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Support the use of medication in health & social care Essay Sample

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Support the use of medication in health & social care Essay Sample

1.1 Identify legislation that governs the use of medication in social-care settings
There are :
The Medicines Act 1968, the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (and later amendments), the Misuse of Drugs (Safe Custody) Regulations 1973 (and later amendments), the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974), COSHH, the Mental Capacity Act (2005) the Access to health records Act (1990), the Data Protection Act (1998) plus equality legislation.

1.2 Outline the legal classification system for Medication
Prescription only medication (POM)
A prescription issued by a GP or other suitably qualified healthcare professional.

Pharmacy medication (PM)
Medication that is available without a prescription, but under the supervision of a pharmacist. The pharmacist will check that the medicine is appropriate for the individual and their health problem.

Over the counter medication (OTC) / General sales list medication (GLS) Medication that can be bought from a pharmacies, supermarkets and other retail outlets without supervision of a pharmacist. OTC medicines include those that treat minor, self limiting complaints, which people may feel are not serious enough to see their GP or pharmacist about.

Controlled drugs
These are only available on prescription.
These drugs can be addictive.

Complementary or homeopathic remedies
Organic/ natural ingredients.

Some drugs are legal, such as tabacco and alcohol. Also drugs that are prescribed to a patient by their doctor or bought from over the counter are legal. Illegal drugs include prescription drugs that have been dangerously modified and substances that are banned by law. Illegal drugs are classified from A to class C. Class A drugs are most dangerous. Class A drugs include; ecstasy, heroin, cocaine, crack, magic mushrooms, injected amphetamines. Class B include, amphetamines and cannabis

Class C include, tranquillisers and painkillers
Class C are the least dangerous

1.3 Explain how and why policies and procedures or agreed ways of working must reflect and incorporate legislative requirements The polices and procedures are put in place to make sure that legislation is being followed so that all people in the setting, staff and the people who need care are being cared for are safe, all needs are being met, inclusive practice and diversity is being followed out and that the setting is staying within the law. They must reflect on legislation so that the polices and procedures are correct and are the correct way of doing things. For example if a health and safety procedure was put in place and was not inline with legislation then this could cause the setting to get in trouble with the law and could cause harm to the person who was in need of health and safety requirements could become harmed.

2.1 List common types of medication
Antibiotics, analgesics, anti-histamines, antacids, anti-coagulants, psychotropic medicine, diuretics, laxatives, hormones cytotoxic medication. Classification of medication

Prescription only medication
A prescription issued by a GP or other suitably qualified healthcare professional.

Pharmacy medication
Medication that is available without a prescription, but under the supervision of a pharmacist. The pharmacist will check that the medicine is appropriate for the individual and their health problem.

Over the counter medication .
Medication that can be bought from a pharmacies, supermarkets and other retail outlets without supervision of a pharmacist. OTC medicines include those that treat minor, self limiting complaints, which people may feel are not serious enough to see their GP or pharmacist about.

Controlled drugs
These are only available on prescription.
These drugs can be addictive.

Complementary or homeopathic remedies
Organic/ natural ingredients.

Some drugs are legal, such as tobacco and alcohol. Also drugs that are prescribed to a patient by their doctor or bought from over the counter are legal. Illegal drugs include prescription drugs that have been dangerously modified and substances that are banned by law. Illegal drugs are classified from A to class C. Class A drugs are most dangerous. Class A drugs include; ecstasy, heroin, cocaine, crack, magic mushrooms, injected amphetamines. Class B include, amphetamines and cannabis

Class C include, tranquillisers and painkillers

Class C are the least dangerous.

2.2 List conditions for which each type of medication
may be prescribed
Antibiotics = fight infection
Analgesics= pain relief
Anti- histamines = allergies
Antacids= heart burn
Anti-coagulants = prevents blood from clotting
Psychotropic medicine = mental health problems
Diuretics = prevent fluid build up
Laxatives= reliefs constipation and stool softener
Hormones= balances the mind and body
Cytotoxic medication= cell killing properties

2.3 Describe changes to an individual’s physical or mental wellbeing that may indicate an adverse reaction to a medication
Sickness and diarrhoea, dizziness, headache, rash, irritation to the skin.

