1.1 – Describe how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in the setting:-
Health and Safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in the setting I work in, in various ways. They apply to employers, head teachers and all other members of school staff, as well as parents and outside agencies such as Social Workers, who come into contact with the school. The Health and Safety At Work Act of 1974 covers this legislation. The law states that generally, the Employer has the main responsibility for Health and Safety although some tasks may also be delegated to staff. School staff also, have responsibility for their pupils and have a duty under the common law to take care of pupils in the same way, that a parent would do so. One of the main ways in which Health and Safety is implemented in Whitchurch Primary School is through risk assessments.
Every school is required by law to carry out regular risk assessments of activities during school time, out of school activities, before trips away from the school premises and of the school site itself. Risk assessments are important to identify any potential hazards in advance, although staff must be aware that assessments are an ongoing process and so should be vigilant to report concerns not just before planned activities, but whenever they see fit. Whitchurch Primary School has it’s own Health and Safety policy and trains it’s staff in accordance with the document. In the setting I work in, each staff member is set a duty day. They are assigned a specific area for a duty period, such as during play time, where they observe and apply the Health and Safety policy. During this time they are trusted to maintain the school’s First Aid procedures and Child Protection policies. If staff have to use particular equipment for an activity it is important that they clear it away correctly, hazardous equipment such as Staple guns or Scissors should not be left lying around for children to acquire.
If a staff member has concerns about a potential hazard they should report this immediately and to the appropriate member of staff. The Health and Safety Coordinator for Whitchurch Primary School is Mr. Lomax. He must sign off any risk assessments otherwise they may be void. Other ways in which Whitchurch Primary School implements this legislation is through the use of Displays. Health and Safety information is displayed throughout the school for both adults and pupils and is easily accessible from the school office. Another point to consider is that the equipment used in our school meets the recognised standards of safety. This is easily checked, by ensuring that the product displays the correct safety symbols. Some products carry both the Kite-mark and the CE marking. This indicates that the British Safety Institute has independently tested them against the appropriate standard. 1.2 – Describe how health and safety is monitored and maintained in the setting:-
Staff are regularly sent on training courses to keep up to date with policies and procedures. They attend meetings, which are normally held before school starts each morning to inform about any changes to the school’s procedures, updates on Health and Safety matters and any child issues that may have arisen. Health and Safety and environmental issues are also discussed with pupils regularly. This happens in the classroom or in special assemblies with guest speakers. The school makes regular checks of infantry to make sure everything is in working order. If equipment is damaged or deemed dangerous it is the staff member’s duty to report it to the Head Teacher. Teachers are required to regularly check that the classroom is free from hazardous materials or obstructions, even if it is not their own. Classrooms and other areas throughout the school are organised safely.
There is adequate space for the number of children in each class, to move around safely and comfortably. Classroom equipment is well organised so that it does not present a hazard and draws and storage areas are properly marked so that it is clear where different equipment can be found and the children are able to find it with ease. Staff are reminded to always replace equipment in the correct place after use. Before play time, it is my responsibility to set up equipment for the children (small bikes, footballs etc) and to check that the yard is free from potential dangers. Food and drink is strictly prohibited from classrooms unless pre-arranged due to children and staff with allergies throughout the setting. Medical information about children is displayed in the school staff room and available from the main office to refer to when needed. It is updated regularly and staff are informed of any changes to a child’s health. There are trained members of staff in Whitchurch Primary School who are able to assist with medicines and give advice when appropriate.
These teachers update their training regularly depending on which child they’re in charge of, as do the school’s SEN staff. Basic training records are kept up to date and include training for cleaners, cooks and maintenance staff. Staff may notice visits from outside agencies or individuals, throughout school, carrying out scheduled tests. PAT – Portable Appliance Testing, is required for products such as school computers, iPads and Interactive Whiteboards. The Head Teacher or Risk Assessment Coordinator will arrange for testing to be carried out from an outside agency, so that any electrical safety defects may be found. Hazardous equipment such as cleaning products are kept locked in store cupboards with locks that are far out of the reach of children and some areas require a fob system for access. This is in line with the COSHH legislation set out by the government.
