The Effects of Different Masses of Old Newspapers on the Hardness of the Flower Vase Essay Sample
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INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Paper Mache originally, papier mache, means chewed paper. Despite its French sounding name, it is really not made in France although; France is the first country in Europe to do so. Paper Mache actually originates from China. They use paper mache to make helmets. to make it tough they used many layers of lacquer. They sometimes used paper mache to make boxes, trays, masks, and sometimes things
trays, masks, and sometimes things to use in a party like shield and fake sword. Paper Mache can help the environment because it uses recycled materials. Paper Mache is popular in many countries. Paper Mache was used in Ancient Egypt to make coffins and death masks that most often are made from hand papers like cartonnage layers of papyrus or linen and covered with plaster. In Persia and Kashmir, papier mache has been used to manufacture boxes, trays and cases. Japan and China also do Paper mache. Some of them like in Japan and India, they used to add decorative elements to armor and shields. They also made trays, boxes in Europe using paper mache as early as 1725. Statement of the Problem
1. What is the effect of different masses of old newspapers on: 1.1 The hardness of the vase
1.2 The flexibility of the vase
2. What is the difference between the effect of 3 layers of old newspapers and 5 layers of old in terms of: 2.1 The hardness
2.2 The flexibility
The following are the objectives for doing this project:
We want to lessen the environment’s garbage. One of these is used paper. We want to influence and teach other people to recycle. Recycling is very important. Recycling will definitely reduce the amount of paper that people throw away as garbage. Instead, people can use the paper to make something useful like vases. We hope to lessen our expenses, especially in terms of buying decorations for our house. We just need enough knowledge and skills in making papier mache. We do not need to spend money when our old newspapers are just there lying around in our house. Newspapers can be transformed into beautiful and useful decorations. Hypothesis
We hypothesize that the vase with 5 layers is more durable than the vase with 3 layers. The vase with 5 layers is harder than the vase with 3 layers because there is more masses of old newspaper used in the vase with 5 layers than the vase with 3 layers. While the vase with 3 layers is more flexible because there is less old newspapers used.
Significance of the Study
This project will help preserve mother earth. This can lessen trash in the surroundings. Papier mache recycles paper as it uses used papers or old newspapers. Our mother earth is now experiencing a big problem such as it contains too much trash. Most of those trashes are plastic and paper. You may combine the plastic with the paper when making a papier mache to make it more durable. This project teaches us to recycle. Papier mache has many uses. One of these is it can be used as decorations in our house.
Instead of buying and buying new, expensive decorations for our house, let’s just try to make our own. One of the simplest and easiest way of making decorations are papier mache. Papier mache can be used as vases, frames, and hanging decorations. Papier mache can be constructed as personalized materials. We can make our own piggy bank by using papier mache. Papier mache is not only used for decorations but also a substitute for charcoal. Brisquette making is also a way of papier mache but the only difference is it is more compact and it is a cube. Scope and Limitation of the Study
We would just use old newspapers and no more. We will not use clean tissue paper because our objective is to wastes but the clean tissue paper is a waste. Instead of using a real vase, we will just use a balloon to shape a vase. We won’t use flour like what is suggested by the book we have red. We will use a glue in pasting newspaper into the balloon. We won’t use materials that are not wastes because our objective is to recycle wate materials to help mother earth. Definition of Terms
Lacquer – a clear or colored glossy and quick drying surface coating Cartonnage – hard paper
Papyrus – a tall grassy edge of the Nile River
Versatile – Liable to be turned in opinion, changeable, variable, unsteady, inconstant, as versatile disposition Piñatas – is a papier-mâché or other type of container that is decorated, filled with toys and/or candy, and then broken as part of a ceremony or celebration. Saturated – soaked, impregnated, or imbued thoroughly. Charged thoroughly or completely. Brought to a state of saturation. Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATIVE LITERATURE AND STUDIES
According to the Webster’s International Encyclopedia, volume 7 by Michael D. Harkay, Papier Mache is a molding material made of pulped paper mixed with flour, paste, glue, or resin. It is usually molded while wet, but in some industrial processes is pressure-molded. The technique of making papier mache decorative objects began in the Orient and reached Europe in the eighteenth century. The volume 14 of the book Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge, 2003 includes that a substance made from paper that has been soaked in such binding materials as flour, paste, glue, or resin, papier mache had been used as an art material in the Orient for centuries before it’s first use in eighteenth century (the term is French and means crushed or mashed paper). Sheets of paper that have glued together and dried in a mold as well as soaked-and-shaped paper pulp have been used to produce papier mache, which dries into a strong, hard material. During the nineteenth century, when it reached a peak of poularity, articles made of papier mache ranged from decorated boxes and trays to furniture, jewelry, and sculpture.
