Aspects| Source 1 – Gender and Authenticity in Japanese Popular Music: 1980-2000| Source 2 – SMAP, Sex, and Masculinity: Constructing the Perfect Female Fantasy in Japanese Popular Music| Source 3 – They’re Beating the Drum for Female Empowerment;Music: As they challenge gender stereotypes, Japanesetaiko ensembles are catching on with women, especially Asian Americans.| Analysis, Interpretation, explanation| Claim| Both Shonen Knife and Puffy subvert the traditional perception of gender in Japan.| Sports and Music Assemble People (SMAP), reconstructs the idea of masculinity by embracing their feminine sides.| Female Taiko drummers go against the social stigma that Japanese female must be gentle and soft.| Both Cogan and Chan examine the changing traditional women’s roles in Japan by showing how female artists redefine their positions in society through their works. On the other hand, Darling-Wolf focuses on how the reconstruction of masculinity has successfully attracted many female fans.| Reasons, Evidence.
Shonen Knife write their own lyrics and is more independent (“creative control’)2. Puffy plays an important role in illustrating how women can set foot in entertainment industry (“subvert traditional ideas of women’s activities in Japan”) | 1. SMAP reconstructs the idea of masculinity by adding the female element to satisfy the Japanese female media consumers’ yearn for the males taking on females’ traditional roles and traits. (“crying contests”, “not afraid to show their feelings”)| 1. They yell and use their physical strength which is a total contradictory to the depiction of traditional Japanese women. (“ male things”)2. Younger women perceive that their involvement in playing Taiko can help them to achieve “gender equity”| The influence of the Japanese female and male has reconstructed gender stereotype in Japan.Female artists yield hope for Japanese women to redefine their gender roles and even embrace the so-called masculinity.Male artists are also seen to embrace their feminine side, illustrating the reinterpretation of masculinity in Japan society.
Assumptions| -Puffy is representative of Japan’s pop group while Shonen Knife is representative of Japan’s punk band.| – SMAP is representative of other male bands in Japan.- Most Japanese audience value the personality of their favourite singers more than their ability to sing.| – Those women who choose to play Taiko are assumed to have the intention to strike for gender equality in Japan society.- Female Taiko drummers are not “ladylike” and “mild-mannered” | All authors assume that music plays a pivotal role in representing Japan’s gender stereotyping issue.| Audience Appeals| Comparison of two female bands with contrasting styles to strengthen their evaluation pertaining to gender stereotyping.| Descriptive portrayal of the SMAP’s members and their work to make audience understand how SMAP manages to remain as an influential band in Japan despite their lack of ability to sing. | Use of dialogues to reveal the character of the female Taiko drummer| A comparison gives a clearer picture the extent of similarity and differences between Shonen Knife and Puffy.
Elaborate explanation of the examples allows audience to understand more about SMAP. The use of dialogue in Chan’s work makes reading easy | Style| More academic, with subdivided topics before a combination of the topics.| More academic, with very specific examples to discuss an issue.| Casual style| All authors have their own styles in delivering their works. Cogan divides the topics to make the audience understand the topic individually before merging the topics as a whole. Darling-Wolf uses specific examples to start up the issue to be discussed while Chan prefers an informal style to make her work easy to be understand.|