1.3 – Describe how people in the setting are made aware of risks and hazards and encouraged to work safely:-
If schools fail to implement the correct health and safety regulations and follow policies, serious consequences can occur. A tragic example of such an incident was the case of an 11 year old pupil who died from an asthma attack after being left in a school corridor by a teacher. An inquest into the death of the child delivered a verdict of ‘death by natural causes, contributed to significantly by neglect’. During the hearing, highlights were made about the lack of policy and training at the school on the nature of asthma and how staff were taught to protect pupils in their care. It is of paramount importance that schools have appropriate health and safety policies in place, which clearly states to the staff, their responsibilities and duties and that the school has a way of reviewing and monitoring compliance with these policies. All staff must receive appropriate training and development to deliver the school’s responsibilities effectively.
At Whitchurch Primary School staff are encouraged to consider and ensure that duty of care to each and every child and staff member is in place. When for example, planning room layouts, I would have to consider those children who may have sensory impairments, such as a child with limited sight, or hearing problems. They would struggle to comprehend what was being said or demonstrated, when being educated in the explanations of safety and I would perhaps need to work with them on an individual basis, tailoring health and safety explanations to their needs. Referring back to question 1.1 considering displays, posters are the main visual source of Health and Safety information throughout the school. They are displayed in corridors at the appropriate eye level for the children and staff and are in places where the majority of the school body can see them.
The poster information varies on the age range they are catered to. Posters for Staff members are displayed in the Staff Room, the Office, in the Staff Toilets and Reprography rooms (amongst others) and display text using sophisticated language, with the names of the Child Protection Officers in the school and how to contact them. The contact information is displayed in bold type in the colour red, whereas the rest of the poster is pretty basic. The health and safety posters for pupils however, are displayed in classrooms, in the canteen and near play areas outside (amongst others). They are brightly coloured with interesting text and illustrations. They use informative but simple language and explain in steps what to do if someone is hurting them. They are at eye-level, laminated for wear and tare and revised and updated regularly. In the setting I work in we asked the children to design posters on Anti-Bullying.
They drew the illustrations themselves and included important points about who they can contact for help and support if they need it. In the Infant Hut which includes children aged 4-7, there are posters in throughout the setting illustrated simply with two faces. One of a smile and the other a sad face. Underneath simply reads, ‘If someone is hurting you, or you feel upset you can tell a Playworker’. These seem to be effective as a number of the very young children have used phrases such as, ‘I’ve lost my happy face today’ and feel comfortable enough to talk to us. Another interactive measure we put in place was the invention of the Suggestion Box. This box is a place where the children can write down their thoughts, feeling and ideas for activities. Children are able to write their concerns down if they feel they don’t have the confidence to as an Adult. The box is emptied after every session and the appropriate steps are taken.
1.4 – Identify the lines of responsibility and reporting for health and safety in the setting:-
Health and Safety for children and young people is of paramount importance and includes Departmental advice on health and safety, covering activities that take place on or off school premises, including school trips. Within school, products such as toys, books, stationary and playground equipment (amongst others) are routinely inspected by the Health and Safety Coordinator at regular intervals. Any equipment deemed unfit or in poor working order should be reported to the Health and Safety Coordinator or to the Head Teacher immediately. The school also follows the policies and procedures of RIDDOR. This is the Reporting of Injuries, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations of 2013.
The use of RIDDOR can be seen Whitchurch Primary School through the Head Teacher Mrs. Griffin, who is the responsible person for the school. She must report any cases or work-disease that affects an employee and that a doctor confirms in writing. She is also required to report any work-related deaths, or specific injuries, which take place while they are working on the premisses. Injuries to pupils and visitors who are involved in an accident at school are also reportable if there is a death, or if the person is taken directly from the scene for treatment in hospital. The Head Teacher should report to the Health and Safety Executive immediately and can do so online, by phone or through out of hours and paper forms. Procedures for such incidents can also be found in the school’s Health and Safety policy, which staff must read thoroughly. It is the Site Manager’s responsibility for dealing with or removing hazards on the premises. It is important to note that all staff and pupils have a responsibility for reporting health and safety at Whitchurch Primary School.
