The word eschatology means the study of the last things. It derives from eschatos (adjective) meaning last and logos meaning subject or word. Strictly speaking the eschaton is the last age. However, in another sense, whatever is in the future can generally be subsumed under the word. The first prophecy, speaking of the destruction of evil (Gen. 3:15) was strictly speaking an eschatological matter since evil will be defeated at the very end, however much it has been defeated on the way. Eschatological things are generally those things which are ahead, and specifically those which are at the very end-time. 2. The Background To Eschatology
(i) Salvation History
The Biblical view of history is what we call linear or teleological. We mean that the telos (end) is the actual consummation and goal of completion of that which has been along the linear line of history. Many eastern religions and philosophies do not see an end, but rather cyclic movements which may consummate but recede to repetition of the former cycles. Eschatology, then, is wholly linked with salvation history.
(heilsgeschichte) means that God is the God of history, and that in fact all history relates to the salvation which God is working out. It is not only an aspect – redemption within history – but history itself is redeemed, or, to put it another way, all history is God’s act of salvation, rightly understood.
History, on the whole, is often understood as the simple chronicle of events as they happen. To this interpretations of history are often added. Some even adduce certain principles or patterns from the historic events. However, creation, redemption, and the final restoration of all things is the whole event of redemption. Hence the ‘end things’ (eschatology) must not be seen on their own, but viewed from the perspective of salvation history. 3. Christ and Eschatology: The Lord of The Future
It goes without saying that all eschatology is in the hands of the Lord of history, Jesus Christ. However, his Lordship must be looked at from a number of angles, and this we will proceed to do. We will have to recognise these in relation to the plan of God the Father, for example, Ephesians 1:4-10. His Lordship relates to his mediation in creation, redemption, in the bringing of the sons to heirship, and to the ultimate unification of all things. (i) Christ and Creation
N.T. passages such as Col. 1:15-17, John 1:1-3, I Cor. 8:6 (cf. Hebrews 2:10) indicate that all things were created in Christ. Some of the Scriptures show him as the mediator of creation, and others simply as creator. However, it is best to see him as creating through the power and aid of the Father (Hebrews 1:2-3, I Cor. 8:6). The Doctrine of the Last Things: Eschatology 4 For our purposes he is shown as Lord of creation. Whilst certain O.T. passages may refer to this act of creation, e.g. use of the term ‘by the word of God’ (cf. Psalm 33:6-9, 148:5-6), yet it is the N.T which makes this fact explicit.
Eschatology must never be seen apart from creation, since the climax of the eschaton is the renewal of creation (cf.! Isaiah 65:l7ff, 66:22ff, Rev. 21:lf, etc.). Hence in Ephesians 1:9-10 the all things of creation are said to be finally headed up (or, unified) in Christ. As we will see, creation is related to redemption since Romans 8:l8ff (cf. Isaiah 11:1-9) speaks of the redemption of creation into its ultimate form and liberty.
Developing Composition Skills –Mary Ruetten (237)
(Why Do People Lie?)
One reason people lie is to achieve personal power. Achieving personal power is helpful for someone who pretends to be more confident than he really is. For example, one of my friends threw a party at his house last month. He asked me to come to his party and bring a date. However, I didn’t have a girlfriend. One of my other friends, who had a date to go to the party with, asked me about my date. I didn’t want to be embarrassed, so I claimed that I had a lot of work to do. I said I could easily find a date even better than his if I wanted to. I also told him that his date was ugly. I achieved power to help me feel confident; however, I embarrassed my friend and his date. Although this lie helped me at the time, since then it has made me look down on myself. Explanation
Paragraph Power George M. Rooks (10)
Important Swiss Customs for Foreigners
(topic sentence) Three important Swiss customs for tourists to know deal with religion, greeting, and punctuality. (subject development) The Swiss people are very religious, and Sunday is their holy day. On Sunday, people rarely work in the garden, in the house, or even on the car. Foreign tourists should know that the most drugstores, supermarkets, and banks are closed on Sunday. The Swiss are also a formal people. For example, they seldom call acquaintances by their first names; the German “Herr” and French “Monsieur” are much more frequently used in Switzerland than the English “Mister” is used in the United States. A tourist should therefore say either “Herr” or “Monsieur” when greeting an acquaintance, and only use the person’s first name if he is a close friend. In addition, Switzerland is the land of watches and exactness. It is important to be on time to parties, business, meetings, and churches because Swiss hosts, factory bosses, and ministers all love punctuality. It is especially important for tourists to be on time for trains: Swiss train conductors never wait for late arrivers. (summary sentence) In summary, Swiss customs are very easy to follow and very important to remember! Description
Developing Composition Skills –Mary Ruetten (129)
(Describe College Life)
Most students like the freedom they have in college. Usually college students live on their own, in the dormitory or in an apartment. This means they are free to come and go as they like. Their parents can’t tell them when to get up, when to go to school, and when to come home. It also means that they are free to wear what they want. There are no parents to comment about their hair styles or their dirty jeans. Finally, they are free to listen to their favorite music without interference from parents.