1. What factors account the success and popularity of TCP/IP? The factors that account for the success and popularity of TCP/IP are integrated addressing system, design for routing, underlying network independence, scalability, open standards and development process, and university. TCP/IP includes within it a system for identifying and addressing devices on both small and large networks. Unlike some network layer protocols, TCP/IP is specifically designed to facilitate the routing of info over a network of arbitrary complexity. TCP/IP operates primarily at layers three and above, and includes provisions to allow it to function on almost any lower layer technology, including LANs, wireless LANs, and WANs of various sorts. One of the most amazing characteristics of TCP/IP is how scalable its protocols have proven to be. The TCP/IP standards are not proprietary, but open standards freely available to the public. Everyone uses TCP/IP because everyone uses it. 2. Name and describe the central TCP/IP protocols.
Correlate each of these protocols with the layer of the OSI model where they operate. 3. Name, describe, and compare and contrast the two addressing schemes for TCP/IP. Give an example of each addressing scheme. Why are there two addressing schemes? Networks recognize two kinds of addresses which are logical and physical addresses. Logical addresses are network layer and physical addresses are MAC. MAC addresses are assigned to devices NIC at the factory by its manufacturer. Logical addresses can be manually automatically assigned and must follow rules set by the protocol standards.
4. What is a subnet mask, what is its purpose, and what are the default subnet masks associated with each class? A subnet mask is a special 32-bit number that when combined with a devices IP address, informs the rest of the network about the segment or network to which the device is attached. Subnet masks are composed of four octets and can be expressed in either binary or dotted decimal notation. 5. Explain what a domain name is and describe what a fully qualified domain name is. Domain names are associated with a company or other type of organization, such as a university, government organization, or company. A fully qualified domain name is a local host name plus its domain name. 6. How does a domain name get converted to an IP address?
The IP address and other information for a host name is found by tracing down a tree of information stored in domain names servers distributed around the net. 7. What is the unique address of each process on a computer system and how does it facilitate communication? And what forms a virtual connection between a process on one computer with the same process running on another computer? 8. List the commonly used port numbers and their corresponding processes. Also identify which port numbers use TCP and which use UDP or a combination of the two. Port number range from 0 to 65535 and are divided by IANA into three types which are Well- known ports, Registered ports, and Dynamic and/or Private ports. Well known ports are in the range of 0 to 1023 and are assigned to processes that only the operating system or an administrator of the system can access. Registered ports are in the range of 1024 to 49151. Dynamic ports and/or Private ports are those ranging from 49152 through 65535 and are open for use without restriction.
The Well-known ports were the first ports assigned to processes, and so the earliest TCP/IP protocols, such as TCP, UDP, Telnet, and FTP use Well- known ports. 9. Name and describe the Application layer protocols that are a part of TCP/IP, including their known strengths and weaknesses, if any. Which protocol has a client portion and a server portion and how does one interact with it? The Application layer protocols that are a part of TCP/IP are FTP, Telnet, TFTP, NNTP, and PING. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an Application layer protocol used to send and receive files via TCP/IP. Telnet is a terminal emulation protocol used to log on to remote hosts using the TCP/IP protocol suite. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a TCP/IP Application layer protocol that enables file transfers between computers, but it is simpler than FTP.
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) facilitates the exchange of newsgroup messages between multiple servers and users. Packet Internet Groper (PING) is a utility that can verify that TCP/IP is installed, bound to the NIC, configured correctly, and communicating with the network. In FTP exchanges, a host running the FTP server portion accepts commands from another host running the FTP client portion. 10. Name, describe, and compare and contrast two methods of automatically assigning IP addresses. Two methods of automatically assigning IP addresses are dynamic and static. Dynamic is appropriate for big companies or small networks where you don’t think about such things. Static is constant IP address which you can eventually remember and use the IP itself but not full network name.