There are a number of ways in which the school I work in works to prevent and manage emergency situations. Each school needs to have enough first aiders at any time to deal with situations that may arise. The Health and Safety Coordinator is responsible for replenishing and checking First Aid boxes on a regular basis. There are clear lines for reporting incidents and following them is of paramount importance. In the after-school club I work in, which is on the same site as Whitchurch Primary and admits the same children, it is my responsibility to report any incidents to my manager. If I child is injured a they are taken to a quiet area and seen to using first aid. Everyone in my setting has a Paediatric First Aid Certificate that enables us to give basic first aid to the children in our setting. The member of staff dealing with the incident must fill in an accident form with the date and time of the incident and the treatment that was given.
It is the responsibility of the member of staff who’s dealing with the child to inform the manager and pass on the accident form. She will then discuss the details with the child’s parents when they arrive. If for any reason the manager is away, the details must be passed onto one of the Supervisors in the club. When concerning incidents that require medical treatment, the decision comes down to the manager. She will call the parents of the child and advise them to take them to hospital or ring for paramedics herself. It is important to note that there are a number of children in my care that have complex medical conditions. If they require medical treatment the first port of call is to ring for an ambulance, then secondly manage their situation through the training we have received.
2.1 – Demonstrate how to identify potential hazards to the health, safety and security of children and young people:-
It is inevitable that when working with children and young people, there will always be the risk of potential hazards, but it is how you deal with them that matters. Working as a Teaching Assistant it is my responsibility to ensure that pupils are not subjected to any danger whilst in my care. It is so important to be vigilant, at all times, as circumstances can change without warning. Staff are expected to perform at their best at all times to prevent accidents and emergencies from occurring. There are many areas within the learning environment to take into consideration and these include; Outdoor spaces, Safe layout of rooms, Furniture, Light and noise and Organisation. Outdoor areas used both by children and young people, not forgetting staff members also, should regularly be checked for security and boundaries should be monitored to ensure that they are safe.
The Higher Learning Teaching Assistant in the class I work with has the responsibility on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays to inspect the yard before play time. She decides whether the grass area is dry enough to play on and that the play equipment is safe to be used. She is also the First Aider for these days. On the days she is busy elsewhere it is my responsibility to go out to the yard and collect the children from the end of break and walk them safely and sensibly back to the classroom. There are a number of climbing frames in Whitchurch Primary School that can be used by all the children in the school. However Junior and Infant children generally have different play times to each other and then they merge during lunch later on. When the children are outside rules are enforced to remind them how to behave with each other and to safely use equipment. Though I work in a year two class, it is located next to the Nursery and some areas are shared. In the nursery they have a sandpit which has to be checked for cleanliness before each break time, as a range of different wildlife sometimes stray into the area.
When outside it is also important to be aware of plants. Some can be dangerous with nettles and thorns and should be pruned appropriately or noted and removed. The layout of rooms should be organised safely. There must be adequate space so that the number of people are able to move around safely and comfortably. Sometimes areas may get overlooked, but it is my responsibility to say something if I think something might be better from a safety point of view, in a different position. Furniture is another important factor to consider. Generally furniture should be an appropriate size for the age of pupils so that they are able to sit comfortably when working. However, when supplying furniture to an Junior class it is somewhat presumed they will require taller chairs and tables, in comparison with Infant children. Although this may not always be the case as children with Special Needs may need chairs with lower seats or furniture that is more suited to their needs.
Pupils should not be hunched over tables or desks which are too small or have difficulty in working and sitting comfortably. The classroom I work in has a specially adapted table for wheelchair users. It is in the shape of a semi-circle with chairs for children around the outside and then a cut out of the middle where a wheelchair can sit. It enables children with physical disabilities to be included on a table with their peers. At the moment our class teacher uses the space to sit down with groups of children and teach them at their level. Other factors to consider include light and noise. There must be sufficient light for pupils to work in without discomfort. It is important to consider lighting from fluorescent bulbs as this is a harsh light which can sometimes be uncomfortable after a prolonged amount of time, sometimes causing headaches. There have also been a number of times when I have taken a small group of children outside of the classroom to work on an activity and the area I had intended to use was too small or too loud to work in. Having a plan B area is always a good idea.
