The Early Chesapeake Essay Sample

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• The founding of Jamestown:
-1607 Established their colony, named Jamestown
-London company promoters had no desire of a family-centered community, there were no women in Jamestown -Captain John smith became council president in fall of 1608, later on smith left –

-1609 the London company was changed to The Virginia company. From the king they got more power over the colony and also more land. -Winter of 1609-1610 became known as the “starving Time” Europeans where forced to eat dogs, cats ,rats ,snakes, Toadstool, horsehinds , and corpses of dead men. -just when Jamestown was almost extinct Lord De La Warr became the first governor. His strict leadership got Jamestown back on its feet. -Jamestown expanded when colonist discovered the marketable crop tobacco.

-many people where against using and selling tobacco.
-Tobacco spread through Jamestown
-the Tobacco Cultivation Created pressure for territorial expansion.
-English farmers start to used so called native land
-In 1612 The Jamestown planter John Rolfe produced the high quality tobacco. •Expansion
-Tobacco wasn’t enough to help the Virginia Company 1616 there was no profits. -1618 “The Headright System” the Virginia company established this trying to recruit new settlers and workers to the colony profitable. They were fifty-acre grants, new settlers got fifty acres of land. -in 1619 they brought 100 Englishwomen/ ironworkers and other skilled crafts men to Virginia to become wives of their colonist. The women would be sold for 120 pounds of tobacco. -July, 30,1619, in Jamestown church , delegates for different community met as the House of Burgesses. The first meeting of an elected legislature, a representative assembly, within what was to become The United states. -The first step to the enslavement of Africans within what was to be the American republic was in 1619.

– Thomas Dale assaulted Powhatan Indians by kidnaping the chiefs daughter, when the chief didn’t try to take her back the daughter converted and married John Rolfe. She died later after -The Indian Chief Powhatan planned attacks after them taking his passed away, but when he died his brother Opechancanough became head of the native confederacy and defended the tribal lands from the European encroachments. -March 1622 tribesmen attacked,347 whites of all ages and genders were killed including John Rolfe -The aftermath of the 1622 uprising ended in bankruptcy

-In 1624 James revoked the company’s charter, and the colony became under the control of the crown, till 1776.

•Exchanges of the agricultural Technology
-The English where more technologically advanced then the natives. -the reason why the spanish in south America had grown rich was because the natives there had built advanced civilization and minded gold and silver. “The Spanish wouldn’t have gotten any more money if they had ill people, very little planted, and also labored and manured like Virginia had.” -the survival of Jamestown was largely the result of agricultural technologies developed by Indians and borrowed by the English.

•Maryland and the Calverts
-Maryland was George Cavlert’s ( the first lord Baltimore) dream -after he died, in 1632 his son ( the second Baltimore) Cecilius . Received a charter that granted him territory in parts of Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia. -1634 two ships with at most 300 in each landed out the village of St. Mary’s, Unlike the Virginians there was no problems with the local indains

•Turbulent Virginia
-from 1642 through 1670’s sir William Berkeley remained in control of the government In Jamestown. -Berkeley was the reason for the put down of the 1644 Indian uprising. -Virginia’s population increased and by 1660 it had about 40,000 people. -in 1652 three counties where established in the territory promised to the Indians. -1619 all men of the age 70 or older were entitled to vote. 1670, voting was restricted to landowners. •Bacon’s Rebellion

-1763 Nathaniel Bacon arrived in Virginia.
-backcountry and the Indians where in constant danger of attack. -white settlers in western Virginia resented the governor’s attempt s to hold the line of settlement steady to avoid antagonizing the natives. – the white settlers believed that the policy was an effort by the eastern aristocracy to protect its dominance by holding down the white population in the west. – but really the policy was at least as much an effort by Berkeley to protect his own lucrative fur trade with the Indians. – bacon was unhappy with Berkeley because of his exclusion from the inner circle of the govenor’s council, and because Berkeley refused to allow him a peace of the Indian fur trade.

-1675 some Doeg Indians mad about the European intrusions into their lands, raided a western plantation and killed a white servant. Whites reacted angrily attacking a small Doeg tribe. They fighting going back and forth. -not happy with how the governor was treating these attacks, bacon and landholders struck on there own against the Indians. – Bacon was dismissed from the governors council and him and he’s fallowers where named rebels. -Bacon led his now army to Jamestown twice, the second time sending the governor to exile. Later Bacon died suddenly.

