modern times, in a day when objective evidence is highly valued, there are few people who would not, if pressed, admit to cherishing secretly one or two irrational beliefs or superstitions. Such superstitious ideas persist not withstanding the evidence which oppose their validity.
Why People Believe in Superstitions
Many superstitions originated at a time when little was known about how the physical world functions. They were an early attempt at making sense of the world through legends and anecdotal tales of cause and effect. In today’s more scientific world, superstitions persist for the same basic reason they began: A belief in superstitions gives people an illusion of control in an uncertain world.
A superstition is a belief that is not based on logic or reason. Superstitions often promise to protect someone from harm or in some way affect the future. For example, opening an umbrella in a house is said to lead to bad luck, finding a four leaf clover would bring good luck, and wearing a special gemstone or crystal would ward off evil. These superstitions have no logical basis, yet they are still followed by millions.
People believe in superstitions because they want to believe in them. It’s easy enough for believers to find coincidental connections and label them as proof, or to simply say that their superstitious beliefs defy explanation. Interestingly, a belief in superstitions can actually appear to affect a person’s “luck,” though what it really affects is a person’s outlook.
The human mind is powerful, and events that are based on a person’s performance can be influenced by that person’s outlook or beliefs. This is commonly known as a placebo effect.
When a superstitious person breaks a mirror (which is supposed to bring seven years of bad luck) he may actually perform poorly on a test, forget his lines during a play, or miss an easy layup during a basketball game. Conversely, carrying a rabbit’s foot may give the same person the confidence to do well in all of those areas (if he actually has the necessary skills).
This is why superstitions are so prevalent among athletes, actors, and students. Some athletes may decide that they have to perform a certain ritual, like turning in three circles before leaving the locker room or wearing a certain pair of lucky socks. Thespians often do not wish each other good luck before a play, as that is supposed to have the opposite effect. Instead, they tell each other to “break a leg,” and they never say the name of the Scottish Play unless they are on stage performing it.
Superstitions have arisen in nearly every culture, yet some superstitions have opposite meanings in different countries. In the United States, both black cats and the number 13 are unlucky. Yet black cats are lucky in Britain and the number 13 is lucky in Italy. Does a black cat’s luck change when it makes a trip across the pond? And what happens if a black cat crosses in front of both a Brit and American who are walking on the same street?
Though superstitions have some interesting background stories and can have a placebo affect on those who believe in them, they all seem to come back to a matter of control. People want to have control over the events in their lives. They will believe in many strange ideas to gain even an illusory sense of control. Yet, if control is so important, why do some people seem to prefer superstitious beliefs over scientific fact?
At the most basic level, some people associate the term “belief” with positive concepts like emotional sensitivity, artistry, inspiration, magic or faith, but attach negative connotations to “facts,” such as being dry, boring or unimaginative. Beliefs are uplifting; facts are grounding. That alone can be enough to make some people shy from staid facts and embrace more magical beliefs.
Superstitious beliefs may also be seen as more accessible than scientific facts. To be confirmed, scientific facts must be objective, verified
observations. They must stand up to investigation with consistent results. Superstitions, on the other hand, defy logic and simply require belief. People can “just know” they are “true,” instead of being bothered with proving them to others.
Superstitious people often say, “I don’t know how it works, it just does.” And, when it comes to performance, maybe superstitions do work–in a way. A basketball player might score more points when wearing his lucky socks, but give those same socks to a kid off the street who doesn’t have the baller’s skills or dedicated training regime, and he’d still be riding the bench.
A laboratory investigation was conducted to examine the development of superstitions in sport. We explored the hypothesis that superstitions are most likely to develop among people who believe that they can, via their own actions, exert some control over chance outcomes. Thirty-seven subjects completed the Levenson chance orientation scale, a measure of belief in control over chance events, and then participated in a golf putting task. Subjects attempted 50 putts on an artificial turf putting green. For each putt, subjects selected the golf ball of their choice from a dish containing four colored balls. Superstitious behavior was defined as the selection of the same color ball after having made a putt with that ball. Results supporting the hypothesis indicated a significant negative correlation (r = -.30, p = .035) between superstitious behavior and Levenson scale scores. That is, subjects who indicated that they believed that their actions could control chance events were more likely to use a ‘lucky ball’ following a successful putt.
reds allowed – Don’t wear red when there’s lightning, or else it may strike you.
• Broken reflection – 7 years of bad luck if
you break a mirror. (This one originated in the Middle Ages where mirrored glass was extremely expensive; anyone who broke the large mirror of the lord or lady of the land was costing them a lot of money and destroying something likely not replaceable. A person could be put in jail if the lord of the land was pissed off enough.)
• Don’t let a black cat cross your path; it will bring you bad luck. (I suppose you could trip over a black cat in the dark and break your leg, but really the coat color of a cat has nothing to do with luck either way.)
• “Find a penny, pick it up, all day long you’ll have good luck”
• Rain on your wedding day is a good omen
• Do not ride a bicycle if you’re a woman because you will not get pregnant
• When you are getting married, do not wear your wedding gown before the wedding or else your wedding will canceled
• Hanging a horseshoe on a wall with ends pointing up brings good luck
• Stepping on a crack in the sidewalk will break your mother’s back.