2.2 – Demonstrate how to deal with hazards to minimise risks to the health, safety and security of children and young people:-
It is important to make sure that I am aware of my school’s policies and procedures for Health and Safety and Security procedures before I start work. Class sizes are important to take into consideration, as there is a legal limit of 30 children per class with children aged 5-7 years. The class I work in in Whitchurch Primary has 29 children and although within the legal requirements, the school’s policies state that there must be at least one Teaching Assistant in each class. A few weeks after I started my placement, I was in on the last day of term before the Christmas holidays. I was taken from my usual class into another year two to assist with activities whilst the Teacher was called away. Before the teacher left the HLTA from my class relayed the importance of not leaving me on my own with the children as I had no training, to which the teacher readily agreed.
Unfortunately the teacher was called away and I was left in the class with another Teaching Assistant. This would have been ok, but she had responsibility of a SEN pupil who needed assistance using the toilet and at one point I was left completely on my own. Although this was only for a couple of minutes, any number of things could have happened to the children in my care. Thankfully nothing did happen and shortly after she arrived back, I left the classroom to inform the office that someone needed to take over from myself as the class teacher was away. In light of that experience if I am asked to join another class I always speak to the teacher to ensure that they understand my background and so I know they’ll be around, not just for the children’s safety but also for mine. Ways in which schools can help to deal with potential future hazards also include creating a proper recruitment process. Policies and procedures should be in place and openly advertised, that help to deter, reject and identify people who might abuse children.
Perspective staff should undertake a thorough DBS check before working with children and young people of any age. Four areas to be particularly mindful of include Fire and Security Hazards, Food Safety and lastly Personal Safety. In the future I may find myself working in an environment that includes some activities which involve a risk of fire, perhaps working in a kitchen doing food technology or in a science lab. Within this environment I should be aware that I need to have some training in what to do. There will likely be regular fire drills aimed at minimising the risk of injury to children and staff in the event of a related incident and I will need know how to evacuate the building quickly and efficiently. In the After-school club I work in, we regularly hold Fire drills. I know what my responsibilities are and have to evacuate children safely. I know where the Fire Assembly points are and how to lead calmly in a potentially chaotic situation. We have a green whistle in each of the huts, which a play worker will blow three times in quick succession.
The children know that this is the signal to leave the building quickly and do so sensibly. Fire hazards can also exist when electrical equipment is misused or has not been checked safely. It is important to be made aware of fire blankets and the different types of fire extinguishers, as they are only affective if used correctly. Security Hazards exist when visitors are allowed to make their way into the school through entrances that aren’t properly staffed. All visitors to Whitchurch Primary School are directed to enter the school through the Main Entrance. Once arriving there their first contact with anyone is the a staff member from the office team. Here they are questioned on their intent and made to sign in, in the log book with their personal details and times of entry and exit. Some visitors may be escorted by relevant members of staff or are buzzed in through the school’s fob system.
There have been times when I have entered through a side door with my fob and a parent has asked to follow me in. In such cases I always stop and direct them to the main entrance. These kind of situations are more likely to happen when we are graced with warmer weather. Doors may be left open and it is important to stay alert to these kinds of situations and make others aware of them also. It is my responsibility to report any security issues such as broken gates or holes in fences as soon as possible. All school kitchens are responsible for complying with the Health and Safety policies set out by the government, as are any other areas within the school that carry out cooking activities with pupils. Is is important to be a good role model for children, I am responsible for practicing good good hygiene and have been awarded my Food Hygiene Certificate. When cooking with children it is extremely important to consider the ingredients that you want to use. These days lots of children have allergies to foods and this must be taken into consideration before the start of an activity. In my work place we have a couple of children who are allergic to Dairy products.
At snack time when making toast etc, we have a clear separate area, with separate chopping boards and utensils to use with an alternate option to the regular butter we use for the majority of the children. Hands are washed between each different preparation of food and utensils washed separately or at the beginning to prevent contamination. Another point to consider is the Food Hygiene Rating of the environment you work in. Anything below a 3 is considered unsatisfactory and needs to be revised. At the setting I work in, we have a standard of 5.
In the classroom children are instructed to wash their hands after every visit to the toilet and before snack and lunch times. Teaching Assistants sometimes supervise hand washing with the youngest children and try to point them in the right direction of good hygiene. It also probably goes without saying, (but can sometimes be overlooked,) that young children should not be left unsupervised near items such as hot plates, ovens or sharp knives. Personal Safety lastly, applies to everyone. Being aware of pupil’s safety at all times while supervising them is a must, due to their ages, abilities of specific needs. It’s important to thane the abilities and needs of pupils into account when working with them, taking particular special note when working with children who have Special Needs.