Volume 15 of Funk and Wagnall’s’ Inc. says that papier mache is a way of making solid sculpture out of wet paper and paste. Papier mache is a French term meaning “Chewed Paper”. In France, during the 1700’s old paper posters were ripped up and mixed with glue and paste to make boxes, trays, figurines, vase, different shapes of an animal, decoration for the house and piggy banks. According to The New Book of Knowledge, volume 15, Papier mache is a French term that means “Chewed Paper”. Although this art had been practiced for centuries in Asia, the term was first applied to a process used in Paris in the 1700’s. Old posters were ripped from walls, converted into pulp, and mixed with size — a gummy preparation made by combining glue or paste with resin and drying oil. When the papier mache hardened, it was used to make decorations. Papier mache was used to make boxes, trays, decorative pieces, and statuettes.
Today, young or old, alike enjoy making different objects out of papier mache. The material is fast to work with and easy to handle, and the finished product is lightweight. From The New Standard Encyclopedia, volume 13, papier mache, a modeling material made from pulp or paper, water, and a binding agent such as glue. The term is French for “Chewed or Pulped Paper”. Papier mache is hard and strong for it’s weight and is inexpensive. Papier Mache can be bought pre-packaged or it can be made by mixing small pieces of paper (4 cups) with water (1 cup) and dry wall paper paste (1/4 cup) until a mass that can be molded is formed. In another method of making papier mache, strips of paper are either dipped into or brushed with glue or paste and then laid on a form. (The glue can be made by mixing ¾ cup flour with 2 cups water or by mixing equal parts of white glue, such as Elmer’s and water). Layers of strips are added until the desired thickness is reached.
Papier mache objects, made by any of these methods, are then allowed to dry or are baked. While it is still wet, papier mache is heavy. Drying evaporates the water, leaving the finished object light in weight. Dried papier mache can be sanded or painted. The main use of papier mache is as an art and crafts material; it is used in homes and schools to make such objects as statues, piggy banks, and masks. Some props and sets used by theaters are constructed of papier mache. Formerly, papier mache was used in the printing industry to make molds for metal type and engravings. Papier mache was developed by the Chinese and used to make boxes and trays. The first use of papier mache in Europe was in eighteenth century in France. http://www.howdoimakepapermache.com
Paper Mache is one of the most versatile yet underused crafting materials. Paper Mache can be used to create everything from masks and piñatas to decorative objects and sculpture. Paper crafters will find that they can use paper Mache to create accents, add texture, and create three dimensional effects. Paper Mache is simply a mix of a paper Mache paste with shredded paper which creates what is essentially a very lightweight compound building material. There are several ways to create paper Mache, but the easiest way is to create a paper Mache paste using one part water to one part white glue. Children’s glue works perfectly for this process. You will then need to decide what type of paper you are going to use. Depending on what you want to create, you can use long strips of paper or finely shredded paper.