• Bathing at night is equal to a cup of blood loss.
• Don’t walk under a ladder or else you’ll have bad luck
• No peacock feathers indoors
• Black Friday – Friday 13th
• Carry a rabbit’s foot for good luck (unless you are the rabbit concerned)
• When you spill salt, throw some over your shoulder to prevent bad luck
• Casting the evil eye will cause the bad luck to come back to you (karma)
• Don’t sweep at night or you’ll have fewer blessings
• Cover your mouth when you sneeze or else your soul will go out
• Sleeping late at night can cause a decline in blood
• Running at 6:00 – you might kick the dwarfs
• Cover your mirror during thunder so that it will not break
• Do not point with your hands at night or else your hands will get smaller
• If one of your relatives dies and their eyes are still open, he or she is waiting for some of your family, relatives, or friends to die
• Don’t go to sleep at night with wet hair or else snakes will sleep with you
• If you are pregnant, eat bananas so that you can have twins
• When you see an ant, eat it to make your voice good
• “Red sky at night, sailors’ delight. Red sky at morning, sailor take warning” – scientifically, a red sky in the evening means calm winds and no rain. So there is something to it.
• You will have bad luck for 7 years if you break a mirror
Cutting toe nails at night is bad luck .
A person putting finger nails on fire at night will die the next morning. Bride drops her ring during the wedding will die ahead of the groom. Never sweep the floor at night or you’ll sweep sorrow into your life. If a picture of three people is taken, the person in the middle will be the first to die. Which ever partner falls asleep first on their wedding night will be the first to die. Killing a spider is bad luck.
If you leave a rocking chair rocking when empty, it invites evil spirits to come into your house to sit in the rocking chair. Chase away any owls outside your window; they are a harbinger of death. – if you spill salt, toss a pinch over your left shoulder to avoid bad luck – broken mirrors bring 7 years of bad luck
– walking under a ladder is bad luck
– a black cat crossing your path is bad luck
– put a plate of milk outside for the faeries so they don’t suck your cows dry
– Never place a mirror across from your front door
– step on a crack, break your mother’s back
– idle hands are the devil’s playground
– cats should never be allowed near babies as they will suck the breath from the child and suffocate it –
If you’re like most people, you occasionally participate in superstitious thinking or behavior often without even realizing you’re doing it. Just think: When was the last time you knocked on wood, walked within the lines, avoided a black cat, or read your daily horoscope? These are all examples of superstitions or what Stuart Vyse, PhD, and the author of Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition, calls magical thinking. More than half of Americans admitted to being at least a little superstitious, according to a recent Gallup poll. Additionally, beliefs in witches, ghosts and haunted houses — all popular Halloween symbols — have increased over the past decade. But just what is the psychology behind our magical thinking, and is it hurting or helping us? When does superstitious thinking go too far? Was Stevie Wonder right: When you believe in things that you don’t understand, do you suffer? Superstition, Ritual, or Anxiety?
In our quest to understand superstitions, let’s start by defining them. After all, not all rituals or beliefs are superstitions. “The dividing line is whether you give some kind of magical significance to the ritual,” Vyse tells WebMD. For example, if an athlete develops a ritual before a game, something Vyse says many coaches encourage, it may help to calm and focus him or her like repeating a mantra. “That’s not superstitious,” says Vyse. On the other hand, he says if you think tapping the ball a certain number of times makes you win the game, you’ve entered superstitious territory. You might be wondering if certain superstitious behaviors — such as like counting the number of times you tap a ball — are really a sign of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). People with OCD often have compulsions to do rituals over and over again, often interfering with everyday life.
A good example is Jack Nicholson’s character in the movie As Good As It Gets, who skips cracks in the sidewalk and eats at the same table in the same restaurant every day, with an inability to cope with any change in routine. While some of the symptoms of OCD can mimic superstitious behavior (and the two aren’t mutually exclusive) Vyse says most of the evidence would indicate there is no connection between the two. “We don’t think of anxiety disorders [such as OCD] as superstitious thinking. We think of it as irrational thinking, and most of our patients understand that,” says Paul Foxman, PhD, an anxiety expert from Burlington, Vt. “But I do have patients that tell me that they believe that if they don’t worry about something, then the likelihood of it happening will go up, and that is a superstitious thought,” he says. The key is to pay attention to your own thinking, particularly if you experience any symptoms of anxiety — tension, excessive worry, trouble sleeping, obsessive thoughts and exhaustion, for example. If you experience these symptoms or find that you have repetitive ritualized behavior that’s out of control — superstitious or not — get professional help from a doctor or therapist. Driving Forces
Wanting more control or certainty is the driving force behind most superstitions. We tend to look for some kind of a rule, or an explanation for why things happen. “Sometimes the creation of a false certainty is better than no certainty at all, and that is what much of the research suggests,” says Vyse. Job interviews, testing, and other situations where we want things to go well — regardless of our own preparation or performance — can spur superstitious thoughts. “We are often in situations in life where something really important is about to happen, we’ve prepared for it as best we can, but it’s still uncertain; it’s still unclear,” Vyse says. No matter how confident or prepared you are for an event — whether it’s a football game, a wedding, or a presentation — things can still happen beyond your control. “Superstitions provide people with the sense that they’ve done one more thing to try to ensure the outcome they are looking for.” Friend or Foe?