2.3 – Demonstrate ways of supporting children and young people to take responsibility for their own health, safety and security:-
When working with children, before starting any activity it is important to talk through any health and safety preparation and to discuss any questions they may have about the content of the activity. This will help them feel more a part of the activity and give them more self responsibility. They will also be able to check on and guide their peers on any health and safety instances that may arise. Another reason for sharing your knowledge on the safety of an activity is because children and young people need to be taught to think these things through for themselves independently. This will become part of their learning process and raise their awareness. In the future as adults they’ll be expected to use their common sense and from lessons they have learned previously, preventing potential hazards from forming into accidents. An example of such an instance may occur when working with Reception children.
They will need to be reminded of safety rules and risks a lot more frequently than older children. It is my responsibility to lead by example in such situations. Ways in which you can support children and young people to do this is by giving them as many opportunities as possible to do this. If I was to teach an activity, such as cooking (my class recently had a Bake Sale), involving a new recipe I might gather images and information about the ingredients along with a simple method in on the interactive whiteboard. I’d run through it with the children, asking them questions about what utensils were needed and how to operate appliances correctly, discussing questions about health and safety throughout.
3.1 – Outline the importance of taking a balanced approach to risk management:-
In an environment working with children my main concern it to keep the children in my care safe from harm. It is important to remember that although sometimes this can be challenging, we should encourage children to take measured risks and learn lessons from their experiences. By removing all potential risks from children’s lives we are in fact hindering them, restricting their learning. Activities such as visiting play areas / parks, climbing stairs and jumping from apparatus require investigation, to decide on the level of risk involved. Experiences such as these will extend children’s learning and understanding of the world and how to manage situations in their lives when they are left independently. Giving children opportunities to experience a certain level of risk will help them to develop competence and confidence to make their own decisions in terms of risk taking. Obviously there will be instances when it’ll be known for certain the level of risk to children is high. Faulty electrical equipment and hazardous or poisonous chemicals are such two examples of elevated dangers and risk assessments for these must be carried out with confidence.
If you are unsure of any step in this process it is important to speak out and ask for advice promptly. Children should be allowed to take risks with adult support, without too much intervention. Not being allowed to take risks will leave children’s skills in this area underdeveloped and judgement about their own strengths and skills will be affected. Showing children that you place trust in them will boost their confidence and make them feel more able to deal with their own risk management. In my placement class the children are encouraged to be as independent as possible. If the teacher needs a message to be delivered to a colleague in the main school building, or for something to be collected from the office she allows them in pairs to make the trip on their own, using her school fob to access the school’s security. Of course there is an element of risk when leaving the Infant Hub to go to the main school, but it is assessed beforehand and the children seem to respond very positively with their new sense of responsibility.
There’s also a phone in the classroom, which the children readily offer to answer when it rings. She often chooses children who appear more introverted or shy, encouraging them to step out of their comfort zone. If a child is never allowed to use scissors for example, they will never learn how to use them or develop their fine motor skills in this area. To combat this exercise we can provide them with child – friendly scissors, supervise them during activities and making them aware of how they should hold them safely when walking around. I have vivid memories of being taught this exact lesson whilst in Reception many years ago and now it’s just instinctive. This is how we want to children to feel in years to come. Risk assessments are an essential part of planning activities and a wide range of factors have to be taken into consideration. After an assessment has been done, the activity can go ahead with the understanding that, small accidents may still occur, but these are part of the learning experience. Those responsible for children must take a thoughtful and balanced approach to managing risks.
3.2 – Demonstrate ways of supporting children and young people to assess and manage risk for themselves:-
See in observation.
4.1 – 4.5 – Recognise and respond to emergency situations. Follow the setting’s procedures for dealing with emergency situations. Give reassurance and comfort to those involved in the emergency. Give other people providing assistance clear information about what has happened. Follow the procedures of the setting for reporting and recording accidents and emergencies:-
Whatever environment you find yourself in, working with children and young people, there will always be a likelihood of illness, injuries or incidents occurring at some time. At some point I may find myself being first on the scene of an accident or emergency and it is important I know what steps to take for quick action. Not only children get injured, occasionally colleagues get injured and other adults in the setting. It is vital to follow the correct procedures set out by the school, seeking assistance as soon as possible. Send for one of the school’s qualified first aiders (there are four in Whitchurch Primary School) and an ambulance if necessary, whilst you wait for help. I need to remember that as I’m not a qualified First Aider, I should only take action to prevent any further dangers to the casualty or others. Thinking you can help, when you don’t know what you’re doing can lead to more injury. There are five main areas that are considered as emergency situations, these are; illness, accidents, security incidents, fires and missing children.