Strips of paper are good for most projects, but experiment to see what you like best. Follow these easy steps to create your first paper mache artwork: 1. Mix the paper and glue in a large container until the paper is saturated with the water and glue mix. 2. Start with an object that you want to cover. You can use a balloon for many projects to create a hollow interior, or you can cover an object made of wood or cardboard. If you are creating a flat object for paper crafting, you can use a shallow mold (spray the mold with cooking spray to ensure that your project releases easily). You can find specific instructions for different projects online. 3. Start covering the object with strips of saturated paper, smoothing it over the surface for a smooth look, or leaving it wrinkled for a textured look. Put no more than 2-3 layers of paper Mache on the object, then let dry until almost completely dry. Continue building until you have reached the thickness you want to achieve.
4. Cover the work with paper Mache made of white printer or copy paper if you are planning to paint the object. When the work is thoroughly dried, you can begin decorating your paper Mache. Paper Mache can be painted, sprayed with texturizing paint, decorated with any lightweight item from tissue paper to feathers, beads, rhinestones, or stickers. Creating a paper Mache project is that simple. The product is perfect for anyone from kids to adults, and is so versatile that it can be used to create nearly anything. Paper Mache is perfect for creating seasonal objects such as Christmas Decorations, Easter eggs, Halloween pails and masks, or almost anything else you can think of. If you choose, you can create your final layer of work with tissue or other patterned paper for a finished look.
The number of projects you can create with paper Mache is surprising- a simple search for paper Mache projects will turn up thousands of results. Remember that if you are covering an object that you want to remove, such as a bowl, simply spray with cooking spray before working to ensure the paper Mache will release. Use different techniques to add a decorative touch to your paper Mache- add powdered tempra paint to your paste to make colored paper Mache, use different types of paper such as magazine pages and leftover wrapping paper, try using metal leafing to decorate items, anything you can think of that will add a special touch. Paper Mache is a fun project that can be created by anyone from young children to adults- your only limitation is your imagination! http://www.papier mache.co.uk
Papier mache is really easy to do, and there are very few requirements. It is advisable to prepare everything before starting. Firstly, tear the newspaper into strips about an inch wide by 4 inches long. This is only approximate. Tear the paper with the grain. Make your adhesive. There are many different recipes, look for the most common. All adhesives can be used with both layering and pulp methods of papier mache. You can use any types of glue but we recommend wallpaper paste. Moulds that can be used:
Balloons are cheap and indispensable. No release agent needed. The balloon will tear itself away from your dried papier mache easily when burst. Bowls and plates will need to have a release agent applied first to stop the papier mache sticking to them. Release agents must be applied very thinly. They may leave a small residue, which you may not like. Here are some:
Washing up liquid
Cling film (this will not leave any residue but may leave a slightly crinkled texture on the papier mache) Wet paper (another method is to use strips of wet paper (just wet with water and no glue) for the first layer only). http://www.enchantedlearning.com/crafts/papiermache
Use old newspapers and flour-water glue to make papier-mache crafts. These crafts projects uses available materials found around the house, like egg cartons, cardboard, paper, boxes, string, crayons, paint, glue, old newspapers, scratch papers, old toys, etc. Papier mache can be either house decorations, toys, animal, cards, masks, flowers, frames, other creatures, etc. this is useful and helpful. http://www.papier-mache.eu/en/papier-mache/history/history-the-papier-mache.html Papier Mache (literally “chewed paper”) has gained popularity worldwide because of its versatility. Historically it has been made in a wide range of applications, from decorative profiles and moldings, boats, buildings and furniture. It can also be seen in the colorful products of May folk traditions.
Paper was invented in China in the second century AD, and at about this time began to use Paper Mache as a good way to re-use the material which was then expensive and hardly accessible. An important advantage is that it can be very strong but also very light. With strengthening layers of varnish, it was even used to make soldiers’ helmets. Over time, with the spread of trade, the Papier Mache technique was introduced in Samarkand and Morocco and beyond until, in the tenth century, it was known in Spain, Germany, France, Italy, Persia and India. It was French craftsmen who first recognized the great potential of Papier Mache, making cups and snuff boxes and imitating stucco and plaster work. In England a strong development was in molding and baking either layered sheets or shredded paper to produce a strong board or, with lacquer, products like those made popular in Japan. For building work it was soaked in linseed oil before being baked. In the later eighteenth century, the production of Papier Mache was one of the most important crafts in Central England, with Birmingham as a major centre.
