We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

The Circular Flow Model Essay Sample

essay
  • Pages: 3
  • Word count: 767
  • Rewriting Possibility: 99% (excellent)
  • Category: model

Get Full Essay

Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues.

Get Access

Introduction of TOPIC

Question 1: `the circular flow model shows how real resources and financial payments are exchanged between firms and households.`(begg, fischer & dornbusch)
a) explain this statement
b) draw the circular flow model of an economy
c) define leakages (withdrawals) from the circular flow
d) define injections into the circular flow
e) explain how equilibrium is achieved in the circular flow

Question 2: using appropriate IS/LM diagrams show:
a) how equilibrium income and the interest rate are determined in a closed economy
b) how an increase in government spending can affect equilibrium income and interest rate
c) what is meant by `crowding out`

Circular Flow Model
“The circular flow model shows how real resources and financial payments are exchanged between firms and households.(Begg, Fischer & Dornbusch)” The statement is based on a economic model promulgated by Adam Smith that provides for the circular flow of goods and services and money between two sectors: firms and households. Households provide labor and land for firms, who in turn produce goods and services for the households. Households receive rent and wages for the labor, land (known as factors of production), which use the money received to purchase goods and services from the firms.

Leakages in the circular model occur when other sectors, i.e. government, overseas, and the finance sectors, extract money from firms and households, while injections occur when these other sectors infuse money to firms and households. Leakages happen when not all money and goods and services are paid to the firms and households, i.e. (i) when household deposit money in banks, (ii) households and firms pay taxes to the government, and (iii) household expor

t, pay for goods produced by firms outside the economy. Injections occur when money, other than from

Sorry, but full essay samples are available only for registered users

Choose a Membership Plan
firms and households, are infused to the economy. This occurs when (i) government spend money to provide basic services, roads, buildings, etc., to households and firms, (ii) banks invest money in firms by buying stock or bonds, and (iii) overseas households, in a foreign trade, buy goods pay for goods produced by firms inside the model.

Equilibrium occurs when supply is equal to demand in the markets for (i) labor and capital, and (i) goods and services. When this occurs, we generally have a stable economy, when leakages equal to injections – investments and government spending equal savings and taxes. Equilibrium is not achieved in a contracting economy, which happens when taxes to government plus savings are higher leakages are higher than investments and government spending. This results to less spending by households, thus inventory accumulation by firms. In an expanding economy, injections (investments and government spending) are higher than savings and taxes. Hence, more money enters the economy, resulting to more goods and services and higher prices due to increasing demand.

IS/LM Diagram

The LM Curve is an upward sloping curve in diagram comparing income (on the horizontal axis), and interest rates (on the vertical), representing that an increase in income or GDP implies in increase demand for money, hence higher interest rates. The IS curve is a downward sloping curve showing investment as a function of interest rate. The IS curve is sloping downwards because, (i) higher level of savings requires higher income or GDP, and (ii) GDP is increased by higher investments. The point of intersection of the IS and LM curve implies an equilibrium in the goods market and the money market

An increase in government purchases or a cut in taxes would increase expenditure on goods and services and therefore shift the IS curve. Additional government spending (or more tax cuts) increases expenditure on goods and services, which would cause more production. At the original interest rate, output is higher, causing a higher demand for money than what is available. Equilibrium may be achieved if there is an increase in the interest rate

Crowding out occurs when the demand for money is insensitive or inelastic to interest rate adjustments or changes. This results to a vertical LM Curve. With a vertical LM curve, any shift of the IS curve affects only interest rates. The level of output or income will remain unchanged. Under a crowd out, a fiscal expansion shifts the IS curve to the right, and would result to a higher interest rate at equilibrium.

References
The Hicks-Hansen IS-LM Model. http://CEPA.NEWSCHOOL.EDU. Retrieved 2008/07/05

We can write a custom essay on

The Circular Flow Model Essay Sample ...
According to Your Specific Requirements.

Order an essay

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

Goffman’s Dramaturgical model

Social reality can be defined as a uniform paradigm representing collective concepts and representations of the world we live in. The phrase human agent addresses that individuals have the power to react on their own accord without structural influence; they then have the calculated ability to shape their own life trajectories. This statement does correctly asses how human agents are actively involved in the dialectic relationship creating social reality. The Symbolic Interactionist approach would support this statement. This 1st generation model argues that social reality is created through social interaction and stresses the importance of language constructed within patterned ways. However, this statement over emphasises the amount of agency accessible for individuals, in mundane life, we are able to actively influence and define actions and situations, but only to some degree. The society, or influences from above, is shaped by the individual and the individual is shaped by reality. Each...

Model of development for children

1.Understand the expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth – 19 years. 1.1Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years. Cross referenced with (H/601/3305) Child and young person development – L2 Learning outcome 1.1 The development of children and young people from birth through to 19 years is a very broad process that is unique to everyone. Therefore, the milestones of development which are a pre-determined order/sequence of growth and development of any child/young person can/will be affected by the rate of development and can vary hugely depending on many factors. Physical Development is an important area of development and can often be assumed will develop naturally as they grow. Whilst this may be the case, opportunities for their physical development should be supported in order from them to develop their gross motor skills and fine motor skills. 0-3 years...

SARA Problem-Solving Model

SARA is an effective problem-solving model used by the police to identify and solve the problems within a community. Law enforcers and crime analysts use this model to study the issues that are created from the everyday environment and also to make improvements in the problem-oriented policing. SARA process involves four steps that are scanning, analysis, response, and assessment. Scanning is the first step of the SARA model. This step includes the recognizable proof of issues that are intermittent and of worry to the police and also general society. Once the issues are distinguished they are organized by the seriousness and are chosen to be examined. For instance, the number of break-ins, street crimes, or other issues of serious concerns are identified. Crime analysts help the force in the determination of serious issues by giving them the data which helps the police to recognize and organize critical issues inside their...

Popular Essays

logo

Emma Taylor

online

Hi there!
Would you like to get such a paper?
How about getting a customized one?