1. Motivation for European imperialism came from technology, the Industrial Revolution, and colonization in Africa. European imperialists were so successful because of the steam engine improving transportation throughout the continent. The Maxim gun was quickly granted by countries during the time African armies were still depending on antique weaponry. The steam engine provided easier ways to travel deep within Africa. Colonies and controlling nations were able to have close communication through cables and railroads. Although industrialization agitated initiatives in many nations, they looked at Africa as a source for markets and raw materials. The Industrial Revolution accommodated many European countries with consideration toward adding lands to their power. They searched for new markets and raw materials to improve their economies. Colonization was easier to handle mainly because of Africa’s huge variety of cultures intimidated unity among one another.
2. Two steps taken by the British to gain economic, political, or social control over Nigeria related to management methods such as shaping the economies to gain benefits and getting people to adopt European customs. One way was through compromising with the Nigerians socially. Some agreed on treaties of protection and accept British residents. Those who opposed the interference rebelled against the foreign affair. The British organized a conquest of northern Nigeria that was proficient through the Royal Niger Company. It was earned control through the trade along the Niger River. Another reason was the fact the economically, Europeans were advancing toward using imperialism to gain power over Nigeria by also using indirect control. The Berlin Conference handed Britain a protectorate over landscapes. It was imperative to not only claim a territory but also to administer the citizens living there. Nigeria turned out to be the utmost diverse area to manage culturally. The assumptions councils would train local leaders in the British population would govern themselves.
3. The role geopolitics played in the outbreak of the Crimean War involved Russia launching a war on the Ottomans to gain the area on the Black Sea. Reason why was to provide a warm weather port for Russia. The Crimean War broke out and Britain, France and the Ottomans joined forces to prevent anymore loss of land from the empire. They defeated Russia. It broadcasted the Ottoman Empire’s weakness from the military’s perspective. World powers were drawn to its location and the Ottomans controlled access to the Mediterranean and Atlantic sea trade route. Russia attempted to win favor, and then assembled alliances with Ottoman enemies which finally waged war. Although they were receiving help from Britain and France, land was still being lost. By the time World War I began, the Ottoman Empire diminished and no longer existed.
4. India was the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire because India was the major supplier for raw materials during the Industrial Revolution. Britain cherished the country for its potential more than its actual profit. Over 300 million people were also apart of the gigantic potential market for British-made goods. The British set up restrictions regarding prevention of the Indian economy from operating independently. For being the brightest and most valuable British colony, India was advised as the “jewel in the crown”. Policies considered competition with British goods prohibited. It also called for producing raw materials for British manufacturing and purchase goods. Britain viewed India in this perspective because of how rich their markets were and their independence throughout the country without interference from outside allies. Their economy boosted population growth, production of more goods, and the technology world was introduced. India lost their political and economic power to the British.
They restricted Indian-owned industries and loss self-sufficiency for many villagers. Officials threatened traditional Indian life after the adoption of hands-off policies for religious and social customs. 5. Mixed results of the European colonization in Southeast Asia included management of plantations and trade brought in a huge Dutch population, seized Malacca from the Portuguese and fought the British for control of Java. The Dutch moved to Indonesia and claimed it as their home. They created a rigid social class system and forced farmers to plant in specific export crops. Economies grew on cash crops. Improved communication and transportation advanced through harbors, roads and rail systems. Even though it mostly boosted European businesses, education, sanitation and health improved as well. Cultural changes periodically led to religious and racial encounters that are still viewed today. Millions of people migrated to work on plantations and in the mines in Southeast Asia. Later became known as the “melting pot” for different religions and ethnicities.