Trays, tables, chairs, lamps, book shelves, wall decoration, screens, bed frames were regularly made from Papier Mache. The lacquer work was mostly on a bolack background with patterns of flowers, with gilding and inlay with nacre. In France and Germany Papier Mache furniture was very popular. In America one manufacturer made boats. Russia and Scandinavia also developed their own industries. In 1793 in Norway a church, made in Papier Mache stood for 37 years. Large scale production lasted for about a hundred years in Europe but began to decline from about 1870. While mass production has discontinued, the craft of papier Mache has gained considerable popularity and now has world wide participants. www.dltk-kids.com/type/how_to_paper_mache.htm
How to make Paper Mache
Tear newspaper into strips. Always make the last layer of mache with white computer paper or paper towel so that painting is easier. It takes far less paint. If you don’t do this, consider priming the project with white acrylic paint before you let the kids at it with the poster paint
Make paper mache paste (there are many different options):
1.)3/4 white glue to 1/4 water (or if using a good, thick glue, like Elmer’s you can do 1/2 and 1/2) 2.)Cook method: 1 part flour to 5 parts water… boil about 3 minutes and let cool. It the cheapest method and is nice and smooth. 3.)1 part flour to 1 part water. Stir together.
Suggestion from a viewer…
“Rather than make our own paste for paper mache, we use liquid starch that is relatively inexpensive. I bought a large jug at the supermarket that we have been using for years. Sounds like it gives the same result as the cooked method. It dries smooth and clear – fantastic for use with gift wrap scraps. We use it with brown grocery bags when we want to create pottery or leather looking crafts.”
Suggestion from a viewer…
“For paper mache: add a little cinnamon to the mix – it takes away the smell.” Note: Humidity really does play a factor! If you live somewhere very humid, add less water (up to 1/4 less). I live in a very dry area. If you add a couple tablespoons of salt to your paper mache it will not mold Cover your project with no more than 4 layers of paper mache. I always tell the kids 2 layers as they always overlap more than they should. Let dry completely. Once again cover with no more than 4 layers. Continue this process until it’s as solid as you want it. Familycrafts.about.com/cs/papermache/a/051500pm.htm
Step-by-Step Paper Mache Directions
Following these step-by-step instructions, people of all ages can enjoy paper mache. The steps you need to follow to create paper mache masterpieces are fairly simple. Items of all shapes and sizes can be made using this crafting method; and best of all, no special supplies are needed from a fancy craft store. Paper Mache Paste and Pulp Recipes
There are many different recipes available for paper mache paste and pulp. No one recipe is better than another or the ‘right’ recipe. Just use the recipe that works best for you and for what you are making! You may discover that different recipes are better for different projects. How to Make a Base Form
Learn how you can create forms for your paper mache projects easily. You can actually use cardboard and masking tape to design almost anything! For rounder, hollow shapes you can use balloons. You can use many items around your house as a base form. Paper Mache Project Ideas
You will discover almost anything can be created using paper mache. You can make your own jewelry, vases, bowls, masks, piñatas, or even furniture. Why, my neighbor used paper mache techniques to make an 8-foot tall knight in shining armor! You are only limited by your imagination!
Paper Mache Photo Gallery
Take some time to browse through photos of paper mache crafts made by visitors just like you! You can add your photos to this gallery too; all you need to do is submit your photos using these simple directions.
Paper Mache Terms Glossary
Next time you are not sure what a word means when your reading about paper mache, check out this list of terms commonly used in paper mache crafts.