-Berkeley postion was bolstered by the arrival of British troops and regained control. -1677 The Indians signed a treaty that opened additional lands to white settlemenet.

-parts of a struggle to define the boundary between Indian and white lands in Virginia -its showed how unwilling the English settlers where to applying to earlier agreements with the natives. -how the Indians where no longer willing to tolerate the white settlers moving into there territory. -an the potential for instability in the colony’s large population of free landless men. (page 40 significance of Bacon’s Rebellion)

-land people in both eastern and western Virginia began to recognize a common interest in preventing social unrest from below, that is one reason why they turned to the African slave trade to fulfill their need for labor

The Growth Of New England
•Plymouth Plantation
-I was illegal to leave England without the consent of the king -some separatist of the hamlet of scrooby decided to move to across the atlanic where the hoped to create the kind of community worship who they liked -leaders of the scrooby group got permission from the Virginia company to settle in Virgina. -the migration puritans “ knew they were pilgrims”.

-September 1620 they left port of Plymouth on the English coast , in the mayflower with 35 saints ( puritan separatist) and 67 people who were not full members of the leaders church. – they found themselves on Cape cod, but then moved to Plymouth outside of the London company’s territory. -as a result of having no legal basis for settling there 41 saints signed a document, “ The Mayflower Compact” which established a civil government and proclaimed their allegiance to the king.

-On December 21, 1620 the pilgrims stepped ashore at Plymouth Rock. –the pilgrims created profound changes in the natural landscape of New England. – A smallpox epidemic by English carriers almost eliminated the Indian population in the areas around Plymouth in early 1630’s, which transformed the social landscape of the region. –pilgrims and later English settlers introduced new crops like wheat, barley, oats, and others. while using native crops like corn, potatoes, and peas.

-The pilgrims experience with the Indians differed from the early English settlers farther south because partly the remaining number of natives in the region thinned in numbers from disease, They where weaker and released they had to get along with the Europeans =. -they did depend on the Indians a far share for teaching how to gather seafood, grow corn, and hunt local animals.

-1621 the settlers marked an alliance by inviting the Indians to join them in an October festival, The first thanksgiving.

-1621 William Bradford persuaded the council for New England to give them legal permission to live there.

-The Massachusetts Bay Experiment
•Charles I, tried to restore Roman Catholicism to England and destroy religious nonconformity, he started the nation down the road that in the 1640s would lead to civil war. •The puritans were particular targets of Charles’s policies, some imprisoned for their beleifs. • A group of puritans merchants began organizing a new enterprise designed to take advantage of opportunities in America. •The king gave them a charter allowing them to create the Massachusetts Bay company and establish a colony in the new world. •They chose John Winthrop as governor.

•The Massachusetts migration quickly produced several different new settlements through the years they spread through Charlestown, Newtown, Roxbury, Dorchester, Watertown, Ipswich, Concord, Sudbury, and others •Soon each congregation chose its own minister and regulated its own affairs, in both Plymouth and Massachusetts this form of parish organization eventually became known as the Congregational Church. •Colonial Massachusetts was in effect a” theocracy”, a society where you couldn’t really see were the line was drawn between the church and the state.

•The Expansion Of The New England
-1639 The Fundamental Articles of New Haven established a religious government even stricter than then In Boston. -New Haven remained independent until 1662, when a royal charter combined it with Hartford to create the colony of Connecticut. -Roger Williams a young minister, a confirmed Separatist argued that the Massachusetts church should abandon all allegiance to the church of England. He called for a complete separation from the state and the church. -Williams was banished because of him challenging the colonial government. -He left and soon founded Rhode Island and in 1644 he got a charter permitting him to establish a government.