A sense of security and confidence are perhaps the greatest benefits we get emotionally from superstitious thinking or behavior — like carrying an object or wearing an item of clothing that you deem to be lucky.
The Psychology of Superstition (cont.)
The Psychology of Superstition (cont.)
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Foxman says there is a positive placebo effect — if you think something will help you, it may do just that. “There is a tremendous amount of power in belief,” he says. If the outcome is a matter of pure luck, beliefs don’t really have any impact, however, when your performance is a key factor in an outcome, superstitious thinking might give you an extra boost. “There can be a real psychological effect of superstitious thoughts,” says Vyse. If you’ve done well before when you had a particular shirt on, for example, it might prove wise to wear the shirt again, if it helps to relieve anxiety and promotes positive thoughts. But this way of thinking can also hinder your performance, if say, you lose your lucky object. It’s not news that expectations can be extremely powerful and suggestive.
Studies regularly point to placebo effects (both positive and negative), which are entirely caused by the power of expectations or preconceptions. Yet superstitions can also play a negative role in our lives, especially when combined with a bad habit such as gambling. If you’re a compulsive gambler who believes that you can get lucky, then that belief may contribute to your problem. Phobic (fearful) superstitions can also interfere with our lives, and cause a lot of anxiety, says Vyse. For example, people who are afraid of Friday the 13th might change travel arrangements or skip an appointment because of unnecessary anxiety. These types of superstitions offer no benefit at all. And the Award for Most Superstitious Goes to …
Being superstitious is something we often learn as children, and according to the Gallup poll, older folks are less likely to believe in superstitions. Generally speaking, women are more superstitious than men, Vyse says. When was the last time you saw an astrology column in a men’s magazine? Women may also experience more anxiety, or at least, more women than men seek help for anxiety problems. Although personality variables are not a strong factor in developing superstition, there is some evidence that if you are more anxious than the average person you’re slightly more likely to be superstitious. Vyse says our locus of control can also be a factor contributing to whether or not we are superstitious. If you have an internal locus of control, you believe that you are in charge of everything; you are the master of your fate and you can make things happen.
If you have an external locus of control, “you’re sort of buffeted by life, and things happen to you instead of the other way around,” Vyse tells WebMD. People with external locus of control are more likely to be superstitious, possibly as a way of getting more power over their lives. “Part of the reason why women are more superstitious than men is that women feel, even in today’s modern society, that they have less control over their fate than men do.” Intelligence seems to have little to do with whether or not we subscribe to superstitions. Vyse says that on the Harvard campus — where one would assume there are a lot of intelligent people — students frequently rub the foot of the statue of John Harvard for good luck. In a sense, a superstition, like other rituals, can become part of a campus, community or culture, and can help bring people together. “Most of the superstitions people engage in are perfectly fine, and are not pathological,” says Vyse. Now that’s good news, and it’s just in time for Halloween. http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=46749&page=2
Islamic Point Of View :
Allah Almighty says in the Holy Quran:
“Do they not see the birds held (flying) in the midst of the sky? None holds them but Allah (none gave them the ability to fly but Allah). Verily, in this are clear Ayaat (proofs and signs) for people who believe (in the Oneness of Allah)” (16:79)
This verse clearly shows that Allah is in command of the birds as well as all of Creation. Allah decides where birds fly or roost. The flight of birds is not dependant upon where good luck or bad luck resides. Superstitions are a trick of the devil to lead humans further and further away from Allah so that on the Day of Judgment he will have some company in hell. The one who believes in superstitions truly has followed the devil and is no longer on the path, which leads to Allah. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was once asked about superstitious beliefs and this is what Muhammad (pbuh) said:
“The best of it is fa’l (belief in good omens) and it should not prevent a Muslim from going ahead (with his plans). If any one of you sees something that he dislikes, let him say. ‘Allaahumma laa ya’ti bi’l-hasanaat illa anta wa laa yadfa’ al-sayi’aat illa anta, wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illa bika’ (O Allah, no one brings good things but you and no one wards off bad things but you, and there is no power and no strength except with you).”
Ignoring superstitions will not harm us in the very least. In fact, by not engaging in shirk we are more likely to please Allah which might actually save us from what we feared in the first place. On the other hand, the one who obeys the devil and their superstitions is more likely to fall right into the disaster they were so keen to avoid! Poetic justice perhaps? However, even if we avoid the belief in superstitions completely bad things may still happen to us. That does not mean the superstitions were correct rather it is in the timing of Allah’s Decree. All things that happen to us, good and bad, come at a time appointed by Allah as a means to test who is the best in faith. Allah almighty says in the Holy Quran:
“No calamity befalls on the Earth or in yourselves but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees, before we bring it into existence. Verily, that is easy for Allah.” (57:22)