Paper Mache Tips and Hints
Make your next paper mache project more successful using these tips and hints. If you have a great paper mache tip, take a moment to share it with us and it could be posted here. Books About Paper Mache
While this article is devoted to teaching you how to paper mache, I thought I would share some interesting books you can buy to help get you started and keep you going. These books provide you with many ideas for using paper mache techniques and supplies to make a variety of creative projects. http://cockeyed.com/lessons/papermache/papermache01.shtml
Paper mache is the cheapest way to make a sculpture. All you need to get started is newspaper, flour and water. The flour and water get stirred together to make cheap, thin glue. The newspaper strips are dunked in this glue and draped over some form, creating a skin. When this skin dries, it maintains its shape. Shazam! No chisels, no kiln, and no fumes. Unfortunately, the lifespan of paper mache is short. The paper skin is flammable, susceptible to moisture damage and attractive to insects. You should not let this discourage you. I’ve found that the temporary nature of paper mache projects encourages fun and experimentation, two pillars of studio art. Get Started!
You should try to draw it first. I suspect that most people reading these instructions will already have a project in their mind, and they are just looking for the paper mache glue recipe. Here it is:
Paper Mache Recipe
3 cups water
2 1/2 cups flour
For other people, this is when they should expand upon their project idea, to get a clearer idea of how their project is going to look when it is completed. One way to do this is to draw it. Another way is to print up a few images from the internet. I suspect that some people reading this might protest having to draw their project first, but I still encourage it. By attempting to draw it, you will face and solve a bunch of little design challenges before you get your hands dirty. For example, if you have the idea to make a paper mache alligator, and you don’t draw it out first, you will probably start building a long body shape, and attach legs after that is finished. For example, the legs might end up poking out perpendicular to the body, because the design will be made up as you go. Prepare Armature
As you probably know, this type of newspaper mache is usually only used for the skin of your sculpture. A skin covering something else, for example a balloon, a chicken wire figure, or a bunch of cardboard boxes taped together. This internal structure is called the armature.
Balloons are the easiest to use for small projects, such as hats, cats or masks. Regular-shaped, extra-large and the long balloon animal kind can be combined for a lot of different shapes. The rounded surface makes a nice finished product. The downside is that balloons tend to deflate in one or two days, so any projects built with them need to be completed and dried in that time. Quick-drying techniques can also backfire with balloons, because they can expand, busting through the new paper skin. I’ve also used a couple cousins of the balloon to build an armature: Inflated plastic packing pillows and bubblewrap.
Cardboard alone is not usually used as an armature for paper mache. It is already flat and strong, so there isn’t much reason to cover it with more paper. However, if you are, for example, creating a robot with a bunch of angular cardboard panels taped together, a new paper mache skin can smooth the places where the panels meet. Other heavy paper is well-suited for building an armature, such as cardboard tubes from wrapping paper rolls and Fed-Ex shipping tubes.
For anything bigger than Donald Trump’s head, I suggest using chicken wire for the armature. Chicken wire is the name for lightweight metal fencing, typically with a hexagonal pattern. It is sold in 10-foot rolls for about $6. A typical use is to cut wide strips and roll them into cylinders to form bodies and limbs. Chicken wire isn’t that easy to work with. From a material-handling point of view, it is sort of a cross between sheet metal and fabric. Also, the wire ends tend to poke you.
I usually use a pair of wire cutters to cut rectangles to work with. Wherever the chicken wire needs to attach to itself, the loose, pokey wires along the edge can be easily bent into each other, twisting up a tight, permanent seam. You will probably find that gloves will be more trouble than they are worth, because your fingers have to dance through the holes as you work. Past the size of a laundry basket, a chicken wire structure is too flimsy to support the weight of wet newspaper.
Therefore any large sculptures will need a skeleton underneath. I recommend using 1×2 lumber and wood screws. 1. The skeleton for your sculpture will need to be very close to the surface of the skin. 2. You will be stapling or tying chicken wire directly to the skeleton. 3. Large flat areas of chicken wire are usually weaker than curvy areas. 4. If the bare skeleton can stand up by itself, the finished sculpture will probably stand up too. People, plants and animals look more natural if they aren’t made up of 90 degree angles. It isn’t as easy to screw them together at odd angles, but they will look a lot better in the final result. Two-liter soda bottles, fed-ex shipping tubes, the plastic from sour cream tubs and crumpled aluminum foil are also good choices for building cheap armatures.