The normal procedure for children or adults who have become ill, is to take them to see the first aider on duty. If the first aider is away or cannot be contacted for some reason, the next step is to take them to the school office. This should be done quickly, via a direct route, to ensure you receive help as soon as possible. However, at some point you will find yourself dealing with an illness that has come on suddenly, in an instance such as this, you may need to take action yourself while sending for a first aider. It is important to make sure the casualty is comfortable and ensure that they are warm, but do no attempt to carry out any further treatment. Special considerations should be taken into account if you think a child or another adult may be having an allergic reaction. Lunchtime staff have information and contact numbers for children with known allergies and information for staff about specific children and their needs can be found displayed at the back on the Staff Room.
Although this information is readily available, care should be taken not to disclose it unsuitably due to confidentiality issues. Accidents are thankfully rare at Whitchurch Primary School and this is down to good policies and procedures that have been put in place. When planning a school trip it is important there is a good first aider ratio, to cover any eventualities. First – aid boxes are checked and replenished regularly and although this usually falls down to the qualified first aiders at Whitchurch Primary, it is also my responsibility, if I notice something needs to be updated. There are clear lines of reporting in the school I work in, so that accidents are dealt with and recorded accurately. When considering security at Whitchurch Primary, education is of paramount importance. We have regular discussion with the children in my class, on the importance of security.
We talk about why our actions can be dangerous sometimes and how we can keep ourselves safe. Each morning I’m in placement I have to visit the school office and sign in, I do this as I leave for lunch and after I return also. I am then either buzzed in by the school secretary or I use my fob on the security system. A couple of times pupils have been walking past the entrance and have let me in themselves. Although I thank them for letting me in, I know they’re only trying to be helpful, I always remind them that it’s not a safe practice and they should get a member of staff to let me in, in the future. If I was to notice an unidentified person walking around the school, I would challenge them immediately, or raise my suspicions with another member of staff. Schools may need to evacuate for a number of reasons although fires, bomb scares or other emergencies are thankfully a rare occurrence.
Whitchurch Primary has it’s own health and safety policy which gives guidelines for emergency procedures. At my school, we have regular fire drills, at least once a term. These happen at a range of different times to benefit the widest range of staff. Building evacuation procedures and plans of the schools are displayed throughout corridors and outside classrooms, displaying fire safety equipment, fire doors and assembly points. The school’s health and safety guideline and procedures are also there to protect children from going missing. It is extremely unlikely that a child will go missing, but should this happen while the child is in my care, I will need to know how to raise the alarm. On school trips it is important to periodically check on the group of children I am responsible for as well as keeping an eye on those children that may be being supervised by helpers.
If a child sustains any form of serious injury during play time, the teacher must ring the office and send for the first aider. If their are no teachers around and it is not safe to leave the patient on their own, I would pick two responsible children to make their way as quickly as possible to find an adult for help or to the school office raising the alarm. The first aider on duty that day will then come to playground to see the child. If the child can be moved, the first aider will be helped to move the child to the Year 3 corridor, where the first aid supplies are kept. They will assess the situation and take necessary action. The first aider must inform the class teacher of the accident, who will then speak to the parents at the end of the day.
It is the school’s policy that any child who sustains a serious head injury should be sent home and the parents advised about appropriate action. It is the responsibility of the nominated first aider to record the incident in the accident book as well as any first aid given. In addition, the notification of the Pupil Report Form should be completed and forwarded to the LEA via the head teacher within three days of the accident. The incident book and forms can be found in the main office. It is important to remember to keep calm in emergency situations, keeping a clear head will not only aid me to deal with the situation, but will keep others around me calm as well. Reassuring the patient that they will be ok, is important. To do this I would come down to their level, try to distract them from any pain they may be feeling and most importantly just keep talking to them. It is so important to make sure they that they stay awake, until professional help arrives.