-Rhode Islands government did not give support to the church -Anne Hutchinson argued that them members of the Massachusetts clergy that had not undergone a conversion experience and no right to spiritual office. -Anna Hutchinson argues over the proper role of women in puritan society. -After she died, alarmed male clergy began to restrict further, they limited public activities of women with out congregations. Also in a result many of her followers left Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire and Maine. -New Hampshire became a separate colony in 1679, and main remained apart of Massachusetts until 1820

•The Pequot War, Philip’s War, And The Technology Of Battle -1637 the first major conflict between English settlers in the Connecticut Valley and the Pequot Indians, was competition over trade with Dutch in New Netherland and friction over land. What is known as the Pequot War. -White raiders under Captain John Mason marched against a palisaded Pequot stronghold seting it on fire killing hundreds of Indians and taking survivors and selling them as slaves almost wiping out the Pequot Indians. -King Phillips War:1675 for three year the Wanpanoag natives terrorized a string of Massachusetts towns, destroying 20 of them killing thousands of people. 1675 white settlers fought back and eventually ended the uprising and the Wanpanoag Indians became powerless to resist the English.

The Restoration Colonies
•The English Civil War
-The start of the English Civil war started when Charles I dissolved the parliament in 1625 and then when bring them back asking them to levy new taxes, and then by antagonizing the members by dismissing them twice in a year. Then in 1642 they organized a military challenge to the king. Launching the English Civil War. -The War lasting seven years the puritans won and beheaded Charles I, Charles II later clamed the throne.

•New Netherland, New York, And New Jersey
-1664 Charles II granted his brother James ( the Duke of York) all the territory lying between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers. -The Dutch presence in America served as a wedge between the northern and southern English colonies. It provided bases for Dutch smugglers evading English custom laws. -In 1664 English go to extract surrender from its unpopular Dutch government in New Amsterdam, the Dutch surrenders and later in 1673 get New Amsterdam back but then loses it for good in 1674.

•The Quaker Colonies
-They believed that all people had “an inner light, which could guide the along the path of righteousness. -Quakers allowed women a position within the church generally equal to that of men -No church government, no paid clergy

-Soon the colony became unpopular in England and many moved to America. -William Penn: a son of an admiral in the Royal Navy, he converted to the doctrine of the inner light and became an evangelist for Quakerism.

Borderlands and Middle Grounds
•The Caribbean Islands
-1492 the Spanish first colony established in Hispaniola
-The Spanish Empire clamed all the islands on the Caribbean -Their most lucrative crop was sugar.
-They relied on African Slavery for work force, African slaves outnumbered them.

•The Southwestern Borderlands
-Formal Spanish settlement of California began in the 1760s, the governor of Baja California was ordered to create outpost of the empire further north. -Trading communities were springing along the pacific coast, beginning with San Diego, and Monterey in 1769. Then San Francisco 1776,Los Angeles 1781, and Santa Barbara 1786 -The Spanish colonies wanted to convert all of the natives living in the colony, they didn’t really see them as equals but didn’t think of them as just things like many others thought.

•The Southeast Borderlands
-The Spanish believed the English posed a threat to their existing settlements in Florida and Georgia, so as a result they built a fort in both regions to defend themselves against the slowly increasing English presence there. -The English encouraged the Indians in Florida to rise up against the Spanish missions, and the Spanish offered freedom to African Slaves owned by Carolina settlers who would convert to Catholicism.

•The Founding Of Georgia
-The founders who were led by General James Oglethorpe, were interested in economic success. -In 1732 King George II granted Oglethorpe control of the land between the Savannah and Altamaha Rivers.

The Evolution Of The British Empire

•The Drive For Reorganization
-Parliament passed laws keeping Dutch ships out of English colonies. -Three Navigation acts designed to regulate colonial commerce even more strictly: -Act 1: 1660, closed the colonies to all trade except that carried in English ships. -Act 2: 1663, provided that all goods being shipped from Europe to the colonies had to pass through England on the way. -Act 3: 1673 it imposed duties on the coastal trade among the English colonies, and it provided for the appointment of customs officials to enforce the Navigation Acts.

•The Dominion Of New England
-In 1679 Charles II attempted to increase his control over Massachusetts by stripping the colony of its authority over New Hampshire. Five years later Charles revoked the Massachusetts corporate charter and made it a royal colony. -James II came into throne and in 1686 he created single Dominion of New England, which combined the government of Massachusetts with the governments of the rest of the New England colonies and in 1688 New York and New jersey as well.

•The “Glorious Revolution”
-In 1691 they combined Massachusetts with Plymouth and made is a royal colony. -In 1689 John Coode , started a new revolt which drove Lord Baltimore’s officials in the name of Protestantism -Maryland became a proprietary colony again in 1715, only after the fifth Lord Baltimore joined the Anglican church.

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