Protect your work area
Lay down plastic or an old sheet, or work outside. The flour and water mixture really will dry like glue, and be impossible to remove from your clothes, shoes, TV remote and floor. Make paste
I’ve seen a dozen different recipes, but I’ve never noticed an important difference in them. I recommend using just flour and water.
Experimental Design (Dependent and Independent Variable)
The independent variable is the different masses of old newspapers which is ¼ kilo. We will use 3 and 5 layers of old newspapers. While the dependent variable in this project is the hardness and flexibility of the flower vase based on the amount of the old newspapers applied. We are looking for the quality of the vase. We want to compare 3 and 5 layers of old newspapers.
The materials we will use to make paper mache are cut newspapers, 120 g of glue, water (top water), paint (for design), and a balloon. We will also use a paint brush to spread glue at the surface of the balloon and old newspapers to make it harder. Procedure (Preparation/Construction, Production, Testing)
To make a paper mache, first cut the newspaper. Then lay the newspaper in a large pan and cover them with water. Pour enough glue into a cup and add enough water to make it heavy and thick. Dip the cut newspapers into the paste and mold them into the balloon. Apply three (3) to five (5) layers of cut, old newspapers to have a base of comparing in terms in the hardness and flexibility of the vase. Then cut the remaining balloon. Paint the vase with the desired color or design it with different materials. Flow Chart Chapter IV
Presentation and Analysis of Data
Layers of Newspapers
This table contains the materials used in different vases. As you can see, the only difference in their materials are the number of sheets of old newspapers Table 2
Methods of Comparing the Two Vases
The methods of comparing the two vases is based on the result of our survey. The two of us will not be the one to decide. If we have decided, of course we’ll give the best score because we have made the project. When the result of the survey is done, we’ll compare the vase base on it’s average. If which is harder or which is more flexible.
We saw that the vase with 5 layers is more durable than the vase with 3 layers. Our hypothesis is right based on the survey. We also saw that the flexibility of both vases is just the same with each other not like the one written in our hypothesis that the vase with 3 layers is more flexible because there is less old newspapers used.
Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation
I and my partner chose this kind of project because it is easy to process. We also have experienced making this kind of project in our old school. We also considered some factors. These factors are: availability of materials, improvement in the community and nature, knowledge to learn and the way it is done. The investigation project is composed of different chapters with different topics. The title of our project is “ A comparative study of the effect of different masses of old newspapers on the hardness of the flower vase”. The background of the study shows the history of the study. It discusses about it’s important information. Objective is the goal for making this project and our objective is to recycle newspapers. We want our project to be done properly. The significance of paper mache is it helps our nature tom recycle wastes into a beneficial object.
Hypothesis is a scientific guest. It’s alright that it is wrong but it is must be related to your project. The statement of the problem is composed of the problems that must be solved during the encounter of the project. Scopes and limitations are the list of your boundaries of your project. The only thing that you will use during the experiment. Methodology is composed of your dependent and independent variable, materials and procedure . The Related Literature and Study are composed of different information about your topic from different books or internet websites. The experiment is the actual work being done by the group. We have been successful of this project. Here in the experiment will you do the things that are written in the report.
When the results came up after the experiment, and all the data about it was listed down, therefore, we conclude that the vase with 5 layers is more durable and harder than the vase with 3 layers. But at the flexibility, they are just the same. The results of the survey will prove all of this. At the survey, the hardness of the vase with 3 layers is just 3.4 while the vase with 5 layers is 3.8. Their flexibility are both 2.4 and their equal. Recommendation
This is a recommendation for the next batch that will perform the same project for a better result.
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