3.1 Describe the roles and responsibilities of those
involved in prescribing, dispensing and supporting use of medication The prescriber must be trained appropriately (may be a GP or nurse prescriber for example) and update themselves as required by any professional body that they might belong to – prescriptions should be written clearly, ensuring the patient understands any side effects and the reasons for the prescription be given to them and how long they should take it for. Medication should only be prescribed after careful consideration of the patient’s best interests – cost, unfortunately (but realistically) may also be a factor to consider. The prescriber should have access to the most up to date version of the British National Formulary (BNF) which is the prescriber’s ‘bible’ (there is a version for prescribing for children and an on line version).

The person dispensing must also be appropriately trained, follow safe systems of work and understand the side effects of various drugs; be able to access appropriate information and understand when to access advice or further information (the dispenser may not necessarily be a trained pharmicist but should be working alongside one). By supporting medication, I’m assuming you mean how does the person administering the medication support an individual to take it? If so, this is through following care plans or support plans; staying with the person to support them to take it; using appropriate equipment (spoon etc) and a drink of water and of course reassuring communication and of course time.

3.2 Explain where responsibilities lie in relation to use of over-the-counter remedies and supplements
As a care worker i’m only able to administer prescribed medication that has an current existing medication record chart. If a service wants to take over the counter remedies and supplements its their choice and their own responsibility to do so.

4.1 Describe the routes by which medication can be Administered
Routes: oral (ingestion), inhalation (inhaler, nebuliser) , injection (intra-dermal, sub-cutaneous),Infusion, topical, installation (eye, ear, nose drops) rectal, vaginal.

4.2 Describe different forms in which medication may be presented
Forms: solid (eg tablets, pessaries), liquid (e.g. insulin, syrups, suspensions, drops), gas (e.g oxygen, nebuliser), topical (e.g. transdermal, creams/lotions).

4.3 Describe materials and equipment that can assist in administering medication
Equipment: (e.g. spacer devices, oral syringes, nebuliser, drink)

6.1 Explain the importance of the following principles in the use of medication:
consent
self-medication or active participation
dignity and privacy
confidentiality

6.2 Explain how risk-assessment can be used to promote an individual’s independence in managing medication

Medication Risk / Needs Assessment should be carried out by suitably competent individuals. It is expected that the assessment could be carried out by Social Workers, Care Managers or healthcare staff. The Medication Risk Assessment should identify the support needs of the service user. Reference must be made to the relevant health professional (GP, Community Nurse or Community Pharmacist) where further information is needed.

The Service user must provide consent for the support being offered and the Risk Assessment, Medication Profile and Service User Plan must be accessible in the service user’s home. Where a Service User is unable to provide consent due to a lack of mental capacity then a functional capacity test needs to be undertaken in accordance with organisational policy and procedures and the requirements of the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Subsequent actions regarding the administration of medication must be undertaken with adherence to acting in that person’s best interests.

6.3 Describe how ethical issues that may arise over the use of medication can be addressed
One ethical issue which raised its head a few years ago and has resulted in changes to the way medication is administered was the covert crushing of medications and adding them to jam or other foods to disguise them when an individual declined to take them. This was considered unethical, unfair deceitful and often dangerous and is now forbidden. Medication which is crushed can be dangerous (slow release medicines can hit the system all in one go causing collapse and serious illness) and giving it in this hidden manner takes away a person’s right to choose. Now, I can’t say this doesn’t go on anymore as I am sure it probably does but, a good provider will call a meeting and discuss any difficulties when administering medication with professionals (pharmacist, GP etc) and of course any advocate, family or carers. Other ethical issues around medication might be a person’s strong beliefs around the testing of medicines on animals.

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